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THE IMPERIAL GAZETTEER OF INDIA. 



MORRISON AND GIBB, HDINBURGK, 
PRINTERS TO HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE. 



The Imperial Gazetteer of India. 



W. W. HUNTER, C.S.I., CLE., LL.D. 

DIRECTOR-GENERAL OF ST.^TISTICS TO THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA. 



VOLUME VI L 



INDORE TO KARDONG. 



UNITED STATES AIR FORCE 

CAMBRIDGE RESEARCH CENTER 

GEOPHYSICS 

RESEARCH LIBRARY 



SECOND EDITION, 



TRUBNER & CO., LONDON, 1886. 



{ •" 



/.7 



UiSIIV. O? HASSACKU3ETTS 
AT BOSTON - LIBR-^^B^ 



AT BOSTON - LiI>:.lAiiY 



IMPERIAL GAZETTEER 



OF 



INDIA. 



VOLUME VI I. 

Indore {Indor). — Large Native State in Malwa, Central India, 
composing the territories of the Holkar dynasty. The political 
relations of the Indore State are conducted direct with the Agent of 
the Governor-General for Central India. The name of the State is 
taken from that of the capital, Indore city. Area, 8400 square miles. 
In 1878, the population was estimated (without enumeration) at 
635,000. Population (1881) 1,054,237; density of population, 125 
persons per square mile. The revenue of the Mahdrajd was ;^707,44o 
in 1881-82. 

The State consists of several isolated tracts. But since 186 1, 
arrangements have been made to concentrate the territory as much 
as possible ; and lands which were formerly held by Holkar in 
Ahmadnagar District of Bombay Presidency and in the Deccan have 
been exchanged for lands in Nimawar, and for the pargands of Barwai, 
Dhurgaon, Khasrawar, and Mandesar, bordering on the Narbada 
(Nerbudda) river and the tract in which Indore city is situated. This 
territory, within which is the British cantonment of Mhow (Mau), is 
bounded on the north by part of Sindhia's dominions ; on the east 
by the States of Dewis and Dhar and the District of Nimar; on 
the south by Khandesh District of Bombay Presidency; and on 
the west by Barwani and Dhar. It lies between 21° 24 and 
24° 14' N. lat., and betw^een 74° 28' and 77° 10' e. long. Its length 
from north to south is 120 miles, its breadth 82 miles; and it is nearly 
bisected by the Narbada river. The next largest portion of Holkar's 
dominions is that annexed to the town of Rampura, north of Indore, 
lying between 24° 3' and 24° 40' n. lat, and between 75° 6' and 76° 
12' E. long. This tract is 70 miles in length from east to west, and 

VOL. VII. A 



2 INDORE. 

40 in breadth. Its principal towns are Rampura, Bhanpura, and 
Chandwara. a third division, also north of Indore, includes the town 
of Mehidpur, in lat. 23° 29' n., and long. 75° 42' e. A fourth portion, 
westward of Indore, contains the town of Dhie, in lat. 22° 10' n., and 
long. 74*^ 39' E. Besides several smaller estates in Malwd., including 
Satwas Nimawar recently acquired by exchange, there are over 160 
khdsgi or royal villages, most of them fairly populous. These 
villages are, so to speak, free of the law and the State judges. The 
revenue accruing to the Mahdraja from this peculiar khdsgi property 
was in 1873 over ;^6o,ooo, and ;£"46,o2o in 1881-82. 

Physical Aspects. — The northern parts of the State are watered 
by the Chambal and its tributaries, and the tracts to the south by 
the Narbada. The latter are traversed by the Vindhya range from 
east to west. They form a section of the Narbada valley, and are 
bounded on the south by the Sdtpura mountains. The Narbada flows 
in a deep channel between precipitous banks of basaltic rock, and 
during the rains rushes down with great rapidity and in a large volume 
of water. The ascent from the Narbadd valley to the higher portions 
of the State is in some places abrupt, and presents imposing precipices. 
The railway climbs about 600 feet up this southern escarpment of the 
Vindhyas, by steep gradients at places amounting to i in 40. The valley 
of Mandesar, in the centre of the State, has an elevation of between 600 
and 700 feet above sea-level. The general appearance of the country is 
that of an undulating valley, intersected by low rocky ranges, in some 
parts thickly clothed with stunted jungle of dhdk, babul, and other scrub- 
wood. Jungle of the same nature also covers considerable tracts in 
the plains. Like the rest of Malwa, the soil of Indore is fertile, con- 
sisting largely of the rich black loam known as 'cotton-soil.' It is 
formed apparently from the detritus of the trap mountains, and rests 
upon a platform of trap, about 30 feet below the surface. This forma- 
tion holds in the water, so that the rainfall of 36 inches is amply 
sufficient. The principal crops are wheat, rice, millets, pulses, oil- 
seeds, sugar-cane, and cotton. Cotton is chiefly grown in Malwa 
and Nimdr. The soil is peculiarly suited to the growth of the poppy 
plant, the cultivation of which is general. Tobacco of excellent quahty 
is grown to a considerable extent. The forests of the State form two 
belts, one in the south, bordering on the Sdtpura range, which is 
considered to be malarious, and another, which is healthier, in the 
Vmdhya Hills. Teak is being cultivated, and encouragement is given 
to the production of lac. Wild animals include the tiger, leopard, 
hunting leopard {chUa\ lynx, hysena, jackal, and fox, 7ulgdi (Portax 
pictus), and two species of wild cattle, the bison (Gav^us gaurus), found 
m the Katkut and other jungles, and the wild bufi-alo (Bubalus ami) 
on the Satpuras. Crocodiles and many venomous snakes are found. 



INDORE. 3 

Population.— T\i^ first attempt at a systematic Census was made in 
1 88 1, before which date all estimates of the population were more or 
less conjectural. The ruling class in Indore are Marathas. There are 
the usual other sub-divisions of Hindus, a few Muhammadans, and a 
considerable number of the aboriginal tribes of Gonds and Bhils. 
With the exception of these wild races, the inhabitants of Indore 
and Mdlwa are a cultivating rather than a fighting population. The 
regular army {ain fauj) of the Maharaja is chiefly recruited from 
Northern India, beyond his own territories, and contains a large pro- 
portion of men from the British Provinces of Oudh, the North-West, 
and the Punjab. The Vindhya and Satpura ranges are the home of the 
Bhils, where they have been settled from time immemorial. The Bhil 
race is one of the wildest in India, living for the most part on jungle 
products and game, or on the plunder of more civilised neighbours. 
They have, however, of late been brought into more peaceable habits of 
life ; and many are now employed as soldiers and police, in which 
capacity they have proved themselves useful and trustworthy. The 
Malwa Bhil corps is a British force (1881) 527 strong, supplying detach- 
ments to the Satpura Hills, Rajpur, Barwani, and Ratlam. The corps 
supports a regimental school, some of the pupils in which are Bhils. 
The Bhils are not, however, utilized in the regular army of Holkar. 

In 1866-67, the total population of the Indore State was put down at 
744,822, while in 1878 it was estimated at 635,000. The first regular 
Census of 1881 returned a total population for the whole State of 
1,054,237. These are sub-divided as follows: — Males, 559,616, or 
53 per cent.; females, 494,621, or 47 per cent. The State con- 
tains 3734 towns and villages; occupied houses, 193,662; persons 
per occupied house, 5 •44- The religious division of the people is 
thus shown in the Census of 1881 -.—Hindus, 892,675, or 84*6 per 
cent.; Muhammadans, 72,747, or 6-85 per cent. ; Jains, 1645; Parsis, 
127 ; Christians, 52. 601, or -5 per cent., are returned as Sikhs, and 
86,390, or 8-1 per cent., as aborigines— mostly Gonds (7312) and 
Bhils (55,582). Separated into castes, there are 78,750 Brahmans, 
93,760 Rajputs, 43,945 Chamars, 36,053 Giijurs, 45,94© Baniyas, 
25,451 Kunbis or cultivators; and other low castes. There are 7 towns 
with from one to two thousand inhabitants ; 4 with from two to three 
thousand ; 4 with from three to five thousand ; i with from five to ten 
thousand ; and i with over fifty thousand. 

Railways.— T\iQ principal public work undertaken of late years in 
Indore, has been the extension to this territory of the general railway 
system of India. A State Railway, at present managed by the Bombay, 
Baroda, and Central India line, under the Imperial Department of 
Public Works, runs from Khandwa junction (353 miles from Bombay) 
through Mhow (Mau) to Indore city, a distance of 85! miles. The 



4 INDORE. 

branch is known as the Holkar State Railway as far as Indore, 
and is on the metre gauge (3 feet 3I inches). The Hne was con- 
structed by means of a loan of 100 lakhs of rupees (^1,000,000), 
made by the Maharaja Holkar to the British Government for a period 
of 1 01 years, to bear interest at the rate of 4 J per cent, per annum. 
The Maharaja also ceded the land required for the railway, free of 
charge ; and the British Government has full civil and criminal juris- 
diction,' short of absolute sovereignty, over it. The Maharaja receives 
one-half of the surplus profit of the line, in excess of the 4 J per cent, 
interest on the capital invested. The principal engineering works on 
the railway are the ascent of the Vindhya escarpment already referred 
to, and the construction of a bridge across the Narbada, with 14 spans 
of 200 feet wrought-iron girders. The bridge was opened in October 
1876. From Indore the hne passes through part of Sindhia's dominions, 
Ratlam, Jaora, and Mewar, connecting Indore with Nasirabad 
(Nuseerabad), and finally with Delhi and Agra. This northern section 
was made out of a loan to the British Government, ultimately amounting 
to I J millions sterling, by the Maharaja Sindhia, at 4 per cent, interest, 
for the construction of two lines through his dominions, namely from 
Gwalior to Agra, and from Indore to Nemach. Both lines are completed. 
The Indore-Nemach line has been amalgamated with the Rajputana 
State Railway, and the whole line, from Indore to Nasirabad, is known 
as the Rajputana-Mcalwa State Railway. In 1881, a line between 
Chittor and Nasirabad was opened for public trafiic. 

The chief means of road communication are the Bombay and Agra 
Trunk Road, which ruHS through Indore and Mhow, with a branch to 
Dhar. Another road, 80 miles in length, joins Indore with Khandwa, 
crossing the Narbada by the railway bridge. A metalled roadway is 
also in course of construction between Mhow and Nasirabad. 

hidustries. — At Indore there is in constant work a steam cotton mill 
belonging to the Maharaja. The weight of cloth produced in 1881 
was 565,349 lbs. In 1878, the number of spindles was 10,000. 
Opium manufacture is another important industry; and in 1880-81, 
i3j837 chests were exported from Indore, yielding a revenue of 
^70, now of ;^65 (1885), per chest to the British Government at 
the border customs stations. In 1882-83, the number of chests was 
12,477, ^rid the British revenue, ^873,390. The payment of revenue 
is made on weighment of the chests (140J lbs.), the rate levied being 
now ;£"65 per chest. The Governor-General's Agent is ex officio 
Opium Agent for the States of Central India and a part of Rajputana. 
The central weighing ofiice is in Indore, with seven subordinate assistant 
agencies in the principal local marts, Ujjain, Jaora, Dhar, Bhopal, 
Chittor, Mandesar, and Ratlam. All of these are on lines of railway, 
except Dhar. Much of the best land in Indore is taken up for opium, 



INDORE. 5 

which is the best paying crop. The export of cereals, although important 
in years of exceptional productiveness, is not considerable in ordinary 
seasons. Wheat is probably destined, however, to become a large staple 
trade, notwithstanding the export duty levied on it by the Maharaja. 

History. — The history of Indore, as a separate State, only dates from 
the first half of the last century. The Holkar family are Marathas of 
the Dhangar or goat-herd tribe. The founder of the dynasty was 
Malhar Rdo, the son of a shepherd, who was born about 1693, in the 
village of Hoi or Hal on the Nira river in the Deccan, from whence 
the family derives the surname of Holkar, the affix ' kar ' or ' kur ' 
signifying inhabitant. In his youth Malhar Rao abandoned his heredi- 
tary peaceful occupation, and joined a small body of cavalry in the 
service of a Maratha noble. He early distinguished himself; and 
about 1724 he entered the service of the Peshwa as the commander of 
500 horse. After this, his rise was rapid, and four years later he 
was rewarded by large tracts of land, the nucleus of the present 
principality. In 1732 he filled the post of principal general to the 
Peshwa, and defeated the army of the Mughal viceroy of Malwa. 
Indore, with the greater portion of the conquered country, was assigned 
to Malhar Rao for the support of his troops; and in 1735 he was 
appointed commander of the Maratha forces north of the Narbada. 
During the next twelve years he was constantly employed, — in 
campaigns against the Mughals, in assisting at the expulsion of the 
Portuguese from Bassein, and in aiding the Nawab Wazir Safdar 
Jang in preserving Oudh from the Rohillas. During all this time his 
possessions and influence rapidly increased, and raised him to a fore- 
most position among the chiefs of India. At the battle of Panipat in 
1761, Malhar Rao divided with Sindhia the command of the right win^^ 
of the Maratha army. It is asserted that Malhar Rao did not here 
fight with his old spirit. He probably foresaw the event of the battle ; 
at any rate, he retreated with his contingent before the defeat had 
become a rout. 

After Panipat, Malhar Rao retired to Central India, and employed 
himself in reducing his vast possessions to coherence and order. He 
died in 1765, leaving a principality bringing in an annual revenue of 
three-quarters of a million sterling. He was succeeded by his grand- 
son, Mali Rao, a lad who died insane nine months after his accession. 
The administration was then assumed by the famous Ahalya Bai, Mali 
Rao's mother, who prosperously ruled the State in conjunction with her 
commander-in-chief Tukaji Rao, for thirty years. She died in 1795, 
and was not long survived by Tukaji Rao; after whose death the power 
of the house of Holkar was nearly extinguished by family quarrels, and 
by the dissensions which distracted the whole Maratha confederacy at 
the close of the last century. The fortunes of the family were, 



6 INDORE, 

however, restored by Jaswant Rao, an illegitimate son of Tiikaji, who, 
after a signal reverse from the army of Sindhia, employed European 
officers to reorganize and discipline his army. In 1802 he defeated 
the united army of Sindhia and the Peshwa at the battle of Poona 
(Puna), and possessed himself of that city. The treaty of Bassein 
between the Peshwa and the British Government, resulted in the Peshwa 
being restored to his capital as a virtual vassal of the British; and 
Jaswant Rao returned to his own domininions. 

In the Maratha war of 1803, Jaswant Rao Holkar held aloof, 
apparently intending to take advantage of the hostilities to aggrandize 
himself at Sindhia's expense. His schemes, however, were rendered 
hopeless by the treaty of Sarji Anjengaon; and after making a series 
of inadmissible proposals for an aUiance, Holkar seems to have hastily 
determined, unaided and alone, to provoke hostilities with the British. 
In the war which followed, Holkar obtained a temporary advantage by 
compelling Colonel Monson to retreat with great loss. Holkar at once 
invaded British territory. Here, however, fortune deserted him, and, 
after successive defeats, he was forced to retire upon the Punjab, closely 
followed by Lord Lake, to whom, in December 1805, he surrendered 
himself, and signed a treaty on the banks of the Beas (Bias) river. By the 
treaty he gave up the territories which had been occupied by the British 
in the course of the war. These, however, were restored to him in the 
following year. Jaswant Rao afterwards became insane, and died in 
181 1, leaving the regency in the hands of a favourite concubine, Tulsi 
Bai, during the minority of his son, Malhar Rao Holkar. For some 
years, the State was torn by internal dissensions, and overrun by 
Pindari marauders. The army mutinied, and the queen regent 
petitioned that she and the youthful Raja might be received under 
British protection. While negotiations were proceeding, however, war 
broke out between the British and the Peshwa. A hostile bearing was 
assumed by the Indore Court. The queen regent was seized and 
murdered. Her murder was followed by the complete defeat of 
Holkar's army at Mehidpur, and the treaty of Mandesar on the 6th 
January 1818, which deprived him of much territory, and reduced him 
to the position of a feudatory prince. The terms of this treaty still 
govern the relations of the British Government with the State. 

Malhar Rao Holkar died in 1833, at the age of 28, without issue, 
but his widow adopted, as his son, a child, Martand Rao. This adop- 
tion proved unpopular ; and a few weeks afterwards, Martand Rao was 
summarily deposed by a cousin, Hari Rao, who had been in prison 
since 18 19, in consequence of an unsuccessful rebellion, and whose 
accession was welcomed by the troops and people. His long imprison- 
ment had, however, unfitted him to govern, and his reign was a period 
of intrigue and disorder. Hari Rao died in 1843, '^^d ^^^s adopted 



INDORE. 7 

son, who succeeded him, survived only for a few months, dying un- 
married and without an heir. The selection was declared to rest with 
the British Government. Tiikaji Rao (the present Maharaja), the 
second son of Bhao Holkar, at that time eleven years of age, was 
chosen and formally installed. During his minority, the administra- 
tion, was conducted by a regency; but in 1852, the young Maharaja 
attained his majority, and was invested with the entire management 
of the affairs of the State. Since 1852 there has been little or no 
change in the political relations of Indore with the British Govern- 
ment. During the Mutiny of 1857, a considerable portion of the State 
troops rose against the British, and besieged Sir Henry Durand, the 
English pohtical Resident at Indore. With some difficulty the Resident 
succeeded in retiring to Bhopal with the English women and children. 
The Mahdrdja remained loyal. His rebellious troops a few weeks 
afterwards laid down their arms, and order was restored. 

The relations of Indore with the British Government are — that 
the British undertake to protect the State ; and to mediate in case of 
differences with other States. The Maharaja Holkar on his part engaged 
to abstain from direct communication with other States ; to limit his 
military establishments ; to employ no Europeans or Americans in his 
service without the consent of the British Government; and to afford every 
facility towards the purchase and transport of supplies for the auxiUary 
force to be maintained for his protection. The Maharaja has received a 
sanad of adoption. He has been created a Knight Grand Commander 
of the Star of India, a Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire, 
and is entitled permanently to a salute of 19 guns in British territory, 
and to a salute of 2 1 guns in his own territory. The present Maharaja 
enjoys a personal salute of 21 guns in British territory, and has been 
made a Counsellor of the Empress. Indore maintains a military 
establishment of 3100 regular and 2150 irregular infantry, 2100 regular 
and 1200 irregular cavalry, and 340 artillerymen, with nominally 24 
field-guns equipped. As already stated, the regular army of the 
Maharaja Holkar (ain fnuj) is recruited chiefly from the British Pro- 
vinces of Gudh and the North-West. There are also two companies 
of Sikhs from the Punjab. The Mahdraja has powers of life and death. 

Administration. — The revenue of the State is steadily increasing. In 
1875, ^^ revenue amounted to ;£"459,8oo, and the expenditure to 
;^4o5,ioo. In 1878, the revenue was returned at ;^5 12,300, and 
the expenditure at ;^4 16,600. By 1881-82, the revenue of the 
State had increased to ^707,440; the expenditure for the same 
period being ^2^527,170. Of the latter sum, ;£"i 20,810 defrayed 
the charges for the palace establishment; ^^172, 320 the charges 
for the army and police ; ;^74,48o the charges for public works ; 
^4410 for education; ^5180 for courts of justice; ;£'ii9o for the 



8 INDORE TOWN. 

postal system; and ;^294o for hospitals and dispensaries. In 
1881-82, the cost of the State-jail system was ^2620. The revenue 
items of importance in 1881-82 were as follow: — Land revenue, 
^^449,400; customs, ;£'73,i7o; abkdri^ or excise, ;^i 1,280; tributes, 
^^15,850; stamps, ;^477o; fines, ;^988o ; post-office, ;£" 680 ; mint, 
^^2790; and miscellaneous, ;^4o,65o. 

In 1881-82, there were altogether 107 schools in Indore territory; the 
number of pupils was 4942, or 353 more than in the year preceding. 
Within the limits of the Residency at Indore is situated the Rajkumar 
College, for the education of the sons of the native chiefs, nobles, and 
upper classes in Central India, affiliated to the Calcutta University. 
But the Rajkumdr College, although situated at Indore, has no special 
connection with the State. It is mainly supported from imperial 
and local British funds. The College educates from 12 to 20 sons of 
Chiefs ; and the Principal, by desire of the Chiefs, exercises a general 
supervision over the more important English-teaching schools in 
Central India. There is also a Residency School for the sons of persons 
residing within the limits of the British Residency at Indore. It has 
upwards of 200 pupils. The Canadian Presbyterian Mission has recently 
established another school within the Residency limits. The Maha- 
raja has also a High School at Indore, teaching up to the matriculation 
standard, which is chiefly attended by the sons of the official class 
(Deccani Brahmans) and bankers of the city. The Maharajd's College at 
Indore educates almost exclusively Deccani Brahmans. At Mandesar 
and Khargaon there are English schools ; and in the Mardthi schools at 
Maheswar, Rampura, Kanod, and Barwdi, English classes have been 
formed. The law and Sanskrit schools were established in 1875; 
there are three girls' schools in the State, two of them at Indore city, 
well attended. There are, besides, 9 Mardthi, 36 Hindi, 8 Sanskrit, 

9 Persian, and 14 Hindi-Marathi schools. The State expenditure on 
education in 1881-82 was ;^44io. 

The administration of justice is carried on by means of a Sadr or 
central court at Indore, presided over by English-speaking native judges. 
Three subsidiary zild courts are also established at Indore, Mandesar, 
and Ram.pura. At each of these three places there is a State jail. 

Climate. — The climate of Indore State is sultry, the temperature 
ranging from 60° to 90° F. within doors. The annual rainfall at Indore 
city during the fourteen years ending 1881 averaged 3671 inches; 
the rainfall in 1881 was 317 inches. The city has a charitable hospital, 
leper asylum, and dispensary. Cholera frequently ravages the State. 

Indore. — Chief town of Indore State, and capital of the Maharaja 
Holkar's territories ; situated on the left bank of the Katki river, near 
its junction with the Khan river, in lat. 22° 42' n., and long. 75° 54' e. 
Height above sea-level, 1786 feet. Indore is the residence of the 



INDORE TOWN, 9 

Alaharaja, and of the Political Agent to the Governor-General for Central 
India. The town is of modern date, having been built by Ahalya Bai 
{circ. 1770), after the death of Malhar Rao, the founder of the State. 
The former capital of the tract within which the city is situated, 
previous to the Maratha invasion, was Kampail, 18 miles to the south- 
east. Kampail has dwindled to a village. The Court of Holkar was 
transferred to Indore in 1818; and now Indore is a prosperous city 
connected with the railway systems of Bombay and Northern and 
Eastern India. The population of the city in 1881 was 75,401, of 
whom 41,484 are males and 33,917 females. Hindus numbered 
57,234; Muhammadans, 16,674; 'others,' 1493. 

Indore stands on an elevated and healthy site. Of recent years 
modern improvements have been introduced. Roads have been 
metalled, drains built, the water-supply cared for, and the principal 
streets lighted. The palace of the Maharaja, with its lofty, many- 
storied gateway, is conspicuous from every part of the city. Among 
the chief objects of interest are the Lai Bagh or garden, with its 
pleasant summer palace and interesting collection of animals, the 
mint, high school, market-place, reading-room, dispensary, and large 
cotton mill. The Maharaja takes a keen interest in his cotton 
factory, and has spent a large sum of money upon it. To the 
west of the city is an antelope preserve, where sport with hunting- 
leopards may be enjoyed. The railway station is about a mile from 
the palace. 

Apart from the town of Indore, but adjoining it, on the other side of 
the railway, is the British Residency. This term comprises not only 
the mansion and park of the Governor-General's Agent for Central 
India, but also an area assigned by treaty, within what are known as 
the Residency Limits. A bazar of some importance has grown up 
within this area, and the freedom from transit duties along the British 
Trunk Road is developing an export trade in grain, etc., by the railway. 
The central opium stores and weighing agency, referred to under Indore 
State, also lie in this little tract. The hospital within the Residency 
Limits is one of the most useful and successful institutions of the kind 
in India. It has a special reputation for its major operations, which 
number about five hundred per annum ; one special feature of its 
surgical cases being the manufacture of new noses for women who have 
suffered the penalty in Native States for conjugal infidelity, real or 
supposed. The aggrieved or jealous husband throws his suspected 
wife down and cuts off her nose. The woman then repairs to the 
hospital at Indore, sometimes with her amputated nose carefully wrapped 
up in a napkin. The process of reproduction is generally successful, 
and this together with other operations in surgery has earned a high 
reputation lor the hospital throughout the Native States of Central 



lo INDORE AGENCY— INDUS, 

India and Rajputana, as far as the confines of the Bombay Districts. 
The Residency itself is a handsome stone mansion, approached by a 
rather imposing flight of steps, and surrounded by gardens tastefully 
laid out. From this stretches a park of considerable extent. A little 
river, the Khan, has been utilized to form a sylvan retreat of wood, 
water, and creeping plants, of almost unique beauty in India. 

The height of Indore above the ghats or Vindhya escarpment 
which rises from the Narbada valley, and 1786 feet above sea-level, 
renders the climate cool and agreeable, with the exception of two 
really hot months in summer. A body of native and European 
troops acts as the escort to the Governor- General's Agent, and is 
provided with a range of spacious barracks. Several small bungalows 
are occupied by the British Residency staff and other Government 
servants. The Rajkumar College, where the young chiefs and nobles 
of Central India are educated, is situated within the jurisdiction of 
the Residency. It has been referred to, along with other local 
institutions, in the preceding article on Indore State. 

Indore Agency. — The collective name given to the three Native 
States of Central India comprised therein, namely, Indore, Dewas, 
and Bagli (all of which see separately), under the superintendence of 
the Government of India, through an official styled ' Governor-General's 
Agent for Central India.' 

Indori.— Small hill torrent in Gurgaon District, Punjab. Rises 
beyond the boundary in Rajputana, on the Alwar (Ulwur) side of the 
Mewat Hills; runs due nortlward into British territory; passes the towns 
of Taoru and Bahora ; and finally, after joining the Sahibi, falls into the 
Najafgarhy/«7. The Indori frequently floods the country at the foot 
of the hills. There is a second and smaller stream of the same name, 
which falls into the Sahibi, some six miles above the junction of its 
larger namesake. Both are mere torrents, flowing only after rain. 

Indus (Sanskrit, Sindhu ; Greek, Sinthiis ; Latin, Sindus). — River 
in Northern India. The Indus rises in an unexplored region on the 
northern slopes of the sacred Kailas Mountain, the Elysium of ancient 
Sanskrit literature ; and as the Sutlej (Satlej) is in the Aryan tradition 
supposed to issue from the mouth of a crocodile, so the Indus is said to 
spring from the mouth of a lion. On the south of the Kailas Mountain 
rises the Sutlej, the great feeder of the Indus, which unites with it 
after a separate course of about 1000 miles. The Indus rises in lat. 
32° N. and long. 8i° e., enters the Punjab (Panjab) in lat. 34° 25' n. 
and long. 72° 51' e., leaves the Punjab in lat. 28° 27' n. and long. 
69° 47' E,, enters Sind in lat. 28° 26' n. and long. 69° 47' e., and 
finally falls into the Arabian Sea in lat. 23° 58' n. and long. 67° 30' e.' 
The drainage basin of the Indus is estimated at 372,700 square miles, 
and its total length at a little over 1800 miles. The towns of import- 



INDUS. II 

ance on or near its banks in British territory are Karachi (Kurrachee), 
Kotri, Haidarabad, Sehwan, Sukkur (Sakhar), Rohri, Mithankot, Dera 
Ghazi Khan, Dera Ismail Khan, Kala Bdgh, and Attock. 

The first section of the course of the Indus lies outside British 
territory, and must be briefly dealt with here. The river rises in Tibet 
behind the great mountain wall of the Himalayas, which forms the 
northern boundary of India. Rising from the ring of lofty mountains 
about Lake Manasarowar, whence also the Sutlej, the Brahmaputra, 
and the Gogra spring, it flows north-west for about i6o miles under 
the name of Singh-ka-bab, until it receives the Ghar river on its south- 
western bank. A short distance below the junction of the Indus and 
the Ghar, it enters Kashmir, and continues north-west to Leh, where 
it is joined by the Zanskar river, and crossed by the great trade route 
into Central Asia via the Karakoram Pass. Early travellers like Dr. 
Thomson and Mr. Blane have described this portion of the Indus. 
The former found numerous hot springs, some of them with a tem- 
perature of 174° F., and exhahng a sulphurous gas. The Indus is 
supposed to have an elevation of 16,000 feet at its source. Shortly 
after it passes the Kashmir frontier, it drops to 14,000 feet, and at 
Leh is only about 11,278 feet above the level of the sea. The rapid 
stream dashes down gorges and wild mountain valleys; it is subject to 
tremendous floods ; and in its lower and more level course it is swept 
by terrific blasts. Even in summer it is said to dwindle down to a 
fordable depth during the night, and during the course of the day to 
swell into an impassable torrent from the melting of the snows on the 
adjoining heights. Still flowing north-west through Kashmir territory, 
it passes near Iskardoh in Little Tibet, until in about lat. 34° 50' n., 
and long. 74° 30' e., it takes a turn southwards at an acute angle, 
receives the Gilgit river from the north, and shordy afterwards enters 
Kohistan near Gur. It then passes for about 120 miles south-west 
through the wilds of Kohistan, until it reaches the Punjab frontier in 
lat. 34° 25' N., and long. 72° 51' e., near Derbend, at the western base 
of the Mahaban mountain. The only point to which special allusion 
can be made in the long section of its course beyond British territory 
is the wonderful gorge by which the river bursts through the western 
ranges of the Himalayas. This gorge is near Iskardoh in Little Tibet 
{i.e. North-Western Kashmir), and is said to be 14,000 feet in sheer 
descent 

The Indus, on entering the Punjab, 812 miles from its source, is 
about 100 yards wide in August, navigable by rafts, but of no great 
depth, and studded with sandbanks and islands. It is fordable in many 
places during the cold weather ; but floods or freshets are sudden, 
and Ranjit Singh is said to have lost a force, variously stated at from 
1200 to 7000 horsemen, in crossing the river. Even the large and 



12 INDUS. 

solid ferry-boats which ply upon it are sometimes swept away. A 
little way above Attock, in Rawal Pindi District, it receives the 
Kabul river, which brings down the waters of Afghanistan. The two 
rivers have about an equal volume, both are very swift, and broken 
up with rocks. Their junction during floods is the scene of a wild 
confusion of waters. The Kabul river is navigable for about 40 
miles above the confluence, but a rapid just above it renders the Indus 
impracticable. 

Attock (Atak), the limit of the upward navigation of the Indus, forms 
the first important point on the Indus within British territory. By this 
time the river has flowed upwards of 860 miles, or nearly one-half of 
its total length, its further course to the sea being about 940 miles. 
It has fallen from its elevation of 16,000 feet at its source in Tibet 
to about 2000 feet, the height of Attock being 2079 ^^^^- I" ^^^ 
hot season, opposite the fort, its velocity is 13 miles an hour; and in 
the cold season, 5 to 7 miles. The rise of ordinary floods is from 5 
to 7 feet in 24 hours only, and the maximum is 50 feet above cold- 
weather level. Its width varies greatly with the season ; at one time 
over 250 yards, at another less than 100. The Indus is crossed at 
Attock by a bridge of boats and a ferry : in its upper course a massak 
or inflated skin is the usual means of transportation. The main trunk 
road to Peshawar also crosses the river at Attock. By the opening of 
the Attock railway bridge across the Indus in May 1883, the chain of 
railway communication between Peshawar, Bombay, and Calcutta was 
completed. The view from the railway bridge is a very striking one. 

After leaving Attock, the Indus flows almost due south along the 
western side of the Punjab, parallel to the Sulaiman Hills. The great 
north road from Sind to Bannu runs for several hundreds of miles 
close to its western bank ; and another road from Multan (Mooltan) 
to Rawal Pindi almost parallel to its eastern bank. The river inter- 
sects the two frontier Districts of Dera Ismail Khan and Dera Ghazi 
Khan, with the Sind Sagar Dodb on its eastern bank, and only a 
narrow strip of British territory between it and the hill tribes of the 
Sulaiman ranges on the west. Just above Mithankot, in the south of 
Dera Ghazi Khan District, the Indus receives the accumulated waters 
of the Punjab. Between the Indus and the Jumna (Jamuna) flow 
the five great streams from which the Punjab (Panj-ab, literally 'The 
land of the five waters ') takes its name. These are the Jehlam 
(Jhelum), the Chenab, the Ravi, the Beas (Bias), and the Sutlej. 
After various junctions, these rivers all unite to form the river Panjnad, 
literally ' The five rivers.' The Panjnad marks for a short space the 
boundary between the Punjab and Bahawalpur State, and unites with 
the Indus near Mithdnkot, about 490 miles from the sea. The breadth 
of the Indus above the confluence is about 600 yards, its velocity 5 



INDUS. 13 

miles an hour, its depth from 12 to 15 feet, and its estimated dis- 
charge 91,719 cubic feet per second. The breadth of the Panjnad 
above the point of junction is 1076 yards, with an equal depth of 
12 to 15 feet, but a velocity of only 2 miles an hour. Its estimated 
discharge is 68,955 cubic feet per second. Below the junction the 
united stream, under the name of the Indus, has a breadth which 
varies from 2000 yards to several miles, according to the season of 
the year. 

The whole course of the Indus through the Punjab is broken by 
islands and sandbanks, but some beautiful scenes are afforded along 
its banks, which, especially near Bukkur, abound with the date, acacia, 
pomegranate, and other trees. Mithankot has an elevation of only 258 
feet above the level of the sea. From Mithankot the Indus forms 
the boundary between the Punjab and Bahawalpur State, until near 
Kashmor it enters Sind in lat. 28° 26' n., and long. 69° 47' e. 
Kashmor is the most northern town on the Indus in Sind. From 
Bukkur in Sind to the sea, the river is known as the ' Lower Sind,' but 
it is also known famiHarly among the Sindis as the ' Daryah.' PHny 
writes of Indus i?icolis Sindiis appellatus. Finally the river empties 
itself by many mouths into the Arabian Sea, after a generally south- 
westerly course in that Province of 580 miles. It ranges in width from 
480 to 1600 yards, the average during the low season being 680 yards. 
During the floods it is in places more than a mile wide. Its depth 
varies from 4 to 24 feet. The water, derived from the snows of the 
Himalayas, is of a dirty brown colour, and slightly charged with saline 
ingredients, carbonate of soda and nitrate of potash. Its velocity in 
the freshets averages 8 miles per hour, at ordinary times 4 miles. The 
discharge per second varies at the two periods from 446,086 cubic feet 
to 40,857 cubic feet. On an average, the temperature of the water is 
10° F. lower than that of the air. 

The delta of the Indus covers an area of about 3000 square miles, 
and extends along the coast-line for 125 miles. It is almost a perfect 
level, and nearly destitute of timber, the tamarisk and mangrove alone 
supplying fuel. In these respects the delta of the Indus is similar to 
the Nile, but dissimilar from the Ganges, delta. The marshy portions 
contain good pasturage, and rice grov;s luxuriantly wherever cultivation 
is possible, but the soil generally is not fertile, being a mixture of sand 
and clay. In the Shahbandar District are immense deposits of salt. 
The climate of the delta is cool and bracing in the winter months, 
excessively hot in the summer, and during the floods most unhealthy. 
In 1800, the Indus at the apex of the delta divided into two main 
streams, known as the Baghiar and Sita; but in 1837 it had entirely 
deserted the former channel. The Khedewari passage also, which 
before 18 19 was the highway of water traffic to Shahbandar, was in that 



14 INDUS. 

year closed by an earthquake. In 1837, the Kakaiw^ri, which had 
then increased from a shallow creek to a river with an average width 
at low water of 770 yards, was recognised as the highway; but before 
1867, this also was completely blocked. For the present the Hajamro, 
which before 1845 was only navigable for the smallest boats, is the 
main estuary of the Indus. The shape of the Hajamro is that of a 
funnel, the mouth to the sea ; on the east side of the entrance is a 
beacon 95 feet high, visible for two miles ; and two well-manned pilot 
boats lie inside the bar to point out the difficulties of navigation. 

The following facts illustrate further the shifting nature of the Indus. 
In 1845, Ghorabari, then the chief commercial town of the delta, was 
on the river bank; but in 1848 the river deserted its bed. The town 
of Keti was built on the new bank. The new bank was overflowed a 
few years later, and a second Keti had to be built farther off. At pre- 
sent one of the chief obstructions to navigation is a series of rocks 
between Tatta and Bhiman-jo-pura, which in 1846 were 8 miles inland. 
In 1863, a thousand acres of the Dhareja forest were swept away. The 
rapidity and extent of the destructive action in constant progress in the 
delta may be estimated from the fact that travellers have counted by 
the reports as many as 13 bank slips in a minute. In some places the 
elephant grass (Typha elephantina) does good service by driving its 
roots very deeply (often 9 feet) into the ground, and thereby holding it 
together. 

The Indus begins to rise in March, attains its maximum depth and 
width in August, and subsides in September. The registered rise at 
Gidu-Bandar, near Haidarabad, is 15 feet. Other river gauges are at 
Kotri and Bukkur, the latter a fortified island in the river. 

Fish abound. At the mouths, the salt-water varieties include the 
Clupea neowhii, a species of herring largely consumed along the coast 
and in the delta. The chief of the fresh-water varieties is the pala, 
placed by Dr. Day under the Clupeidae, and nearly allied to, if not 
identical with, the hilsa of the Ganges. The local consumption and 
also the export of dried pala are very large. Otters, turtles, porpoises, 
water-snakes, and crocodiles are numerous. 

The entire course of the Indus in British territory, from Attock to 
the sea, lies within the zone of deficient rainfall, the annual average 
bein^y nowhere higher than 10 inches. Cultivation, therefore, is 
absolutely dependent upon artificial irrigation, almost to as great an 
extent as in the typical example of Egypt. But the Indus is a less 
manageable river than the Nile. Its main channel is constantly shifting ; 
at only three places, Sukkur (Sakhar), Jerruck (Jirak), and Kotri, are 
the river banks permanent ; and during the season of flood, the melted 
snows of the Himalayas come down in an impetuous torrent which no 
embankment can restrain. From time immemorial, this annual inunda- 



INDUS. 15 

tion, which is to Sind what the monsoons are to other parts of India, 
has been utilized as far as possible by an industrious peasantry, who 
lead the water over their fields by countless artificial channels. Many 
such channels, constructed in the old days of native rule, extend 30 
and even 40 miles from the river bank ; but no comprehensive scheme 
of irrigation, comparable to the works on the Ganges and Jumna, has 
yet been taken in hand by British engineers. The existing canals are 
all classified as 'intermittent inundation canals,' i.e. they have been 
constructed without system so as merely to intercept the flood-waters 
when they rise high enough to overtop the head-works. The first 
recorded inundation of the Indus took place in 1833 ; another occurred 
in 1 84 1 on a much larger scale. This flood was said to have been 
caused by the bursting of a glacier which formed over an accumulation 
of water in the Nubra Tso, into which there was a regular and steady 
flow of water from the surrounding hills. Eventually the glacier was 
burst asunder by the pressure, and the released flood poured down the 
Sheok valley, carrying everything before it. There was another great 
flood of the Indus in August 1858. On the loth of that month at 5 a.m. 
the river at Attock was very low; at 1 1 a.m. it had suddenly risen 1 1 feet; 
by 1.30 it had risen 50 feet; and in the evening the river was 90 feet higher 
than in the morning. By this flood the greater part of private property 
in Nowshera cantonment was destroyed. 

The great want of Sind is recognised to be a system of ' perennial 
canals,' which shall take off from the Indus at those few points in its 
course where a permanent supply can be secured all the year through, 
and regulated by a series of dams and sluices. One such work, 63 
miles long, the Sukkur Canal, was approved in the year 1861, and was 
finished in 1870. Of recent years the Indus has been embanked from 
above Kashmor to the mouth of the Begari Canal, a distance of more 
than 50 miles. The embankment has proved a great protection to 
the Sind-Pishin or Kandahar railway, which here runs parallel to the 
Indus. A full account of irrigation in Sind will be found in the article 
on that Province. It must suffice in this place to give a list of the 
principal works, following the Indus downwards from the Punjab. The 
waters of the river are first utilized on a large scale in the thirsty 
Districts of the Derajat, which form a narrow strip between the Indus 
and the Sulaiman mountains. The canals in this tract have an 
aggregate length of 618 miles, of which 108 have been constructed 
under British rule. In Muzaffargarh District, and in the Native State 
of Bahawalpur, which extends 300 miles along the opposite bank, the 
Chenab and Sutlej, as well as the Indus, contribute to render cultiva- 
tion possible. In Sind itself, the following are the chief canal 
systems : — On the right or west bank, the Sukkur, the Sind, the Ghar 
or Larkana, the Begari, and the Western Nara ; on the left or east 



i6 INDUS. 

bank, the Eastern Nara and the Fuleh', each with many distributaries. 
The total area irrigated by canals from the Indus in 1883-84 was : 
in the Punjab, 150,418 acres; in Sind, 1,627,900 acres, thus distributed 
among the several Districts, — Karachi, 248,371 acres; Haidarabad, 
517,403 acres; Shikarpur, 563,897 acres; Upper Sind Frontier, 
209,867 acres ; Thar and Parkar, 88,362 acres. 

As a channel of navigation, the Indus has disappointed the expecta- 
tions that were at one time formed. Before British arms had conquered 
Sind and the Punjab, it was hoped that the fabled wealth of Central 
Asia might be brought by this course down to the sea. But, even so 
far as local traffic is concerned, experience has proved in this case, as 
with most other Indian rivers, that the cheapness of water communica- 
tion cannot compete with the superior speed and certainty of railways. 
Since the opening of the Indus Valley State Railway in the autumn of 
1878, navigation on the Indus, whether by steamer or by native boat, 
has greatly fallen off. The general character of the Indus trade may 
be inferred from the following statistics, which refer to 1875-76. The 
Indus flotilla, under the management of the Sind Railway Company, 
carried down-stream goods to the value of ;^5 19,000, the chief items being 
Indian cotton goods (^219,600), wool (^89,000), oil-seeds, indigo, and 
sugar; the up-traffic by steamer was valued at ^^5 18,000, almost entirely 
confined to Manchester piece-goods (;^4i 5,000) and metals (^61,000). 
The traffic down-stream in country boats, as registered at Sukkur, 
was valued at ;^449,ooo, the chief items being wool, oil-seeds, wheat, 
and raw cotton. The return trade by country boats was valued 
at only ;^86,ooo, of which more than one-half was metals. The total 
number of boats passing Sukkur was 31 17, of which 2616, with cargoes 
aggregating 1,272,186 viaunds, or 45,435 tons, were going down-stream. 
The total receipts of the Conservancy and Registration Department in 
1875-76 amounted to ;^59i6, against an expenditure of ;£"6442, 
showing a deficit of ;^526. The Indus flotilla was aboHshed in 
1882-83. 

The first steamer was placed on the river in 1835. I" ^^47 there 
were 10 Government steamers, with head-quarters and a factory at 
Kotri, the yearly expenditure ranging from ^27,500 to ^£"50,000. 
This flotilla was broken up in 1862. In 1859, a company established 
another ' Indus flotilla ' in connection with the Sind Railway, with 
which it was formally amalgamated in 1870, the joint head-quarters 
being removed to Lahore in the Punjab. In 1874, the number of 
steamers plying was 14, and of barges 43, with an aggregate tonnage of 
10,641 tons. The receipts were ;£83,37o, being from goods up-river, 
^53,955; down-river, ^23,678; and from passenger traffic, ^^5737. 
As previously stated, the railway flotilla was abolished in 1882-83. 
These were not the only 'flotilla' experiments on the Indus. In 



INHA UNA— IN/ARAM. 17 

1856, the Oriental Inland Steam Company obtained a yearly subsidy of 
^^5000 from Government. In 1861, the Company had 3 steamers and 
9 barges on the river ; but as the river current proved too powerful 
for the steamers, the Company stopped the traffic, and eventually 
collapsed. 

For the conservancy of the river, Act i. of 1863 (Bombay) provides 
for the registration of vessels, and the levy of pilotage fees by an 
officer called the Conservator and Registrar of the Indus, the sum 
realized being expended on the improvement of navigation. 

The boats of the Indus are the dundhi and zaiirak^ both cargo-boats, 
the kauntal, or ferry-boats, and the diindo^ or fishing-boats. The cargo- 
boats are sometimes of 60 tons burden, and when laden draw 4 feet of 
water. The state barges ox jhamptis of the Mirs were built of teak, four- 
masted, and sometimes required crews of 30 men. 

Inhauna. — Pargand in Digbijaiganj tahsil, Rai Bareli District, Oudh ; 
bounded on the north by Haidargarh and Subeha parga?ids of Bara 
Banki District, on the east by Jagdispur pargand of Sultanpur, on the 
south by Simrauta and Mohanganj pargaiids of Rai Bareli. Originally 
held by the Bhars, an officer of Sayyid Salar Masaiid's army defeated 
them, and occupied their fort, but appears to have made little progress. 
Ultimately, a Bais named Binar Sah came from the west, drove out the 
Dhobis and Bhars, and acquired the whole country. Area, 100 square 
miles, of which 44 are under cultivation, and 26 fit for cultivation but 
not under tillage. Government land revenue, ^6639, at the rate of 
2S. i|d. an acre. Of the 77 villages comprising the pargand^ 2>1 ^^^ 
held by Hindu Bais, and 24 by Bharsians, a family of Bais who 
have been converted to Islam. Twelve villages are held under 
za??iindd}i tenure, 21 are tdlukdd?i, and 44 pattiddii. Population 
(1881), Hindus, 43,166; Muhammadans, 8650; ^others,' 2; total, 
51,818, namely, 24,693 males and 27,693 females: average density 
of population, 518 per square mile. 

Inhauna. — Town in Rai Bareli District, Oudh ; situated about mid- 
way on the unmetalled road between Lucknow and Sultanpur, 30 miles 
from Rai Bareli town, and head-quarters of Inhauna pargand. Lat. 
26' 32' N., long. 81° 32' E. Formerly the head-quarters of a tahsil zxi^ 
police circle, removed on the re-arrangement of Oudh Districts in 1869, 
since which time its traffic has considerably diminished. Population 
(1881) 3027, namely, Hindus, 1641, and Muhammadans, 1386. The 
town contains a bdzdr (Ratanganj), and a vernacular school, with 10 1 
pupils on its roll in 1883. 

Injaram {Injeram). — Town in Korangi (Coringa) zafuinddri, Godavari 
District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 16° 43' n., long. 82° 15' e. ; 5 miles 
south of Korangi. Houses, 380, with (1881) 1660 inhabitants. Now 
only known as having been one of the earliest of the British settle- 

VOL. VII. B 



1 8 INSEIN—IRAK. 

ments on this coast. The factory was founded in 1708, and was cele- 
brated for a manufacture of fine long cloth that afterwards declined. In 
May 1757, the factory was captured by Bussy. But Injaram continued 
a mercantile station of the Company till 1829. An irrigation canal 
takes its name from the town. Injaram and its neighbourhood suffered 
greatly from a cyclone in 1839. 

Insein. — Town in Rangoon District, British Burma ; distant 9 miles 
from Rangoon. Station on the Irawadi State Railway. 

In-yeh {Eng-rai). — Town in Bassein District, Irawadi Division, 
British Burma; situated on the right bank of the Daga river, in lat. 17° 
10' 30" N., and long. 95° 18' 30" e. Formerly the head-quarters of the 
extra-Assistant Commissioner. Population (1881) 940, engaged in 
rice cultivation and fishing. The town contains 92 houses, and has a 
pohce station. Excise revenue (1881), other than that accruing from 
the tax on palm-toddy, ^80. 

In-yeh-gyi {Eng-rai-gyi). — Lake in Bassein District, Irawadi Divi- 
sion, British Burma; about 5 miles in circumference, with a fairly 
uniform breadth of 280 to 300 yards, and a depth of from 20 to 45 
feet in the centre. It is connected with the Daga branch of the 
Bassein by a small outlet, which serves to replenish the lake from the 
Irawadi and to carry off the surplus water. This lake is by some 
supposed to have been a former portion of the bed of the Daga, by 
others it is thought to have been caused by a slip of the lower-lying 
beds, totally independent of fluvial action. It is very valuable as a 
preserve for fish, and proved an important source of revenue to the 
Burmese Government, who exacted an annual tax of £,1^0 from the 
Fenin or hereditary chief of the lake, who had sole authority over the 
villagers employed in the fishery. Each villager had the right of 
investing his capital in the general working of the fishery, and received 
a share in the out-turn at the end of the season proportionate to the 
sum subscribed. The process of dragging the lake is performed by 
floating capstans worked by hawsers of jungle rope attached to a frame, 
and occupies three months' working, at the rate of about 45 fathoms 
each day. The fishing begins with the full moon in June, when the 
temperature of the water has been reduced by the first showers of the 
monsoon. The number of fish caught is never below 70,000 to 80,000 
of all kinds ; they belong for the most part to the genera of Cerca, 
Cyprinus, Gobio, Labeo, Cimelodus, Cirrhinus, Cyprinodon, and 
Silurus. The largest specimens weigh about 56 lbs. each. Crocodiles 
of all sizes are found in the drag-net. Some 8000 to 10,000 persons 
are engaged in the taking and disposal of the fish, of which about 
40 tons are annually sold on the spot. 

Irak (or Loyach). — River in Sind, Bombay Presidency ; rises in lat. 
25° 20' N., and long. 67° 45' e., at the foot of the Hathiil Hills, between 



IRA WAD I. 19 

Karachi (Kurrachee) and Sehwan, and, after a south-easterly course of 
40 miles, falls into Lake Kanjar in lat. 24° 53' n., and long. 68° 6' e. 

Irawadi. — Principal river of Burma. The Iravvadi rises in inde- 
pendent territory, and traverses the Pegu and Irawadi Divisions of 
British Burma from north to south. The source of the Irawadi has not 
yet (1884) been discovered. Several distinct theories exist upon the 
subject. D'Anville, in the 18th century, thought the Irawadi was 
identical with the Tsanpu (Sanpo), which flows through Tibet from 
west to east. Dairy m pie's map accompanying Syme's Embassy to Aiuah 
(Ava) shows the Tsanpu as one of the sources of the Irawadi, but 
their point of union is not defined. In 1825, Klaproth maintained that 
the Irawadi was a continuation of the Pinlaing-kiang, which, after flow- 
ing through Western Yunan from the west, not the north, entered the 
valley of the Irawadi at Bhamo (Ba-maw). Other geographers asserted 
that the true source of the river was to be sought in China. Colonel 
Henry Yule, the chief of recent authorities, holds that the cradle of 
the Irawadi is in the Langtam range of the Himalayas. Mr. R. Gordon, 
late Executive Engineer at Henzada on the Irawadi, adopts the theory 
that the Irawadi is a continuation of the Sanpo. It is now, however, 
generally accepted that the Brahmaputra, not the Irawadi, is the 
continuation of the Tsanpu. The connection of the Brahmaputra 
with the Tsanpu was discovered by Lieutenants Wilcox and Burton, who 
crossed from Assam into Tibet in 1827 ; and this indicates, as conclu- 
sively as can be shown until the entire course of the river is traced, that 
the Irawadi rises in the southern slopes of the Patkoi Mountains. One 
branch of it apparently rises in lat. 27° 43' n., long. 97° 25' e., and 
another in the same hills a few days' journey farther east. These two 
branches — known as the Myit-gyi, or ' Large River,' and Myit-nge, or 
'Small River' — unite to form the Irawadi in lat. 26° n. The most 
upward point of the river yet reached by a European (Mr. Strettel) is 
the defile of Munt-gaung within the same parallel of latitude. 

The general course of the Irawadi is from north to south. Starting 
from its assigned head-quarters in lat. 26° n., it flows through inde- 
pendent Burmese territory until a point on the frontier 1 1 miles north 
of the town of Thayet-myo is reached. During its course through 
independent territory it receives, as chief tributaries from the westward, 
the Mogaung, the Kyaung, the Mil, and lesser streams. The 
Mogaung joins the main river (600 yards wide at the junction) in lat. 
24° 50' N., 100 miles above Bhamo; the Kyaung joins 100 miles below 
Bhamo ; and the Mii about 50 miles below Mandalay. From the 
eastward, in independent territory north of Bhamo, the Irawadi 
receives the waters of the Shimai, the Moulay, and the Taping ; 
south of Bhamo, it is increased by the waters of the Shwe-li, Kyin-dwin, 
Myit-nge, and Pan-baung. 



20 IRA WADI. 

Shortly after the confluence of the Mogaung, the main stream of 
the Irawadi enters the first or upper defile. Here the breadth of the 
river varies between 50 and 250 yards ; the current is very rapid, and 
the backwaters occasion violent eddies and whirlpools. When the 
river is at its lowest, no bottom is found even at 40 fathoms. At 
Bhamo, the Irawadi receives the Ta-ping from the east; and then, 
turning south, after a long bend to the westward enters a second defile 
5 miles long, which is exceedingly picturesque, the stream winding in 
perfect stillness under high bare rocks rising sheer out of the water. 

Farther down, not far from Mandalay, is the third or lowest defile. 
The river banks are covered at this point with dense vegetation, and 
slope down to the water's edge ; at places rise almost perpendicular, 
but wooded, heights. Except when the river is at its highest, the 
navigation of the two lower defiles is easy and safe for all but very long 
steamers. The valley of Ava begins below the third defile, and lies 
entirely on the east side of the Irawadi ; the range of the Minwun 
Hills, terminating at Sagain opposite Ava, hems the river closely in on 
the west. After receiving the waters of the Myit-nge, as far as 17° n. 
lat., the course of the Irawadi is exceedingly tortuous. The British 
frontier is crossed in lat. 19° 29' 3" n., long. 95° 15' e., the breadth of 
the river being here three-quarters of a mile. Opposite Thayet-myo, 
about II miles lower down, it is nearly 3 miles broad from bank 
to bank. Forty -eight miles farther south it passes Prome. ^ At 
Akauk-Taung, where a spur of the Arakan Hills ends abruptly in a 
precipice 300 feet high, the river enters its delta, the hills giving place 
to low alluvial plains, now protected on the west by extensive em- 
bankments. From 17° N. lat., a little above Henzada, 90 miles 
inland, the Irawadi sends off its first branch to the westward. This 
branch, sweeping past Bassein, takes its designation as the Bassein 
river from the name of the port, and, bifurcating, flows into the 
sea by two chief mouths. A little below Henzada the main stream 
sends off a small arm eastward to join the Hlaing river above and near 
Rangoon, and, dividing and sub-dividing, enters the sea by nine 
principal mouths. These mouths are named the Bassein, the Thek- 
ngay-thaung or eastern entrance of the Bassein, the Rangoon, the To 
or China Bakir, the Pya-piin, the Kyiin-tiin or Dala, the Irawadi, the 
Pya-ma-law^ and the Rwe. The Bassein and Rangoon mouths are the 
only mouths used by sea-going ships. 

The valley of the Irawadi, for the most part devoted to rice cultiva- 
tion, is about 80 miles broad at the frontier fine. It gradually widens 
towards the south ; and at 60 or 70 miles below the frontier becomes 
a broad, level, and highly-cultivated plain. At its lower end the 
valley of the Irawadi meets the valley of the Sittaung, and stretches, 
as a great flat country, from Cape Negrais on the west to Martaban 



IRA WAD I. 21 

on the east. The watershed between the upper courses of the 
Irawadi and the Sittaung is the Pegu Yoma range .'voma = backbone), 
which runs from north to south till it terminat in low hills at 
Rangoon. The main valley of the Irawadi is split up into several 
smaller valleys, separated by the spurs of the Pegu Yoma Hills ; 
such as the valley of the Hlaing river, the valley of the Pegu river, 
and the valley of the Pu-zu-daung river. The plains of the Irawadi, 
extending from Prome, in lat. i8° 15', to the sea, in lat. 15° 50', are 
subject to annual inundations, which it has been the endeavour of 
Government to lessen or prevent. In 1879, M^- I^- Gordon, Executive 
Engineer at Henzada, published the results of an investigation as to 
what would be the consequences of embanking the Irawadi main 
channel on two sides from the head of the delta seawards for a 
distance of 150 miles. Part of a continuous embankment of one side 
of the Irawadi, throughout Lower Burma, had been carried on in a 
desultory manner from 1863 to 1867; but eventually Mr. Gordon was 
directed to obtain exact data as to levels of surface and volume of 
water to be dealt with before the project should be resumed. As the 
result of his investigations, Mr. Gordon was in favour of the embank- 
ment of the Irawadi being carried out, and cited the successful embank- 
ment of the Nawiin river, which has been practically encased, as an 
additional reason for his opinion. In accordance, therefore, with this 
and other testimony, the embankment works are being vigorously 
prosecuted; and a special Act (xiii. of 1877) gives power to the 
Embankment Officer to impress all able-bodied persons, when a flood 
or other emergency occurs, for the construction or repair of the 
embankments. 

The Embankment system is divided into two series, the Western 
and the Eastern. The former embraces the Kyangin, Myanaung, and 
Henzada sections; the latter includes only a few projects in the 
survey stage. The amount expended on the Western series up to 
1883 was ;£'305,882 ; and the expenditure during that year was 
only ^^4676. See Henzada District. In addition, ;£"2 00,000 was 
expended in 1882-83 in cutting the Tunte Canal, 8 miles long, a work 
meant to shorten and facilitate the passage of craft between the 
Irawadi and Rangoon river. 

The Irawadi Delta is constantly encroaching on the sea, owing to the 
immense quantity of silt brought down by the river, and is cut up into 
numerous islands by a labyrinth of tidal creeks. Scattered along 
these in the extreme south are temporary villages, occupied during 
the dry season by salt boilers and makers of nga-pi or fish-paste. 

The area of the catchment basin of the Irav/adi is 158,009 square 
miles ; the area of the delta is 18,000 square miles ; and the total length of 
the river from its assigned source to the sea is about 900 miles, the last 



22 IRAWADL 

240 miles flowing in British territory. As far down as Akauk-taung in 
Henzada District, its bed is rocky ; but below this, sandy and muddy. 
It is full of islands and sandbanks, many of the former, and all the latter, 
being submerged during the rains ; its waters are extremely muddy, and 
the mud is carried far out to sea. The river commences to rise in March ; 
about June, after a fall, it steadily rises again, and attains its maximum 
height about September. At Prome, in September, it is from 33 to 40 
feet above its dry-season level. Below the latitude of Myan-aung, the 
Irawadi inundates large tracts of country on its eastern or unprotected 
bank. Several contradictory calculations have been made of its dis- 
charge. The average annual discharge, according to Mr. Gordon's 
observations, and calculated in metre-tons of 37 cubic feet, is 428 
billion tons. 

The Irawadi is navigable at all seasons by steamers of light draught 
as high as Bhamo, and during the dry season, for steamers drawing 
6 feet, as far as the British frontier. In the rains, steamers and large 
boats enter the main stream of the Irawadi from Rangoon by the Pan- 
hlaing or Bhawlay creeks. During the dry season they have to descend 
the Rangoon river for some distance, and, passing through the Bassein 
creek, enter the Irawadi through the To or China Bakir. In the dry 
season, the northern entrance to the Bassein river is entirely closed by 
a large sandbank. The tide is felt as far up as Henzada, and at 
Pu-zun-daung it rises 18 J feet at springs. Disastrous floods have 
more than once occurred in the Irawadi, the years 187 1, 1875, ^^<^ 
1877 being remarkable in this respect. Below Akauk-taung on the 
west, and Prome on the east, the Irawadi receives no tributaries of 
importance. 

The broad channel of the Irawadi has always been the sole means 
of communication between the interior and the seaboard. From time 
immemorial, the precious stones, minerals, etc. of Upper Burma and 
the Chinese frontier provinces have been brought down by this route. 
At the present day, the great bulk of the trade is in the hands of the 
* Irrawaddy Flotilla Company,' an important English carrying firm ; but 
native boats still maintain a strenuous competition. The flotilla of the 
Company consists of about 60 vessels, including steamers and flats. 
They employ about 1770 hands, European and native; and distribute 
in wages upwards of ^50,000 a year. Their head - quarters are at 
Rangoon, where, for the construction and repair of their large fleet, 
they have leased from Government the old dockyard, foundry, and 
engineer establishment. In 1882, the number of steamers passing 
up the Irawadi was 115, and passing down no. In previous years 
these numbers had been larger, but as steamers have decreased in 
number, the tonnage and number of native craft have proportionately 
increased. Steamers run twice a week from Rangoon to Bassein, 



IRICH. 23 

and from Rangoon to Mandalay, under contract with the Govern- 
ment of India for the conveyance of mails, troops, and stores. 
The service from Rangoon to Mandalay is continued twice a month 
to Bhamo, about 1000 miles from the sea. The following are 
the stopping stations between Rangoon and Mandalay, proceeding 
up-stream : — Yandiin, at the mouth of the Pan-hlaing creek, 50 miles 
above Rangoon, a large trading village ; Donabyu ; Henzada, a place 
of growing importance as a delta station for the observation of physical 
data connected with the Irawadi ; Ye-gin, with large exports of paddy 
(unhusked rice) to Upper Burma; Myan-aung, the old civil station, 
now moved to Henzada; Prome, in former days a terminus for the 
steamers; Thayet-myo, the military frontier station, about 350 miles 
above Rangoon; Minhla, the custom-house station of Independent 
Burma; Magwe, a considerable centre of local trade, frequented at 
certain seasons by the Siamese ; Ye-nan-gyaung, the shipping depot for 
the earth -oil or petroleum produced in large quantities at a spot 3 
miles distant ; Sinyugyan, Nyaungu, Kunywah, and Pokoko ; Mingyan, 
the most important river station in Independent Burma after Mandalay, 
the traders being chiefly Chinese ; Letsambyu and Sagaing, both only 
stopped at going down-stream; Mandalay, about 350 miles above 
Prome. The principal articles carried up-stream are Manchester piece- 
goods, rice, salt, hardware, and silk. The articles carried down-stream 
are raw cotton, cutch (a preparation from Acacia catechu for dyeing), 
india-rubber, jade, spices, precious stones, timber, earth-oil, and dry 
crops, such as wheat and peas. The value of the trade both ways is 
about 2\ millions sterling. The latest figures (for 1881-82) show 
imports into Independent Burma to the value of ^1,044,139, against 
exports of ;j^i, 440,982. 

The total number of native boats on the Irawadi is about 9750 going 
up and down stream : the total number of steamers was 225 in 1882-83. 
The former mostly carry heavy articles of commerce, especially cutch 
and earth-oil. Going up-stream, they take advantage of the wind, 
spreading a single enormous sail on a yard sometimes 120 feet long. 
The Burmese are good river sailors, but generally hug the bank closely. 
Going down-stream, they take advantage of the full strength of the 
current, by throwing overboard branches of trees attached to the prow, 
which float down faster than the boat itself. The Rangoon and Irawadi 
State Railway was opened for traffic as far as Prome (161 miles) on ist 
May 1877. The total sum expended on this line up to the end of 
1881-82 was ;^i,287,795. A further extension of 42 miles to Allan- 
myo is under consideration. 

Irich. — x\ncient town in Jhansi District, North-Western Provinces. 
Lies in lat. 25° 47' n., and long. 79^^ 8' e., on the right bank of the Betwa, 
42 miles north-east of Jhansi city. Population under 5000. Formerly 



24 IRODU—ISAKHEL. 

a town of great importance, the head-quarters of a Sarkar under the 
Mughal empire, but now lying in ruins, with a continually decreasing 
population. Many mosques and tombs still standing among the 
suburbs attest its early prosperity. The British army, under the 
Marquis of Hastings, encamped on the spot in 1817, on its advance to 
Gwalior, when suffering from cholera. Here also, in 1804, the British 
force under Major Shepherd, sent to oppose the incursions of Amir 
Khan into Jhansi and Tehri, awaited his approach from Lalitpur. On 
his first advance, the Amir found himself overpowered, and retreated 
to Mdlthaun ; whereupon the British troops, thinking that he had per- 
manently retired, marched on to Banda. Amir Khan shortly after- 
wards returned, and made Irich his head-quarters in his expeditions 
against Kiinch and Kalpi. Manufacture of chintz and figured broad- 
cloth. First-class police station, school, and post-office. A small 
municipal income, for conservancy and police purposes, is raised under 
the provisions of Act xx. of 1856. 

Irodu. — Tdliik and town, Madras Presidency. — See Erode. 
Irrikur. — Village in Chirakkal taluk, Malabar District, Madras 
Presidency. Lat. 11° 59' n., long. 75° 37' e. Population (187 1) 4330 ; 
(1881) 2808, dwelling in 441 houses. A considerable entrepot of 
trade, and notable as the scene of Mappilla (Moplah) outrages in 
1852. From Irrikur to the sea, the Valarpattanam river is navigable 
for boats throughout the year. 

Isakapalli C-S^^^ Village' — Telugu). — Village in Nellore District, 
Madras Presidency. Lat. 14° 44' n., long. 80° 8' e. Population (1881) 
1966. A seaport and customs station; formerly carried on a large 
trade in salt, but the competition of other salt-works has caused the 
trade to decay. There are granaries and godowns on the beach for 
the storage of grain. Good anchorage for large sailing vessels and 
steamers. Connected with Nellore town, 23 miles distant, by a 
metalled road. 

Isakhel. — Tahsil of Bannu District, Punjab, consisting of a tract 
shut in between the Chichali and Maidani ranges and the river Indus. 
Its extreme northern portion, known as the Bhanji Khel country, is a 
wild and rugged region, a continuation of the Khatak Hills. The Bhanji 
Khels are an influential, but numerically small, section of the great 
Khatak tribe, and occupied their present country about 400 years ago. 
The tahsil derives its name from the Isa Khel tribe, a section of the 
Niazai Afghans, which, settling here during the sixteenth century, long 
maintained its independence of the Mughal empire, and at last 
succumbed to the Nawab of Dera Ismail Khan. Area, 675 square 
miles. Average area under crops (1877 to 1 881), 128 square miles. 
Area under principal crops — Wheat, 35,782 acres ; barley, 11,197 acres ; 
and bdjra, 29,320 acres. Total area assessed for Government revenue, 



JSAKHEL- ISA ULI. 25 

432,016 acres; total revenue of the tahs'il, ;£636i. Population (18S1) 
59,546, namely, 53,982 Muhammadans, 5408 Hindus, 78 Sikhs, 60 
Jains, and 18 Christians; persons per square mile, 88; number 
of towns and villages, 47, of which 18 contained less than five 
hundred inhabitants. The landholders are mostly of the Niazai tribe ; 
but during their long residence in the valley of the Indus, they have 
lost their mother tongue, Pushtu, and now use only the Punjabi dialect 
of their tenants. The iahsil contains i civil and i criminal court ; 2 
police stations, with a regular police force of 53 men, and a village 
watch of 80 men. 

Isakhel. — Chief town and head-quarters of Isakhel tahsil in Banna 
District, Punjab. Lat. 32° 40' 50" n., and long. 71' 19' e., on the high 
right bank of the Indus, 9 miles west of the present channel ; distant 
from Edwardesabad 42 miles south-east. Population (1881) 6692, 
namely, 1788 Hindus, 4895 Muhammadans, and 9 Sikhs. Founded 
about 1830 by Ahmad Khan, ancestor of the present leading family. 
Built without plan ; bazar and lanes crooked, narrow, and extremely 
dirty. Small local trade. The Khans of Isakhel are the acknow- 
ledged heads of the trans-Indus Niazais. Tahsili, old fort used as 
police station, staging bungalow, sardi^ and dispensary. A third-class 
municipality, with an income in 1881-82 of ^356; average incidence 
of taxation, is. ofd. per head of the population. 

Isanagar.— Village in Kheri District, Oudh ; situated about 4 miles 
west of the Kauriala river. The head-quarters of the Isanagar estate. 
Population (1881) 2589 Hindus and 609 Muhammadans — total, 3198. 
Small market. 

Isarda. — Town in Jaipur (Jeypore) State, Rajputana ; situated 
near the banks of the Banas, about 60 miles south from Jaipur city. 
It has a citadel, and is surrounded by a wall and moat. Population 
inconsiderable. 

Isauli. — Pargand in Musafirkhana tahsil, Sultanpur District, Oudh \ 
bounded on the north by Paschimrath and Khandausa pargands, on 
the east hy pargand Sultanpur Baraunsa, on the south by Amethi and 
^Mliin^m pargafids, and on the west by ]3.gd\s^\ir pargand. Originally 
in the possession of the Bhars, who were ousted about 550 years ago 
by a party of Bais Kshattriyas, on whom Sultan Ala-ud-din Khilji 
bestowed the title of Bhale Sultan, which their descendants still 
retain. Area, 148 square miles, or 94,743 acres, of which 53,749 
are cultivated, 16,613 cultivable, 7600 under groves, and the 
remainder barren. Government land revenue, ^£9772, or an average 
of 2S. id. per acre. Population (1881) 73,593 Hindus, 9749 Muham- 
madans — total, 83,342, namely, 40,374 males and 42,968 females. 
Number of villages, 184; average density of population, 563 per 
square mile. 



?6 ISKARDO— ISLAMABAD BTJHAULI. 

Iskardo (or Skardo). — Principal town of the province of Balti, 
Kashmir State; situated in lat. 35° 12' n., and long. 75° 35' e., on 
an elevated plain, 19 miles long and 7 broad; 7700 feet above sea-level, 
at the bottom of a valley, surrounded by lofty mountains. The fort, 
occupying a rock of gneiss at the confluence of the Indus (here 
150 yards broad) with its great tributary the Shegar, is near the 
magnificent gorge through which the Indus issues from the western 
ranges of the Himalayas. The cliff on which the fort is built 
rises to a sheer height of 800 feet above the river, and presents a 
perpendicular face on every side, except the west, where it slopes 
rapidly toward the plain. Vigne compares the site to that of Gibraltar, 
and believes that it could be rendered equally impregnable. The castle 
of the late princes of Baltistdn crowns a small natural platform, 300 feet 
above the river, and shows by its construction that defence rather than 
comfort was its chief object. The collection of straggling huts below 
the fort and castle scarcely deserves the name of town. Ahmad Shih, 
the last native prince, bore an excellent character as a just and mode- 
rate ruler. His country finally fell into the hands of Gulab Singh of 
Kashmir, who annexed it to his dominions. 

Islamabad. — Chief town of Chittagong District, Bengal. — See 
Chittagong. 

Islamabad. — Town in Kashmir State. Lies in lat. 33° 43' N., 
long. 75° 17' E., on the north bank of the Jehlam (Jhelum), here about 
80 yards wide, and crossed by a wooden bridge. Islamabad crowns 
the summit of a long low ridge, extending from the mountains eastward. 
Below the ridge a low reservoir contains a spring of clear water, slighdy 
sulphurous, from which volumes of gas exhale. A legend connects the 
origin of the spring with a creative act of Vishnu. The water swarms 
with sacred fish. Large manufacture of Kashmir shawls, also of 
chintzes, cotton, and woollen goods. The original name of Anat 
Nag, derived from the holy reservoir, gave place to Islamabad in 
the 15th century. Here the Hindu pilgrims to the famous shrine of 
Siva at Ambarnath, 60 miles distant, halt to take in a supply of 
provisions for their journey. Islamabad is the second town in 
Kashmir, and is the terminus of the upper navigation of the 
Jehlam. It is described by recent travellers as a miserable place 
of about 1500 houses, but supporting as many as fifteen Muham- 
madan temples. Crocus flowers are grown for satfron, which is largely 
used as medicine, and for the making of caste marks on the foreheads of 
orthodox Hindus. In good seasons about 20,000 lbs. of saffron are 
secured. 

Islamabad Bijhauli. — Village in Unao District, Oudh ; about 20 
miles from Safipur, and 27 from Unao town, in a north-westerly direction. 
Population (t88i) 2163 Hindus and 161 Muhammadans — total, 2324, 



ISLAMGARH—ITARSL 2 7 

residing in 369 houses. Government school. Seat of 3 small annual 
religious trading fairs. 

Islamgarh (or Nohar).—Yo\\. in Bahawalpur State, Punjab, close to 
the borders of Rajputana. Lat. 27° 50' n., long. 70° 52' e. : lies on 
the route from Khdnpur to Jaisalmer (Jeysulmere), 65 miles north of 
the latter town. Consists of an ancient structure of small bricks, about 
80 yards square, with lofty ramparts, from 30 to 50 feet in height. The 
situation is unfavourable for defence, being surrounded on every side 
by sandhills of considerable elevation. A few buildings occupy the 
enclosed space, while some straggling houses lie without the wall. The 
fort formerly belonged to Jaisalmer (Jeysulmere), but was wrested from 
the Rajputs by the Khan of Bahawalpur. 

Islamkot.— Town in the Mitti idluk, Thar and Parkar District, Sind, 
Bombay Presidency. Lat. 24° 41' 30" n., and long. 70° 13' e. 
Population (1872) 862 : not over 2000 in 1881. The municipal revenue 
in 1873-74 was ^£"48, but the municipality was abolished in 1878 on 
the introduction into Sind of Bombay Act vi. of 1873. An old native 
fort stands outside the town. Islamkot is connected by good roads with 
the neighbouring villages. 

Isldmnagar. — Town in Bisauli tahsil, Budaun District, North- 
Western Provinces. Lies on the road from Bisauli to Sambhal, 1 2 miles 
west of the former town. Lat. 28° 19' 45" n., long. 78' 46' e. Popu- 
lation (1881) 5890, namely, Hindus, 3616; Muhammadans, 2245 ; and 
* others,' 29. Area of town site, 60 acres. The town contains a second- 
class police station, post-office, dispensary, sardi or native inn, cattle 
pound, and school. A market is held every Monday and Friday. For 
police and conservancy purposes, a small house-tax is levied under the 
provisions of Act xx. of 1865. The outskirts of the town are well 
planted with groves of mango trees. 

Isldmpur. — Tov/n and municipality in the Walwa Sub-division of 
Satara District, Bombay Presidency. Population (1872) 8390; (1881) 
8949, namely, Hindus, 7801 ; Muhammadans, 771 ; Jains, 377. Area 
of town site, 115 acres. The income of the municipality was 
£,Z^^ i^ 1882-83 ; incidence of municipal taxation, 4s. 7d. per 
head. 

Ita. — Small detached group of hills in the centre of Sylhet District, 
Assam. Area, about 49 square miles ; highest point, 300 feet above 
sea-level. The slopes, which were formerly overgrown with dense jungle 
and brushwood, are now converted into flourishing tea-gardens. 

Itarsi. — Town in Hoshangabad District, Central Provinces, and 
station on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, at the junction of that 
line with the recently opened Bhopal State Railway. Population (1881) 
2138, namely, Hindus, 1820; Muhammadans, 147; Jains, 8; abori- 
ginal tribes, 163. 



28 ITAWA—ITIVAB. 

Itawa. — Estate in Khurai tahsil, Sagar (Saugor) District, Central 
Provinces; 48 miles north-west of Sagar town, containing 44 villages, on an 
area of 77 square miles. At the cession of Sagar to the British Govern- 
ment by the Marathas in 1818, this tract, which then consisted of 46 
villages, yielding £%()6 per annum, was assigned rent free for life to Ram 
Bhaii, a Maratha Pandit, in lieu of Malhargarh and Kanjia, the former 
being an estate in the extreme north-west of Sagar District, beyond 
the Betwa river, which was made over to Sindhia. At the late settle- 
ment, 16 villages were awarded to the tdlukddr in proprietary right, 
and in 28 villages he received the superior proprietary right only. The 
chief village contained (in 1881) 540 houses, with a population of 2177. 
Hindus numbered 1786; Muhammadans, 122; and Jains, 269. It 
is said to have been founded by Indrajit, a Bundela officer of Akbar, 
and at the beginning of the i8th century was held by Diwan Anup 
Singh, Raja of Panna, who built the small fort and embellished the 
town. In 1 75 1 he made over the place to the Peshwa, in return for 
assistance against the Bundelas. The Marathas improved the fort and 
town, and some of the buildings contain remarkably fine stonework and 
carving. The chief sales at the weekly market consist of grain and 
native cloths. Two schools for boys and girls. 

Itkuri.— Coal-field in Hazaribagh District, Bengal; situated in the 
valley of the Mohani river. Greatest length, 15 miles; average 
breadth, \\ mile. The coal is only worth working for rough purposes, 
and the average is considered to contain more than 30 per cent, of ash. 
The coal-bearing area is very small, but its position and the metalled 
way connecting it with the Grand Trunk Road are points in its favour. 
An approximate estimate gives the amount of coal available at from a 
million and a half to two millions of tons. 

Itria Gadhala.— Petty State in North Kathiawar, Gujardt, Bombay 
Presidency; 14 miles nort.h-west of Dhasa railway station. The State 
consists of 2 villages, with i separate tribute-payer. Population, 774 in 
1872, and 909 in 1881. The revenue is estimated at ^400; tribute 
of ;^2 5, 4s. is paid to the British Government, and of ^8, 6s. to the 
Nawab of Junagarh. 

Ittamukkala {'Date-Palm TY^r^ '— Telugu).— Town in Ongole taluk, 
Nellore District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 15° 22' 30" n., and long. 
80° 9' 11" E. Population (1872) 3811; (1881) 3028. Seaport with 
coasting trade, and the second customs station in the District. In 1880, 
the value of the exports was ;^7o ; imports, ;^2o6. The assistant- 
superintendent of sea customs at Ittamukkala has power to grant ships' 
papers, and thus save the delay of reference to the principal port, 
Kottapatnam. The anchorage is good. 

Itwad.— Petty State of the Pandu Mehwas, in Rewa Kantha, Gujarat, 
Bombay Presidency. Area, 6 square miles; number of villages, 11. 



IVIKER—JABALPUR. 29 

There are four shareholders. The revenue is estimated at £,\^o. 
Tribute of ;£6o is paid to the Gaekwar of Baroda. 

Iviker {or Aibikd). — Town in Travancore State, Madras Presidency; 
situated on the sea-coast in lat. 8° 57' n., and long. 76° 37' e., at 
the mouth of the river Aibika, which is navigable only by small craft. 
Export trade in timber, spices, and lac. Distance from Quilon town, 
5 miles. 



Jabalpur (Juhhdpore). — One of the four Divisions or Commis- 
sionerships of the Central Provinces, comprising the Districts of 
Jabalpur, Sagar (Saugor), Damoh, Seoni, and Mandla. Area, 18,688 
square miles, with 11 towns and 8501 villages; houses, 504,080. 
Total population (1881) 2,201,633, namely, 1,128,083 niales and 
1,073,550 females; average density of population, 11 7*8; towns and 
villages per square mile, '46; persons per village, 259; houses per 
square mile, 27 ; persons per house, 4*37. Classified according to 
religion, Hindus numbered 1,655,103, or 75*18 per cent. ; Sikhs, 47 ; 
Kabirpanthis, 25,014, or 1-13 per cent; Satnamis, 702; Muham- 
madans, 87,060, or 3-95 per cent; Christians, 3769; Buddhists, 11; 
Jains, 30,295, or 1-38 per cent.; Parsis, 69; non-Hindu aborigines, 
399,559, or 18-13 per cent ; and unspecified, 4. Total adult agricul- 
turists, 763,871, or 3470 per cent of the total divisional population, 
the average area of cultivated and cultivable land being 10 acres 
per adult agriculturist Of the total area of 18,688 square miles, 12,833 
square miles are assessed for Government revenue, of which 5483 square 
miles were returned in 1881 as under cultivation ; 3956 square miles as 
cultivable ; and 3394 as uncultivable. Total amount of Government 
assessment, including local rates and cesses on land, ;!£^i 62,739, or an 
average of 9|d. per cultivated acre. Total amount of rent actually 
paid by cultivators, ;£"4i 7,707, or an average of 2s. 3|d. per cultivated 
acre. Justice is afforded by 38 civil and 29 criminal courts. Number 
of pohce stations {thdnds), 49, besides 133 outpost stations. Total 
revenue of the Division in 1882-83, ;^i94,242. 

Jabalpur {Jublmlpore). — District in the Chief Commissionership of 
the Central Provinces, lying between 21° 12' and 23° 56' n. lat, and 
between 76° 40' and 81° 35' e. long. Bounded on the north by Panna 
and ]Maihar States ; on the east by Rewa State ; on the south by the 
British Districts of Mandla, Seoni, and Narsinghpur ; and on the west 
by Damoh District Area, 3918 square miles; population in 1881, 
687,233. The administrative head-quarters of the District are at 
Jabalpur, which is also the principal town. 



30 JABALPUR DISTRICT. 

Physical Aspects. — Jabalpur consists of a long, narrow plain, 
running north-east and south-west, and shut in on all sides by highlands, 
forming an offshoot from the great valley of the Narbada (Nerbudda). 
This plain is covered in its western and southern portions by a rich 
alluvial deposit of black cotton-soil, merging towards the north-east 
in an undulating tract of metamorphic and lateritic formation. The 
south-eastern parts, lying parallel with the black-soil country, belong 
to the great trappean area of Central India. Granitic rocks occupy 
larger areas than elsewhere. Near Jabalpur town the granite forms 
a range of low hills running from the Narbada towards the north- 
east, and attaining its highest point near the ancient town of Garhd, 
where it is crowned by a ruined building called the Madan Mahal. 
Here the hilly area of the granite extends over about 2 miles, 
consisting chiefly, says Mr. J. G. Medlicott, of ' a porphyritic syenite, 
whose matrix is a mixture of glassy quartz, with pale pink or 
pale green felspar, along with a small proportion of hornblende, and 
which contains embedded crystals of dull lead-grey felspar (adularia), 
about one-third of an inch long, and in great number, frequently form- 
ing a large proportion of the mass.' At Jabalpur itself the soil is 
sandy, and water plentiful near the surface ; so that even in the sultry 
blaze of an Indian summer there still appear a freshness and verdure 
such as no station situated on basaltic soil can enjoy. 

The highlands in the distance relieve the monotony of the fertile 
plain. On the north and west the Bhanrer Hills, which belong to the 
Vindhyan sandstone series, and the low rocky Kaimur chain, on the 
east the Bhitrigarh heights, and on the south spurs and ridges pro- 
jecting from the Gondwana range, ring in the District with a border of 
picturesque scenery, in which hill and valley, forest and stream, succeed 
each other in rapid variety. The Bhanrer and Kaimur chains form 
a watershed, the northern side of which is drained by the Ganges. 
The other and more important watershed of the District starts from 
the Bhitrigarh range, and crosses the Great Northern Road between 
Sleemanabad and Sihora. Rain falling to the north and east finds 
its way into tributaries either of the Ganges or the Jumna, while 
rivulets rising on the south and west swell the rapid stream of the Nar- 
bada (Nerbudda). Thus, the traveller from Jabalpur to Mirzapur 
passes over the great watershed between the Gulf of Cambay and the 
Bay of Bengal. The principal rivers are the Mahinadi (not to be 
confounded with the more important river of that name), which, rising 
in Mandld, District, flows in a northerly direction till near Bijeragho- 
garh it bends towards the east and falls into the Son (Soane) ; the 
Gurayya, between Jabalpur and Damoh ; the Patna, which separates 
the District from Panna ; and the Hiran, which flows into the Narbada 
at Sankal. But besides these streams, the Narbada flows through 



JABALPUR DISTRICT. 3I 

the District for 70 miles from east to west, passing about 9 miles 
below Jabalpur town through the famous Marble Rocks. There the 
river, which above this point had attained a breadth of 100 yards, 
flings itself tumultuously from a rocky ledge with a fall of 30 feet, 
called Dhuan-dhar or the Misty Shoot, and then flows on in a deep 
and narrow channel nearly 2 miles long, through a mass of beautifully 
white limestone. On each side, a dazzling row of marble bluffs, rising 
sheer up to a height of 100 feet, confines the swirling waters. 

History. — The early history of Jabalpur is unknown ; but in- 
scriptions record the existence during the nth and 12th centuries 
of a local line of princes of that Haihai race which is so closely 
connected with the history of Gondwana. In the i6th century, 
Sangrani Sa, the Gond Raja of Garha Mandla, extended his power 
over fifty-two Districts, including the present Jabalpur. During the 
minority of his grandson, Prem Narayan, the Gond Queen Durgavati 
administered the government. The rule of a woman appeared a 
favourable time for aggression ; and Asaf Khan, the Viceroy of Kara 
Manikpur on the Ganges, sought and obtained permission to conquer 
the Garha principality. The decisive battle was fought under the 
castle of Singaurgarh, and Asaf Khan proved victorious. Stung by 
her defeat, the high-spirited Durgavati put an end to her life. At first 
Asaf Khan held Garha as an independent ruler, but eventually he 
resigned his pretensions, and submitted himself to the Emperor Akbar. 
In the list of Akbar's dominions given in the Ain-i-Akbari^ Garha 
appears as a division of the Government of Malwa. The Delhi 
power, however, enjoyed little more than a nominal supremacy ; and 
the princes of Garha Mandla maintained a practical independence 
until their subjugation by the Governors of Sagar (Saugor) in 1781. 
Though Bakht Buland never brought Jabalpur under his sway, this 
District, like the rest of Gondwana, felt the effects of his liberal and 
enlightened policy ; and it was in his time that the industrious Lodhis 
and Kayasths settled here. 

In 1798, the Peshwa granted Mandla and the Narbada valley to the 
Bhonsla Princes of Nagpur, who continued to hold the District until 
the British occupied it after an engagement on the 19th December 1817. 
By the provisional Government then formed, Raghunath Rao, Raja of 
Inglia, was appointed acting siibdhddr ; and a petition which he presented 
throws a curious light upon the Maratha system of rule. The subdhddr 
inquired whether all widows were still to be sold, and the purchase 
money paid into the treasury? whether all persons receiving any moneys 
through an order, or by the interposition, of any person in ofiice, should 
still pay one-fourth of such moneys to the State? and whether any 
person selling his house or his daughter should still pay to the State 
one-fourth of the purchase money? These rules the British had found 



32 JABALPUR DISTRICT. 

in full force ; and one of the earliest acts of the provisional Government 
was to order the release of a young woman named Pursia, who had 
been sold by auction for £i, 14s. At first, the Sagar and Narbada 
territories were governed by a Commissioner in subordination to the 
Resident at Nagpur. Subsequently, these Districts were separated from 
the Nao-pur Agency; and in 1843 Lord Ellenborough recast the whole 
system of administration. The chief feature of his reforms was the 
separation of the judicature from the departments of revenue and 
police. The system which he instituted lasted until November 1861, 
when Jabalpur was formed into a District of the Central Provinces, 
under the control of a Chief Commissioner resident at Nagpur. 

Population. — In 1872, the population of the District, with an area 
the same as at present, was returned at 528,859. In 1881, the total 
population amounted to 687,233, showing an increase of 158,374, or 
29-9 per cent, in the nine years. This large increase, apart from the 
normal growth of the population in prosperous years, is stated to 
be partially due to the gradual return of famine-stricken peasantry 
who fled the District at the time of the scarcity of 1869 ; to a large 
immigration from neighbouring Native States, induced by the spread of 
cultivation and the opening of public works ; and also (to the extent 
of about 3 per cent) to defective enumeration in 1872. The Census 
of 1881 disclosed a population of 687,233 persons, on an area of 
3918 square miles, residing in 2310 villages or towns, and 174,5^2 
houses; persons per square mile, i75'4; villages per square mile, 
0-59; houses per square mile, 44*54; persons per village, 298; persons 
per house, 3-9. Classified according to sex— males, 3495251 ; females, 
•237,982. According to age — the male children under 12 numbered 
117,279; the female children, 112,604. 

The ethnical division of the population is as follows : — Europeans, 
1125; Eurasians, 267; Indo-Portuguese, 30; non-Hindu aboriginal 
tribes, 67,804 ; Hindus and people of Hindu origin, including abori- 
ginal tribes which have embraced Hinduism, and Christians who are 
Hindus by descent, 565,361; Muhammadans, 34,79°; Buddhists and 
Jains, 5515; Parsis, 51; and 'others' and unspecified, 337. The 
most numerous of the aboriginal tribes, Hindu and non- Hindu, 
are the Gonds, 98,384, and Kols, 46,383 ; the remainder consist 
of Bharias, Baigas, etc. Among the higher classes of Hindus, 
Brahmans numbered 60,420; Rajputs, 19,910; and Kayasths, 
5278. The Baniyas or trading caste numbered 11,923. The 
other numerically important castes are the Lodhis, 45»76o; Kurmis, 
34,513 ; Ahirs or Gaulis, 32,911 ; Chamars, 32,905 ; Dhimars, 29,278 ; 
Kachhis, 25,945; Telis, 17,817; Mehras, 14,037; Koeris, 11,558; 
Lobars, 10,484; Nais, 10,832; Kumbhars, 9786; and Gadariyas, 
6559. The Muhammadan population are divided according to sect 



JABALPUR DISTRICT. 33 

into— Sunnis, 33,452; Shias, 418; and 'others,' 920. The Christians 
include— Church of England, 855 ; Roman Catholics, 1094; Presby- 
terians, ?ii\ Protestants not otherwise distinguished, 357 ; etc. Native 
Christians numbered 721. The language commonly spoken is the 
Hindi dialect known as Baghela, a peculiarity of which is the elision 
of nearly all short vowels ; but Urdii is generally understood, and is 
the language of the courts. 

Divisioji into Town and Country. — The only towns in Jabalpur 
District in 1881 were Jabalpur, with a population of 75,705 ; Murwara, 
8612; and SiHORA, 5736. These towns, which are also the only 
municipalities, contain an aggregate urban population of 90,053, 
leaving 597,180, or 87 per cent., as representing the rural population. 
Of the 2310 towns and villages in 1881, 1307 contained less than two 
hundred inhabitants; 737 between two and five hundred; 218 between 
five hundred and a thousand; 32 between one and two thousand; 10 
between two and three thousand ; 3 between three and five thousand ; 
2 between five and ten thousand ; and i upwards of fifty thousand. 

As regards occupation, the male population is classified as follows 
in the Census Report of 1881 : — Class (i) Professional, including 
Government officials and professions, 9022; (2) domestic servants, 
inn and lodging-house keepers, etc., 4850 ; (3) commercial, including 
merchants, traders, carriers, etc., 7244; (4) agricultural and pastoral, 
140,342; (5) industrial, including all manufacturers and artisans, 48,144; 
(6) indefinite and non-productive, comprising general labourers, male 
children, and unspecified, 139,649. 

Agriculture. — Of the total area of 3918 square miles, only 1563 were 
cultivated in 1882; and of the portion lying waste, 11 15 square miles 
were returned as cultivable, and 1240 square miles as uncultivable 
waste. Total area assessed for Government revenue, 3456 square miles. 
Of the cultivated land, 3824 acres are irrigated — entirely by private 
enterprise. Cereals constitute the principal crop, 352,883 acres being 
devoted in 1881-82 to wheat, and 430,352 to inferior food-grains. The 
production of rice has decreased, occupying 124,409 acres in 1881-82, 
as against 155,894 acres in 1876. The area under cotton has also 
fallen off from 28,027 acres in 1872, to 22,919 in 1882. During 
the same period, the area of land devoted to the growth of oil-seeds 
has more than doubled, being returned at 42,215 acres in 1872, 
91,362 acres in 1876, and 101,753 acres in 1881-82. The District 
is rich in garden produce, raising, in addition to the ordinary Indian 
fruits, peaches and pine-apples and strawberries, as well as potatoes 
of an excellent quality. Both the plain country and the highlands 
are well wooded ; and the forest produce is of considerable value, 
consisting of lac and gum, and silk from the cocoons of the tasar 
moth. The timber has suffered greatly from fires caused either by 

VOL. vn. c 



34 JABALPUR DISTRICT. 

accident or by the annual burnings of the hill tribes; since, where 
these conflagrations do not destroy, they effectually scar the bark of 
the young teak tree. The Forest Department now use every means 
to prevent this destruction ; and tracts of forest land in the Sangrdmpur 
valley, and on the west bank of the Mahanadi in Bijeraghogarh, have 
been marked off as State reserves. 

The Census of 1881 showed a total of 6946 proprietors. The tenant 
cultivators numbered 157,121, of whom 24,226 had either absolute or 
occupancy rights, while 36,331 were tenants-at-will. The remaining 
tenants consist mostly of assistants in home cultivation, cultivators on 
sharing tenures, etc. Agricultural labourers numbered 76,991. The 
total adult agriculturists of all classes amounted to 241,847, or 35*19 per 
cent, of the District population, the average area of cultivated and 
cultivable land being 7 acres for each adult agriculturist. Amount of 
Government assessment, including local rates and cesses paid on land, 
;£"6i,i67, or an average of is. i|d. per cultivated acre. Total rental 
paid by cultivators, including cesses, ;^i69,i7i, or an average of 
3s. ifd. per cultivated acre. The rent rates per acre in 1882 for the 
different qualities of land are returned as follows : — Land suited for 
wheat, 4s. 6d. ; for inferior grains, is. 3d. ; for rice, 3s. 6d. ; for cotton, 
3s. ; for oil-seeds, is. 6d. ; the average produce per acre being — wheat, 
542 lbs.; inferior grain, 299 lbs.; rice, 216 lbs.; cotton, 67 lbs. ; and 
oil-seeds, 242 lbs. The ordinary prices of produce in the same year 
were as follows : — Wheat, 5s. 3d. per cwt. ; rice, 7s. per cwt. ; cotton, 
42s. per cwt. ; and linseed, 7s. per cwt. The daily wages for skilled 
labour averaged 9d. ; for unskilled labour, 4d. 

Natural CalamUies. — The famine of 1869, and the disease which 
accompanied and followed it, visited this densely populated District 
with greater severity than any other part of the Central Provinces. On 
comparing the Census of 1872 with that for 1866, the population of 
Jabalpur is found to have decreased by 70,358 ; and this diminution 
must to a great degree be accounted for by the calamities of 1869. 
Large numbers of persons fled the District in search of more favoured 
localities, but the survivors mostly returned on the cessation of the 
distress, and the Census of 1881 showed an increased population of 
158,374 over that of 1872. It may be hoped that the improved 
means of communication in the District will hereafter avert the extremity 
of famine by importation from other tracts. 

Commerce and Manufactures. — The trade of the District centres at 
Jabalpur town, which is one of the most important railway centres in 
India. One of the chief manufactures is iron. The most productive 
mines are at Jauli, Agaria, Saroli, and Partabpur. The total number of 
these mines worked in 1882 was 48. Coal is found at Ramghat, 
Bheraghdt, and near Singapur on the Mahdnadi; but the most 



JABALPUR DISTRICT. 35 

promising seam occurs near Lametaghat. This coal was worked for a 
short time in 1868 by a railway contractor, and about 1000 tons 
extracted. The contractor, however, died, and the seam has been 
abandoned. Further examinations are being made by the Geological 
Survey Department. The limestone of the hills at Bheraghdt has a 
high reputation ; and Murwara supplies a limestone said to be suited 
for lithographic purposes, which fetches a high price in the Calcutta 
market. The other manufactures of the District consist of brass 
utensils, cotton cloth, and leather articles. Tents and carpets also are 
made at Jabalpur, both in the School of Industry and by private persons. 
There were, in 1882, 303 miles of roads in the District, entirely of the 
second class. The best are those to Mirzdpur on the north, and to Seoni 
on the south, the former of which is one long avenue of trees. Fair- 
weather roads lead to Sagar and to Narsinghpur; and the route to 
Mandla has lately been improved. The District enjoys no means of 
communication by w^ater ; but the railroad amply compensates for this 
deficiency. 

Jabalpur tow^n is perhaps the most important railway station in India, 
being the junction of the East Indian and Great Indian Peninsula 
systems. The Jabalpur branch of the East Indian line runs north-east 
to Allahabad. Its total length is 228 miles. This branch was opened 
for traffic on ist June 1867. The main line of the Great Indian 
Peninsula runs south-west to Bombay, following for some distance the 
valley of the Narbada. This Hne was not opened throughout until 
1872. It now forms the regular channel of communication between 
Bombay and Calcutta, and between Bombay and the North- West. The 
railway crosses the rocky bed of the Narbada (Nerbudda) near 
Jhansighat by a viaduct 371 yards long. 

Adjtiinistration. — In 1861, Jabalpur was formed into a separate District 
of the British Government of the Central Provinces. It is administered 
by a Deputy Commissioner with Assistants and tahsilddrs. Total revenue 
in 1876-77, ^£"76,013, of which the land yielded ^57,188. The 
revenue of the District in 1882 had increased to ;£89,246, the land 
yielding ;£"5 7,540. Number of civil and revenue judges (1882), 
13 ; magistrates, 19 ; maximum distance from any village to the nearest 
court, 40 miles; average distance, 18 miles. Number of police, 722, 
being i policeman to every 5*4 square miles and to every 952 in- 
habitants. The daily average number of convicts in jail in 1882 was 
1055, of whom 70 were females. The number of Government or 
aided schools in the District under Government inspection w^as 157, 
attended by 8977 pupils. Besides youths at school, the Census Report 
of 1 88 1 returned 18,117 males and 666 females as able to read and 
write, but not under instruction. The Jabalpur High School has proved 
most successful; and at the training school for mistresses an attempt has 



36 JABALPUR SUB-DIVISION. 

been made to solve the difficult problem of providing a teaching staff 
for girls, by inducing the wives of normal school students to quaUfy. 
The three municipalities contain an aggregate population of 90,053 
persons; the total municipal income in 1881 was ;£"ii,9i2, of which 
;^9879 was derived from taxation; expenditure, ;£"i5,923 ; average 
rate of municipal taxation, 2s. 2 Jd. per head of the population. 

Medical Aspects. — The climate is healthy, and the temperature 
extremely moderate. Near Kundam the thermometer has been 
recorded as low as 26°. In 1882, the readings in the shade at the 
civil station were as follows: — May, highest 111-9 F., low^est 68*9; 
July, highest 92*4, lowest 70" i ; December, highest 82*8, lowest 41 '2. 
As a rule, the hot weather extends only over two months, and, except 
immediately before the rains, is not oppressive. The rains last from 
early in June until the latter part of September. The prevailing winds 
are westerly. The average annual rainfall is returned at 5 2 '13 inches, 
the rainfall in 1882 being as much as 6775 inches, or 15*62 inches 
above the average. February and March rarely pass without the rabi 
crops suffering from hailstorms. The prevailing diseases of the Dis- 
trict are. fevers and dysentery, the former being severest from the 
beginning of the rains to the end of November. Cholera and small- 
pox are occasional visitants, and influenza at times assumes the 
character of an epidemic. During the five years ending 1882, the 
recorded death-rate per thousand of the population averaged 37*87 ; 
in 1882, it was as high as 40*84. During the same year, 7 charitable 
dispensaries afforded medical relief to 47,192 in-door and out-door 
patients. [For further information regarding Jabalpur, see the Settle- 
ment Report of the District, by Major W. Nembhard and A. M. Russell, 
Esq. (1863); the Central Provinces Gazetteer, by Charles Grant, Esq., 
C.S.I. (Nagpur, 1870); the Ce^isus Report of the Central Provinces iox 
t88i; and the Administration aiid Departmental Reports of those 
Provinces from 18S0 to 1883.] 

Jabalpur {Jnhlndpore). — Southern taJisil or Sub-division of Jabalpur 
District, Central Provinces; situated between 22° 51' and 24° 5' n, lat., 
and between 79° 22' and 80° 58' e. long. Area, 1545 square miles ; 
towns and villages, 1072 ; houses, 81,865. Total population (1872) 
267,785 ; (1881) 336,168, namely, males 172,936, and females 
163,232 ; persons per square mile, 217-58. Of the 1072 towns 
and villages, 974 contain less than five hundred inhabitants. Total 
adult agriculturists, 105,229, or 31-3 per cent, of the sub-divisional 
population, the average area of cultivated and cultivable land being 6 
acres per adult agriculturist. Of the total area of the tahsil, 194 square 
miles are held revenue free, 1351 square miles being assessed for 
Government revenue. Of the assessed area, 615 square miles are under 
cultivation, 356 square miles are cultivable, and 380 square miles are 



JABALPUR TOWN. 37 

uncultivable waste. Total amount of Government assessment, includ- 
ing local rates and cesses levied on land, ;!{^3 1,985, or an average of 
IS. 7|d. per cultivated acre ; total rental actually paid by cultivators, 
^89,268, or an average of 4s. 4f d. per cultivated acre. The Sub-division 
contained in 1883, 6 civil courts (including the Court of the Commissioner 
of the Division, Small Cause Court, and Registrar's Court), 12 magis- 
terial courts, and 6 police stations, with 14 outposts; strength of regular 
police, 187 men ; number of village watchmen {c/iaukiddrs), 966. 

Jabalpur {Jubbidpore). — Chief town and administrative head- 
quarters of Jabalpur District, Central Provinces. Lat. 23° 11' n., long. 
79° 59' E. Situated in a rocky basin, at an elevation above sea-level 
of about 1458 feet; 165 miles north-east from Nagpur, and 108 miles 
south-east from Sagar (Saugor). Population (1877) 55,188; (1881) 
75,705, namely, Hindus, 55,146; Muhammadans, 16,916; Kabir- 
panthis, (i2\ Sikhs, 6; Christians, 2391; Buddhists, 9; Jains, 1041 ; 
Parsis, 41 ; aboriginal tribes, 93. Municipal income in 1882-83, 
;£"i4,738, of which p^i 2,386 is derived from taxation, mainly octroi 
duties ; average incidence, 3s. lofd. per head of the population. 

The numerous gorges in the surrounding rocks have been taken 
advantage of to surround the town with a series of lakes, which, 
shaded by fine trees, and bordered by fantastic crags and massy 
boulders, add much beauty to the suburbs. The town itself is modern, 
and laid out in wide and regular streets. The principal approach lies 
near a public garden, and in the centre of the town is a fine tank 
surrounded by groups of temples. A streamlet called the Umti 
separates the civil station and cantonment from the town. Jabalpur 
contains a School of Industry, where Thug and Dacoit approvers and 
their families are employed in one of the largest manufactories of tents 
and carpets in India. The garrison consists of the head-quarters and 
six companies of a European infantry regiment, a regiment of Native 
infantry, and a squadron of Native cavalry. 

The opening of the railway system has immensely developed the 
trade of Jabalpur, which has now become the most important centre 
of commerce in the Central Provinces after Kampti. In 1875-76, the 
total imports into Jabalpur were valued at ;£^5 67,000. In 1 88 1-82, the 
total imports into the District were valued at ^1,051,472, the chief 
items being — European piece-goods, ^118,170; wheat, ^^{^ 167,01 2 ; 
inferior food-grains, ;£"2i,256; metals, ^129,866; sugar, ^55,495; 
salt, ;£"36,769; rice, ^^4036; native piece-goods, ^17,370; oil-seeds, 
^53^637; spices, ^41,211; ghi and oil, ^17,689; lac,^i6,456 ; 
raw cotton, ^12,491. The export trade has increased in an even 
greater ratio; the total exports, which were estimated at a value of 
p^i6o,ooo in value in 1876-77, having risen to ;z£"557)84o in 1881-82, 
the chief items being — wheat, ;^i26,792; piece-goods, ;£5i,8oo; 



38 JABRIA BHIL—JACOBABAD. 

metals, ^£"223, 036; oil-seeds, ;£"32,74i ; lac, ;^i6,266 ; and sugar, 
;£"i4,72o. The great bulk of the traffic is carried on by means of 
the East Indian and Great Indian Peninsula Railways. There is also 
a large road traffic with the neighbouring Districts of Seoni, Damoh, 
and Mandla, which draw most of their supplies from Jabalpur city. 

Jabria Bhil. — Guaranteed Girasia Thakiirat^ or chiefship, under the 
Bhopal Agency of Central India. On the settlement of Malwa, Rajan 
Khan, brother of the notorious Pindari marauder, Chitu, was allowed 
a pension, afterwards commuted for an assignment of lands in Suja- 
walpur for life. The grant consisted of a jdgir of three villages — 
Piplianagar, Kajiiri, and Jabria Bhil — and an istwirdri farm (assessed 
in perpetuity) of Dungria and Jabri at an annual rent of £,^0. At 
the death of Rajan Khan, in consideration of his good conduct during 
the latter part of his life, the grant was perpetuated, and divided among 
his five sons, of whom Raja Bakhsh received Jabria Bhil and Jabri. 
Raja Bakhsh died in 1874, and was succeeded by his son, Jamal 
Bakhsh, the present holder. Jamal Bakhsh pays ^25 a year tribute 
to Sindhia, Raja of Gwalior. 

Jabuah.— State in Malw^, Central India.— 6"^^ Jhabua. 

Jacobabdd. — Tdluk in the Frontier District of Upper Sind, Bombay 
Presidency. Lat. 27° 55' 30" to 28° 25' 45" n., and long. 67° 59' to 
d^'' 36' E. Area, 455 square miles, containing 4 tapds and 51 villages. 
Population (1872) 35,545; (1881) 37,324, namely, 21,891 males and 
15)433 females, dwelling in 6672 houses. Hindus numbered 4186; 
Muhammadans, 30,566; Sikhs, 1908; Jews, 3; Christians, 222; 
Parsis, 9; aboriginal tribes, 430. Revenue (1881-82), ;£"2i, 910, of which 
;^2i,o6i was derived from imperial and ^^849 from local funds. Area 
assessed to land revenue, 53,593 acres in 1882-83; area under actual 
cultivation, 52,857 acres. The tdluk has 5 criminal courts; 2 poHce 
stations {thdnds) ; strength of regular police, 68 men. 

Jacobdbad. — Municipality and chief town of the Frontier District 
of Upper Sind, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 28° 17' n., and long. 68° 
29' E. Population (1872) 10,954; (1881), including cantonments, 
1^5352, of whom 7365 were in the town. Of the total, Muhammadans 
numbered 6386; Hindus, 3317; Christians, 210; Jains, 3; Parsis, 
6; 'others,' 1430. The municipal revenue in 1881-82 was ;^2959; 
rate of taxation, 4s. 3d. per head. Jacobabad was planned and 
laid out, in 1847, by General John Jacob, for many years Com- 
mandant of the Sind Horse, on the site of the village of Khangarh. 
The town is oblong in shape, two miles long, one mile broad, 
and is watered by the Rajwah and Biidwah irrigation canals. 
Jacobabad is now the head-quarters of a regiment of Sind Horse and 
a regiment of Baluch infantry, as well as of the civil administration. 
It contains a small European population, and has the usual public 



JAFARABAD—JAFLANG. 



39 



offices and Institutions of a District head-quarters. In addition to the 
cantonments, civil and judicial courts, dispensary, jail, post and 
telegraph offices, etc., it has also a Residency, the memorial tomb of 
General Jacob, who died here in 1858, and lines for the accommoda- 
tion of trade caravans {kdfilas) from Central Asia. Civil justice is 
administered by the Deputy Commissioner as District Judge, and by 
the Deputy Collector as Subordinate Judge. As regards criminal 
jurisdiction, the District is under the Sessions Court of Shikarpur. 
The Sind-Pishin Railway (from Ruk on the Sind, Punjab, and 
Delhi line to Sibi and Quetta) passes through the town, and carries 
a considerable trade in grain, ghi, and leather. From Ruk, Jacobabad 
is distant by rail 37 miles. Excellent roads connect Jacobibad with 
Shikarpur (24 miles distant), Thul, Kashmor, and other towns. 
English, Anglo-vernacular, and vernacular schools are supported. The 
number of patients treated in the Jacobabad dispensary in 1883 
was— in-door, 284; out-door, 4059. There were within municipal 
limits, 4 schools in 1881-82, with 182 scholars. 

Jafarabdd. — Native State under the Political Agency of Kathiawir, 
Gujarat (Guzerat), Bombay Presidency. Lat. 20° 50' to 20° 59' n., and 
long. 71° 18' to 71° 29' E. ; 170 miles south of Ahmadabad, 150 south- 
west of Baroda, and 165 north-west of Bombay. Estimated area, 42 
square miles; 12 villages. Population (1872) 10,251; (1881) 9405. 
Estimated gross revenue, ;;^32oo in the former, and ^4500 in the 
latter year. Stone is quarried for building purposes. The crops 
are cotton and wheat. Coarse cotton cloth is manufactured. The 
State of Jafarabd,d is subject to the Abyssinian chief of Janjira, a 
territory situated on the coast of the Konkan, 192 miles south-east of 
Jafarabad and 44 miles south of Bombay. In Kathiawar, the Nawdb 
of Janjira ranks as a second-class chief. He maintains a military force 
of 123 men. The State has 5 schools, with 286 pupils. 

Jdfarabdd. — Chief town of the State of Jdfarabad, Kathiawar, 
Bombay Presidency. Lat. 20° 52' n., and long. 71° 25' e. The name 
is a contraction of Muzafardbad. Population (1872) 4903 ; (1881) 
4746. Jafardbad has great natural advantages for coasting trade, being 
situated about a mile from the sea, on the estuary of a little river 
called the Randi, which is the most accessible river on the coast 
of Kathiawar, with no bar and an easy entrance. The commerce of 
the port is only second in importance to that of Diu. Imports in 
1880, ^34,205 ; exports, ^^315319- 

Jafarganj. — Village in Tipperah District, Bengal ; situated on the 
Gumti, and the seat of a considerable river traffic. It is connected with 
Comilla, the District head-quarters, 12 miles distant, by a bridged road. 

Jaflang.— Market village at the south foot of the Khasi Hills, Assam ; 
frequented by Khasi and Synteng traders. 



40 JAGADHRI TAHSIL AND TOWN. 

Jagadhri. — North-eastern tahsil of Ambala (Umballa) District, 
Punjab. Area, 387 square miles. Population (1881) 169,640, namely, 
males 92,387, and females 77,253. Hindus numbered 116,378 ; Sikhs, 
4383 ; Muhammadans, 48,558 ; and ' others,' 321. Of a total assessed 
area of 245,050 acres in the quinquennial return of ' agricultural 
statistics for 1878-79, 151,100 were under cultivation, of which 
13,716 acres were irrigated by Government, and 8669 by private 
individuals. Of the uncultivated area, 55,175 acres were grazing lands ; 
18,009 acres were cultivable but not under tillage; and 20,766 acres 
uncultivable waste. The average area under the principal crops 
for the five years 1877-78 to 1881-82 is thus returned — Wheat, 37,904 
acres; barley, 19,088 acres; Indian corn, 19,216 acres; rice, 12,421 
acres ; y^cfr, 12,169 acres; gram, 10,454 acres; moth^ 3533 acres; 
bdjra^ 2725 acres; cotton, 6067 acres; sugar-cane, 5051 acres; vege- 
tables, 5157 acres; tobacco, 1389 acres; and poppy, 764 acres. 
Revenue, ^11,257. The administrative staff consists of a tahsilddr^ 
7nu?isif, and honorary magistrate. These officers preside over 3 civil and 
2 criminal courts ; number of police circles (thdnds), 3 ; strength of 
regular police, 113 men ; village watchmen {chaukiddrs)^ 339. 

Jagadhri. — Town and municipality in Ambdla (Umballa) District, 
Punjab, and head-quarters of Jagadhri tahsil. Situated in lat. 30° 
10' N., and long. 77° 20' 45" e., a httle west of the river Jumna 
(Jamuna), thirty-seven miles south-east of Ambala city, and three miles 
north of the Sind, Punjab, and Delhi Railway. Population (1872) 
11,676; (1881) 12,300, namely, Hindus, 9242 ; Muhammadans, 2853 ; 
Jains, 134; Sikhs, 60; and 'others,' 11. Number of houses, 2423. 
Prior to the Sikh invasions, Jagadhri was a mere village; but Rai 
Singh of Biiria, the Sikh conqueror, encouraged the commercial and 
manufacturing classes to settle on the spot, so that a considerable trade 
rapidly sprang up, and it is now a town of considerable importance. 
It was destroyed by N^dir Shah during one of his incursions, but 
rebuilt in 1783 by Rai Singh. The town lapsed to the British 
Government, together with the territory whose capital it formed, in 1829. 
Imports of copper and iron from the hills, as also from Calcutta and 
Bombay; and considerable manufactures are carried on in these metals, 
for which the town has obtained some celebrity. Ornamental lamps 
and other forms of brass ware are exceptionally well made. Household 
vessels and tools are exported to the North-Western Provinces and 
throughout the Punjab. Refinery of borax, brought from the hills, and 
exported to Bengal. Manufacture of oxide of lead, for use by gold- 
smiths and in native medicines. Tahsili, police office, rest-house. A 
native banker supplies a dole of half a ser (about i lb.) of flour to 
travellers or paupers. Municipal revenue in 1882-83, ^1523, or 
2s. 5|d. per head of population (12,540) within municipal limits. 



JAGALUR—JAGDISPUR. 41 

Jagallir. — Village in Chitaldriig (Chitaldroog) District, Mysore 
State, and head-quarters of Kankuppa taluk. Lat. 14° 31' n., long. 76° 
24' E. ; 22 miles north-west by road from Chitaldriig town. Population 
(1881) 2510, mostly Lingayats. Houses built of an iron-shot slaty 
stone, and flat-roofed ; large tank. 

Jagan. — Town in the Sukkur Sub-division of Shikdrpur District, Sind, 
Bombay Presidency. Population (1872) 2556, namely, Muhammadans 
(chiefly of the Bhaya tribe), 2167, and Hindus, 389; under 2000 in 
188 1. Twelve miles north-west of Shikarpur. 

Jagannath. — Temple in Puri District, Orissa. — See PuRi. 

Jagatsinghpur. — Village in Cuttack District, Bengal; situated on 
the Alachhgaon Canal, in lat. 20° 15' 50" n., and long. 86° 12' e. 
Population (1869) estimated at 4732 ; not returned separately in the 
Census of 1872 or of 1881. 

Jagdalpur. — Chief town of Bastar State, Central Provinces, 
and residence of the Raja. Lat. 19° 6' n., and long. 82° 4' e. The 
place is a collection of huts, surrounded by a mud wall and deep 
ditch, with one face resting on the Indravati, here a stream about 
a hundred yards wide. Total population (1881) 4294, namely, Hindus, 
3980, and Muhammadans, 314. The Muhammadan resident mer- 
chants occupy the best houses. Travelling merchants, who bring 
ponies, camels, chogds, dates, etc. for sale, reside outside the walls. 
A large tank lies close to the town ; and the country is open, well 
cultivated, and dotted with villages and groves. Jagdalpur is 40 miles 
from the capital of the Jaipur (Jeypore) State, where there is an 
Assistant Agent subordinate to Vizagapatam, a police officer, and a 
strong police force. 

Jagdispur. — Town and municipality in Shahabad District, Bengal. 
Lat. 25° 28' 5" N., and long. 84° 28' i" e. Population (1872) 9400; 
(1881) 12,568, namely, Hindus, 10,092; Muhammadans, 2474; 
'others,' 2. Area of town site, 6518 acres. Municipal revenue 
(1881-82), ^168; rate of taxation, 3d. per head of population. The 
residence and head-quarters of the estate of Kuar Singh, a Rajput chief 
who threw in his lot with the mutineers of 1857. He was the principal 
leader of the attack and siege of the Judge's House at Arrah, in 
which the British residents, supported by a company of loyal Sikh 
troops, sought refuge after the rising of the Sepoys at Dinapur. 

Jagdispur. — Farga?id in jMusafirkhana tahsil, Sultanpur District, 
Oudh. During the Bhar supremacy, this part of the country consisted 
of two pargands^ Sathan and Kishni. On the extirpation of the Bhars 
by the Musalmans, these divisions were amalgamated, and the head- 
quarters fixed at Jagdispur, which gave its name to the pargand. 
Area, 155 square miles, or 99,104 acres, of which 51,650 acres are 
cultivated and 19,125 acres available for cultivation. About one-half 



42 J A GDISPUR-NIHAL GARH—JA OR A ON. 

of the cultivated area is irrigated. Government land revenue, j[,\ 1,054 ; 
average incidence, 2s. 2jd. per acre. Population (1869) 100,103; 
(i88t) 90,138: namely, Hindus, 69,955; Muhammadans, 20,183; 
average density, 581 persons per square mile. Number of villages, 166. 
Trade in grain, cloth, and other country produce, carried on chiefly by 
means of the Rai Bareli and Faizabad (Fyzabad) road, but also by 
the Giimti, which flows along the western boundary. Eleven villages 
with schools ; 2 post-offices. 

Jagdispur - Nihalgarh.— Town in Sultanpur District, Oudh, and 
head-quarters of Jagdispur pargand. Lat. 26° 27' n., long. 81° 40' e. 
Of no importance except as the head-quarters of the pargand. Popu- 
lation (1881) 2016, residing in 395 houses. Small market, police 
station. Government school. 

Jaggayyapet {Jaggiapetta). — Town in Nandigama tdlitk^ Kistna 
District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 16° 52' n., long. 80° 9' e. Popu- 
lation (1871) 9150; (1881) 10,072, of whom 25 per cent, are mer- 
chants and their families. In point of religion the population is 
thus divided — Hindus, 9208; Muhammadans, 851; Christians, 13. 
Area of town site, 9160 acres. Jaggayyapet is a prosperous trading 
and weaving town near the main road between Haidarabad (Hyder- 
abad) and Masulipatam, and close to the frontiers of the Nizam's 
Dominions — a position which until recently laid it open to the 
plundering inroads of RohilM bands. The traders are chiefly 
Marwari settlers from the Haidarabad country. The chief staple is 
opium. Jaggayyapet is the station of a sub-magistrate. The town is 
walled in by a decayed mud embankment. It was formerly called 
Betavolu, until Vasireddi Venkatadri Naidu enclosed it with a wall, 
and called it after the name of his father Jaggayya. Geologically the 
place is of interest as the extreme north-east corner of the great 
Cuddapah-Kurnool rock series, and as the supposed site of a coal- 
field, though the existence of a coal-field is not admitted by the 
Geological Survey. Near the town in 1882 were found the remains 
of a Buddhist stiipa, dating from two hundred years before the 
Christian era. 

Jagir (literally, ' A Grant of Lafided Estate by the Sovereign Power '). 
— The historical name for a tract of country corresponding almost 
precisely with the present District of Chengalpat, Madras Presidency. 
The first important territorial possession of the East India Company in 
Southern India. Granted by the Nawab of Arcot in return for the 
services rendered to him and his father by the Company in 1760, 
and confirmed by a sajiad or deed of grant from the Emperor Shah 
Alam in 1763. 

Jagraon. — Western tahsil of Ludhiana District, Punjab. Lat. 30° 
Z'^ to 30° 59' N., and long. 75° 24' to 75° 44' e. Area, 409 square 



J A GRA ON—JAHANABAD. 43 

miles. Population (1881) 158,767, namely, males 85,621, and females 
73,146. Hindus numbered 55,608; Sikhs, 46,617; Muhammadans, 
55,789; and 'others,' 753. Revenue, ;£24, 185. The administrative 
staff of the tahsil consists of a tahsilddr and mimsif^ who preside over 
I criminal and 2 civil courts. Number of police circles {thdnds), 2 ; 
strength of regular police, 52 men; village watchmen (chaukiddrs)^ 153. 

Jagraon. — Town and municipality in Ludhidna District, Punjab, 
and head-quarters of Jagraon tahsil. Situated in lat. 30° 47' 20" n., 
and long. 75° 30' 45" e., on the Ludhidna and Firozpur (Ferozepore) 
road, 29 miles south-west of Ludhidna city. Population (1868) 15,881; 
(1881) 16,873, namely, Muhammadans, 9102; Hindus, 6093; Sikhs, 
1372; Jains, 302; ' others,' 4. Number of houses, 2548. Jagrdon 
belonged under the Mughals to the Rais of Rdikot, and was made over 
by Ranjit Singh in 1806 to Fateh Singh Ahluwalia. Brisk trade in 
grain and other country produce ; the mercantile community is, how- 
ever, migratory. TahsUt, police station, school-house, sardi^ dispensary. 
Municipal revenue in 1882-83, ;£'9475 or is. 7|d. per head of popula- 
tion within municipal limits. 

Jahalu. — Town in Bijnaur District, North-Western Provinces. — See 
Jhalu. 

Jahanabad. — Sub-division of Gayd District, Bengal. Lat. 24° 59' 15" 
to 25° 19' N,, and long. 84° 30' to 85° 16' e. Area, 607 square miles; 
towns and villages, 1454; houses, 61,157. Population (1872) 358,419; 
( 1 88 1 ) 385, 189, of whom Hindus numbered 348, 1 70, or 90*39 per cent. ; 
Muhammadans, 37,004, or 9*60 per cent; and Christians, 15. Pro- 
portion of males, 49-8 per cent. ; average density of population, 634 per 
square mile; inhabitants per village, 265 ; houses per square mile, 106; 
inmates per house, 6-3. This Sub-division comprises the two police 
circles of Arwal and Jahanabad. It contained (1883) 2 criminal 
courts, 73 regular police, and 361 village watchmen. 

Jahandbdd.— Town in Gayd District, Bengal, and head-quarters of 
Jahanabad Sub-division. Lat. 25° 13' 10" n., long. 85° 2' 10" e.; situated 
on the Murahar or Dardha river, and on the Patna branch road, 31 miles 
due north of Gaya city. Population (188 1) 5286, namely, Hindus, 3841, 
and Muhammadans, 1445. Area of town site, 160 acres. Municipal 
revenue (1881-82), ;^i2o; rate of taxation, i-Jd. per head of municipal 
population (21,022); local police, 15 men. Contains the usual public 
buildings, lock-up, ddk and inspection bungalows, dispensary, and post- 
office. Three brick houses, said to have been built by the Dutch, are 
all that now remain of a once flourishing trade. In 1760, Jahdndbdd 
formed one of the eight minor branches connected with the Central Cloth 
Factory of the East India Company at Patna. Dr. Buchanan-Hamilton 
states that in his time (1807-13) the town contained about 700 houses, 
a cloth factory, and a native agency for the manufacture of saltpetre. 



44 JAHANABAD—JAHANGIRABAD. 

During the last twenty years, since the introduction of Manchester goods, 
the manufacture of cotton cloth has entirely ceased ; but large numbers 
of the Julaha or weaver class still live in the neighbourhood. 

Jahanabad.— Sub-division of Hugh' District, Bengal. Lat. 22° 45' 
30" to 23° 12' N., and long. 87° 28' 45" to 88° 3' 30" e. Area, 438 
square miles; towns and villages, 649; houses, 71,102. Population 
(1872) 400,407; (1881) 352,596, of whom 304,706, or 86-4 per 
cent, were Hindus; and 47,890, or 13-6 per cent., Muhammadans. 
The decrease of 47,811 persons, or 11 '94 i^er cent., in nine years is 
mainly due to the epidemic fever which has been raging throughout 
the Districts of the Bardwan and Presidency Divisions for so many 
years. Proportion of males, 47-4 per cent. ; average density of popu- 
lation, 805 per square mile ; villages per square mile, i -48 ; persons 
per village, 543; houses per square mile, 175; persons per house, 5. 
This Sub-division comprises the three police circles of Jahanabad, 
Goghat, and Khanakiil. In 1883 it contained two civil and two 
criminal courts, a regular police force of 114, and a village police of 
1897 men. 

Jahandbdd. — Town and head-quarters of Jahanabid Sub-division, 
in Hugh District, Bengal; situated on the river Dhalkisor, in lat. 
22° 53' N., long. 87° 49' 50" E. Population (1872) 13,409; (1881) 
10,507, namely, Hindus, 7743, and Muhammadans, 2764. Area of 
town site, 1920 acres. Municipal revenue (1881-82), £^2\^\ rate of 
taxation, 4|d. per head of municipal population. Dispensary. 

Jahanabad (or Kord). — Town in Fatehpur District, North-Western 
Provinces. Lat. 26° 6' 2" n., and long. 80° 24' 18" e. Remarkable 
chiefly for its handsome architectural remains, which include the Bara- 
dari of Rao Lai Bahadur, a large enclosed garden with pleasure houses, 
built towards the close of the last century under the Oudh Wazirs ; the 
Thakurdwara, a fine modern edifice ; the Sorahi or mausoleum, a mile 
west of the town ; and the sardi, a magnificent building with ancient 
walls and gates. 

Jahangirabad. — Town in Anupshahr tahsil, Bulandshahr District, 
North-Western Provinces. Lat. 28° 24' n., long. 78° 8' 45" e. Situated 
15 miles east of Bulandshahr town. Founded by the Badgiijar Raja, 
Ani Rai, who named the town after his patron Jahangir. Population 
(1872) 9408; (1881) 10,319, namely, Hindus, 7722, and Muhammadans, 
2597. Area of town site, 121 acres. Growing trade, local manufactures 
of printed cloths for counterpanes and table-covers, also of native car- 
riages and sacred cars. Mosque, school, sardi, police station, post-ofiice. 
For police and conservancy purposes, a house-tax is levied under the 
provisions of Act xx. of 1856. The land surrounding the town is highly 
cultivated, bearing rich crops of safflower and cereals. Weekly market 
held on Wednesdays. 



JAHANGIRABAD—JAIGARH. 45 

Jahangirabad. — Town in Sltapur District, Oudh ; situated on the 
high-road to Bahraich, 29 miles east of Sitapur town, and 8 miles east 
of Biswan. A weaving town, containing many Muhammadan Julahas, 
or weavers of coarse country cloth. Population (1882) 2517. Good 
bi-weekly market, Government school. 

Jahazgarh (or Georgegarh). — Fortress in Rohtak District, Punjab, 
near the town of Jhajhar; built, according to Thornton, by the military 
adventurer George Thomas, at the close of the last century, and called 
after his own name, but corrupted by the natives into the existing 
form. In 1801, the Marathas invested the fort, and Thomas with 
difficulty made his escape to Hansi, where he met with his final defeat. 
He then abandoned all his conquests, and retired into British territory 
as a private person, to die at Berhampur in Lower Bengal. A cattle 
fair is held here in March and October. 

Jahazpur. — Town in the Native State of Udaipur (Oodeypore), 
Rajputana. Jahazpur contains about 2000 houses, and lies below a fort 
built on an isolated hill. The hill is oblong in shape, and guards the 
eastern entrance of an important pass leading through the hills from 
Biindi into Mewar. The pargand^ of which the town is the capital, 
contains 100 villages, the population of which is composed entirely of 
the tribe of Minas. The fort is large and strong, and consists of two 
ramparts, one within the other, a broad space between. Each rampart 
has a deep ditch and numerous bastions. 

Jahnavi. — River in Garhwal State, North-Western Provinces, and 
one of the tributaries of the Bhagirathi ; rises in lat. 30° 55' n., 
long. 79° 14' E., and, holding first a northerly and then a westerly 
course, joins the main stream near the temple of Bhairoghati. Total 
length, 30 miles. 

Jaigarh {Fort Victory). — Seaport and village in Ratnagiri Sub- 
division, Ratnagiri District, Bombay Presidency, situated in lat. 17° 
17' N., and long. 73° 15' e., at the southern entrance to the Shastri or 
Sangameswar river, 99 miles south of Bombay city. It contained 2442 
inhabitants in 1872, but the population is not returned separately in 
the Census Report of 1881. The harbour forms a bay two miles long 
and five miles broad, with deep water, and well protected against winds. 
Annual value of trade for the five years ending 1881-82. ^54,347, 
namely, exports, ;^'2 1,365, chiefly firewood and molasses ; and imports, 
;£"33,982, principally rice and salt. Jaigarh is now little more than a 
fishing village, with a custom-house and post-office. The fort, which 
occupies an area of four acres, is situated close to the shore on gently 
rising ground about 200 feet above the sea. The walls and bastions 
are, except in a few places, still in good repair, but are gradually 
decaying. The fort was originally built by the Bijapur kings, and was 
afterwards the retreat of a noted Hindu pirate, the Naik of Sangameswar, 



4^ . JAINAGAR—JAINTIA, 

who was sufficiently powerful to resist two combined expeditions 
of the Portuguese and Bijapur forces sent against him in 1583 and 
1585. In 1 713, Jaigarh passed into the hands of the famous Maratha 
sea-robber, Angria; and in June 18 18, on the downfall of the Peshwa, 
was surrendered to the British. 

Jainagar. — Town, municipality, and police station in the District 
of the Twenty-four Parganis, Bengal. Lat. 22° 10' 55" n., long. 88° 
27'4o"e. Population (1872) 7772 ; (1881) 7685, namely, Hindus, 7 112, 
and Muhammadans, 573. Area of town site, 1200 acres. Municipal 
revenue (1881-82), £,^^"1 ; rate of taxation, is. 2d. per head of popu- 
lation; police force, 14 men. Jainagar is situated near the old bed of 
the Ganges, which has been dammed across, and forms at this place 
a continuous line of tanks, by one of which are some Hindu temples. 
Large bazar ; English school under Hindu management. Communica- 
tion between Jainagar and Calcutta is maintained by a small water- 
course leading into Tolly's Canal ; and the construction of a feeder 
road, from Jainagar to the Mugra station on the Diamond Harbour 
Railway, would bring the place within easy reach of Calcutta. 

Jainagar. — Town in Darbhangah District, Bengal ; situated in lat. 
26° 34' 45" N., and long. 86° ii' e., a few miles south of the Nepal 
frontier, and a little east of the river Kamla. Population (1872) 2663 ') 
(1881) 3141. Contains the ruins of a mud fort attributed to Ala-ud-din, 
Governor of Bengal, and said to have been constructed about 1573, to 
resist the incursions of the hill tribes. Near the fort is an encampment 
made by the English during the Nepalese war. The Jainagar indigo 
and sugar factory is now closed. The town is in easy communication 
with all parts of the District. 

Jaintia. — A tract of country in the Province of Assam ; once a 
State under an independent Rdja, but now divided into the Jaintia 
Hills (which form part of the District of the Khasi and Jaintia Hills) 
and the Jaintia plains (incorporated with Sylhet District). This article 
refers only to the latter tract, which contains an area of 463 square 
miles. It consists of the strip of low-lying country of varying width 
that extends between the Jaintia Hills on the north, and the main 
stream of the Bardk or Surma river on the south. 

Rajendra Singh, the last Raja of Jaintia, was a petty chief whose 
family had risen to importance amid the ruins of the Cachari 
kingdom at the close of the last century. Like the neighbouring 
rulers, they had adopted some form of Hinduism as their dominion 
became organized ; and in this case, the worship of the bloodthirsty 
Kali was selected as the national religion. Several shrines of this 
goddess in Jaintia are still frequented places of pilgrimage. The 
abomination of human sacrifice, which was of common occurrence, 
led to repeated remonstrance from the British Government. In 



JAINTIA HILLS. 47 

1832, three British subjects were carried off from Nowgong District 
and immolated at a popular shrine of Kali. Rija Rajendra Singh was 
himself charged with complicity in this outrage, and in 1835 the 
Governor-General issued a proclamation declaring his deposition and 
the annexation of the plain portion of his territory to Sylhet. The 
Raja voluntarily resigned the hill tract, and of this we also took 
possession. He was granted a pension of ^600 a year, and resided 
peaceably in Sylhet until his death in 1861. 

Between 1838 and 1840, the Jaintia plains were surveyed by Lieu- 
tenant (now General) Thuillier, who found the total area to be 459 square 
miles, of which about one-third was under cultivation. The former 
native Government is described as a pure despotism. The revenue was 
received by the Rajd partly in produce and partly in labour, and all 
tenures were voidable at his will. No class of persons had any 
recognised rights in the land, but the more substantial cultivators 
called themselves mirdsddrs, the Sylhet equivalent for zaininddr. Over 
the cultivators were officials known as chaudhans, who acted as revenue 
collectors or tahsilddrs. 

After British annexation, a temporary land settlement was con- 
cluded with the cultivators for a term of five years, renewed from 
time to time up to April 1856, from which year a resetdement 
for a term of twenty years was effected. In 1853, when Mr. Mills 
drew up his valuable report upon Sylhet, the total land revenue 
paid was ;^4455 ; the number of estates was 20,677, showing an 
average assessment of only 3s. 4d. on each estate ; nearly half the 
estates paid less than 2s. each a year, and only 3 paid more than £2^. 
By 1874-75, the current demand of land revenue had risen to £()l62, 
and the number of estates to 21,194. A resettlement of the 18 
pargands or fiscal divisions into which this tract is divided was com- 
menced in 1875 ; but early in the following year, the work was for a 
time suspended, owing to the attitude of organized hostility assumed 
by the inhabitants of certain villages. They refused in a body to point 
out their lands to the amins or native surveyors, under some misappre- 
hension of the mode in which the measurements were to be made. 
Argument and persuasion by the European settlement officer having 
been employed in vain, it was found necessary to have recourse to 
Act XX. of 1848, and punish the ringleaders by the imposition of daily 
fines. The settlement operations have since been renewed without 
encountering any active opposition. Further information concerning 
the Jaintia plains is included in the article on Sylhet District. 

Jaintia Hills {Jowai).—Yox administrative purposes, the Jaintia Hills 
are regarded as a Sub-division of the Khdsi and Jaintia Hills District, in 
the Province of Assam. This tract covers an area of about 2000 square 
miles ; bounded north by the District of Nowgong (Naugaon), east by 



48 JAINJIA HILLS. 

Cachar, south by Sylhet, and west by the Khasi Hills. The admini- 
strative head-quarters and the residence of the Assistant Commissioner 
are at the station of Jowai. 

As compared with the semi-independent States in the Khdsi Hills, 
the Sub-division of the Jaintia Hills is treated as British territory, having 
been voluntarily surrendered by the native Raja in 1835 (^'^'^^ Jaintia). 
When we first assumed charge, no change was made in the indigenous 
revenue system, which consisted simply in the payment of a he-goat 
once a year by each village. The Raja had derived the greater part of 
his income from his possessions in the plains. In i860, however, a 
house-tax was imposed, the highest limit of which was 2s. per house. 
This measure of direct taxation was very obnoxious to the hillmen. 
They formed irregular gatherings, at which they refused to pay except 
through their own hereditary Raja, who was then living under sur- 
veillance in Sylhet District. An outbreak took place in the beginning 
of the year, which was promptly suppressed, and a general disarmament 
was ordered. Towards the close of i860, fresh taxation was intro- 
duced, in the form of judicial stamps and imposts upon fisheries and 
timber-cutting. At the same time, the elaborate schedules of the new 
income-tax were thrust into the hands of persons, few of whom could 
read the language in which they were framed. All these fiscal novelties 
were introduced without the safeguard that would have resulted from 
the presence of European officers. Towards the close of 186 1, rumours 
of disturbance were in the air. In January 1862, the hillmen rose in 
open rebellion, the immediate cause being the interference of a native 
official with a religious ceremony. The police station at Jowai was 
burned to the ground, the garrison of Sepoys was closely besieged, and 
all show of British authority was swept away throughout the hills. The 
hillmen fought bravely for independence, their weapons being only bows 
and arrows and the dreaded pdnji or bamboo spike, stuck thickly in 
the paths leading to their fastnesses. At first they were successful in 
cutting off several detachments of Sepoys and police. Finally it was 
found necessary to move into the hills a regular army, including an 
elephant battery and two regiments of Sikhs. After operations both 
tedious and harassing, the last of the ringleaders was captured, and 
order was finally restored in March 1863. 

The Jaintia Hills are divided into 23 fiscal divisions, of which 2 are 
inhabited by Kuki immigrants, and 2 by Mikirs. The remainder of 
the inhabitants are Santengs, more commonly called Syntengs, a race 
akin to the Khasis, but reported to have distinct ethnical characteristics 
and a language of their own. Colonel Yule, however, who travelled 
through the country, questions whether any real linguistic or ethnical 
difference exists between the Khasis and the Jaintias. The Census 
of 1881 returned the population at 56,448, of whom 47,108 were 



JAINTIAPUR. 45 

Santengs still professing aboriginal faiths, and 43 Khasi's. Hindus 
numbered 2485; Muhammadans, 176; Christians, 648; unspecified 
and 'others,' 6236. 

The chief crop is rice, grown in the hilly tracts on the nomadic 
system of agriculture known as///;//, but under permanent irrigated cul- 
tivation in the valleys. In the valleys, ploughs and oxen are used ; but 
amid the hills, the only agricultural implements are the ddo or hill knife 
and hoe. The most valuable natural product is limestone, which is 
found on the river banks at seven different places ; but only two 
quarries are worked, the out-turn being despatched by water into Bengal 
from the Sylhet markets. Coal has been found of excellent quality at 
five spots, most of which are inaccessible to water traffic. The most 
extensive of the coal beds is at La-ka-dong, within 6 miles of a navi- 
gable tributary of the Surma. This was worked from 1850 to 1856, 
and about 5000 tons of coal were extracted for exportation. The 
Santengs, like the Khasis, are keen traders, and retain in their own 
hands the valuable commerce of their native hills. They frequent the 
markets at the foot of the hills on the Sylhet side. In 1876-77, the 
total value of the exports from the Sub-division was estimated at 
;£ 1 9,000, including 16,000 maimds of raw cotton and 5490 maunds of 
lac. The total imports were valued at ^34,560, chiefly ;£"8ooo of 
cotton and woollen cloth, ;^25oo of silk cloth, 15,000 ?nau?ids of rice, 
6230 loads of dried fish, 5290 maujids of salt, and 609 maiuids of 
tobacco. No later statistics are available. 

In 1880- 8 T, the total revenue of the Jaintia Hills Sub-division 
amounted to ^^2366, of which ^1279 was derived from the house-tax. 
This tax is annually assessed by the head-man of each village, whose 
title is either dolloi or sarddr, upon every house at the rate of 2s. or 4s. 
These dollois or sarddrs (village heads) are elected by the different 
village communities, subject to the confirmation of the Deputy Com- 
missioner. They hold office for three years, but are liable to be dis- 
missed for misconduct at any time. Their duties are to collect the 
revenue, for which they are paid by a commission ; and they also 
exercise minor criminal and police jurisdiction, with power to inflict a 
fine not exceeding ^^5, liable, however, to appeal to the Deputy Com- 
missioner. 

Jaintiapur {ox Jamtia Bdzdr). — Village and t/idnd or police station 
in the north-east of Sylhet District, Assam ; situated in lat. 25° 8' 7" n., 
and long. 92° 10' 2" e., on the old bed of the Hari river, at the foot of 
the Jaintia Hills. The weekly market is frequented by Khasi and 
Santeng traders, who bring dow^n the produce of their hills to exchange 
for cotton goods, salt, and rice. The village was formerly the capital 
of the Raja of Jaintia, whose territory was annexed in 1835 in conse- 
quence of his being found guilty of complicity in the rite of human 

VOL. VII. D 



50 JAIPUR NATIVE STATE. 

sacrifice. ( Vide Jaintia, atite^ p. 47.) The place contains some 
interesting architectural remains, marking the transition from the primi- 
tive paganism originally practised by the hill tribes to the elaborate 
Hinduism imported from Bengal — the former symbolized by great 
monoliths of unhewn stone, now surrounded by Hindu temples and 
edifices with elaborate carvings and images. 

Jaipur {Jeypore). — Native State in Rajputdna, Central India, under 
the political superintendence of the Eastern States Agency of Rajputana. 
Jaipur State is bounded on the north by Bikaner (Bickaneer), Loharu 
Jhajjar,and Patiala; on the east by Alwar (Ulwur), Bhartpur (Bhurtpore), 
and Karauli ; on the south by Gwalior, Bundi (Boondee), Tonk, and 
Mewar or Udaipur (Oodeypore) ; on the west by Kishangarh, Jodhpur, 
and Bikaner. The State lies between lat. 25° 43' and 28° 27' n., and 
between long. 74° 50' and 77° 15' e. Area, 14,465 square miles. 
Population (1881) 2,534,357. 

Physical Aspects. — The general character of the country is tolerably 
level and open, although its surface is crossed and diversified by 
groups and ranges of hills and by isolated peaks. The centre of the 
State is an elevated table-land of triangular form, from 1400 to 1600 
feet above sea-level, with a gradual slope to the south-east towards the 
Banas river. The eastern limit of the State is formed by ranges running 
north and south along the Alwar border, and at places cut up by 
numerous deep ravines ; towards the north and west it is bounded by 
a broken chain of hills, an offshoot from the Aravalli mountains, which 
occupy the apex of the triangle. The hills here rise to a considerable 
height, with a bold outline; and on the north-west form a natural 
boundary between the sandy, desert tract of Shaikhawati (or the country 
of the Shaikhawat clan in the extreme north of the State) and Bikaner. 
To the south-east hes the more fertile soil of Jaipur proper. On the 
east, beyond the range of hills near the capital, there is a rapid fall of 
some 3C0 or 400 feet in the first 2 or 3 miles, after which a gradual 
slope follows the valley of the Banganga river to the Bhartpur border, 
and the country becomes more open as it spreads out towards the 
alluvial flats of the Jumna (Jamund). In the extreme south of the 
State, the hills reappear ; and in the neighbourhood of Rajmahal, 
where the Banas river has forced itself through the range, the scenery 
is remarkable for its beauty. Westward from Jaipur city, the country 
rises gradually towards the Kishangarh border, consisting in great 
measure of broad, open, treeless plains, dotted here and there with 
hills. 

The general drainage of Jaipur from the central table-land is to the 
east and south-east, though a few streams follow the slope to the north- 
west. The Banas, the largest river in the State, receives most of the 
rainfall by means of several tributaries, of which only one or two are 



JAIPUR NATIVE STATE. -i 

perennial. The Banganga reaches the Jumna direct, flowing eastward 
through Jaipur territory. In the hot season, the surface bed of the 
Banganga is often dry. Of their tributaries in Jaipur, the Aman-i-shah, 
which supplies Jaipur city with water, has a slight flow throughout the 
year ; but other tributaries, such as the Gambhir, the Bdndi, the Morel, 
the Dhiind, the Mashi, and the Khari, although their beds are fre- 
quently of great wddth, are flooded only in the rains, and are dry during 
the hot months. The Sabi is the chief river that flows in a northerly 
direction. It rises about 24 miles due north of Jaipur city, and, 
after skirting Alwar, passes out into the Nabha State. It is subject to 
heavy floods. The Kantli flows north-north-west for a distance of 
about 60 miles through Shaikhawati, and loses itself in the sand as it 
enters Bikam'r territory, at Sankhu. 

South of the dividing range between Shaikhawati and Jaipur, water 
is found beneath the surface at a depth varying from a few feet (in low- 
lying land) to 30 or 40 feet ; but in Shaikhdwati, north of that range, water 
lies at a great depth, averaging from 80 to 100 feet. It is brackish in 
many parts where the soil is much impregnated with salt ; but sweet 
water may be found throughout the east and south of the State. The 
only natural lake of any importance is the Sambhar salt lake. 

The soil of the State in the immediate neighbourhood of Jaipur citv, 
and to the west and north, is generally sandy. There are tracts of 
barren sand, frequently underlaid by clay and stiff soil mixed with 
kaiikar (calcareous conglomerate). Eastward along the Banganga 
valley, and southward from Jaipur city, the soil is mostly rich and 
fertile. The Shaikhawati tract on the north consists almost entirely of 
shifting sands. 

There are no extensive forests in Jaipur ; but the hills near the city 
and in the south of the State are more or less covered with the dhao 
(Anogeissus latifolius) and other jungle trees, of little value except for 
fuel. The babul (Acacia arabica) and the 7iim (Azadirachta indica) 
may be considered as the commonest trees of the country. 

No regular geological survey has yet been undertaken of the hill 
ranges in Jaipur State ; but they are said to consist in the north chiefly 
of granite, and in the south and east of sandstones, mixed sometimes 
with white or black marble, and occasionally with mica. As they do 
not contain any fossil remains, they are believed to be primitive rocks 
belonging to the transitionary series. The hills for the most part rise 
abruptly from the plain ; many are peaked, but others are flat at the top, 
with edges steeply scarped for some way down the side, thus forming 
natural fortifications. In the north of the State, where the Khetri 
Hills meet the Alwar range, a great geological disturbance has taken 
place, the granite of the Aravalli mountains bursting through and up- 
heaving the sandstones of the Alwar chain, thus exposing alum shales 



52 JAIPUR NATIVE STATE. 

and rich veins of copper ore, cobalt, and nickel. Copper mines are 
worked to a small extent in the neighbourhood of Khetri ; but owing 
to the want of proper appliances for keeping down the water, the 
richest veins, which are lowest, cannot be reached. Cobalt is found 
in thin layers between the veins of copper ore. It is much used at 
Jaipur city for enamelling, and is exported for that purpose to Delhi 
and Haidarabad (Hyderabad) in the Deccan. In addition to these 
minerals, salt is largely manufactured at, and exported from, the Sam- 
BHAR Lake, situated in lat. 26° 58' n., and long. 75° 5' e., on the 
borders of Jodhpur. The average yearly out-turn of salt is 150,000 
tons. Good building stone, chiefly sandstone and marble, is plentiful. 
At Bankri, 36 miles east of Jaipur city, and near the Dosa (Dausa) 
railway station, huge slabs (some of them 30 feet long) of a foHated 
mica schist, valuable for roofing, are quarried. Coarse grey marble 
comes from Raiwala, near the Alwar border, and a black marble, used 
for inlaying work, is obtained at Kot Putli. Abundance of excellent 
limestone is procured from Rahaon, 7 miles north of the Kanauta 
railway station, and kankar is found almost everywhere, generally 
in flat beds instead of nodules. Carbuncles are procured in large 
quantities in the south of the State, near Rajmahal; and it is said 
that turquoises were formerly found in the same neighbourhood, 
near Todah. 

AgricuUure. — In Shaikhawati, there is generally but one crop in the 
year — raised during the rainy season, and ripening in October-November. 
The crop consists chiefly of hdjra (Holcus spicatus), mug (Phaseolus 
mungo), and moth (Phaseolus aconitifolius). In the north of Jaipur 
proper, the crop of the rainy season is the same as in Shaikhawati, but 
a little wheat and barley are grown in the cold season. Towards the 
south and east, as the soil becomes richer and firmer, jodr (Holcus 
sorghum) and Indian corn, with cotton and til (Sesamum), are grown 
in the rainy season ; while in the cold season, wheat, barley, gram, 
sugar-cane, opium, tobacco, ddl^ and linseed are extensively raised. 
In the eastern districts, rice of a coarse quality is cultivated to a limited 
extent. Few traces of former irrigation works exist; but since 1868, 
the State has spent at least ;£"5ooo annually in improving the irrigation 
of the country. In 1882-83, the State expended on irrigation works a 
sum of ^^23,862 ; the income from irrigation works was ^14,025 in 
the same year. 

Populatmi. — The first regular Census in the State of Jaipur was 
taken in February 1881, and disclosed a population of 2,534,357 per- 
sons, of whom 1,369,134 were returned as males, and 1,165,223 as 
females. The late Maharaja doubted the success of a Census in 
Rajputana, as a previous similar undertaking by him in his own terri- 
tory had failed, owing to strong Rajput conservatism and disinclina- 



JAIPUR NATIVE STATE. 53 

tion to make public declaration of family surroundings. The total 
population of 2,534,357 was returned as dwelling in 34 towns and 
5930 villages, and occupying 507,697 houses. Number of persons 
per square mile, 175 ; number of houses per square mile, 35 ; number 
of persons per house, 5. Of the total population, 2,315,219 were 
returned as Hindus; '•170,907 as Muhammadans ; 552 as Christians ; 
47,672 as Jains; and 7 as Parsis. Of the Hindus, 351,004 were 
Brahmans and 124,345 Rajputs; other Hindu castes numbered 
1,887,542, including 242,474 Mahajans or Baniyas ; 6641 Kachis ; 
171,632 Giijars; 227,321 Jats; 54,665 Ahirs ; 221,565 Minas; 209,094 
Chamars; and 706,478 of other inferior castes. Of the Muham- 
madans, the sect of Shaikhs numbered 50,690; Sayyids, 7798; 
Mughals, 27,216; Pathans, 3780; 'others,' 81,423. Of the Hindu 
independent sects in the State who have a peculiar doctrine and 
worship, the most notable is the Dadu Panthi, which had its origin, and 
still has its head-quarters, at Barahana, near the Sambhar lake. At the 
lake is a shrine and monastery built near the spot where the founder 
of the faith, Dadu, vanished. Dadu lived in the time of Akbar (i6th 
century). His devotees shave the head and preach mysticism and 
morality as interpreted by his successors, the priests, at the shrine ; 
they traverse the land on regular circuit to spread the word, and com- 
mune with disciples. The militant devotees belonging to this sect are 
known as Ndgas^ and are enrolled in regiments to serve the State ; 
they are vowed to celibacy and to arms, and constitute a sort of military 
order in the sect. — See Naraina. 

Commerce^ etc. — The most noticeable feature in the commerce of the 
State is the large banking and exchange business carried on at the 
capital and in the large towns. The chief manufactures of Jaipur are 
— marble sculpture ; enamel work on gold, for which the artisans are 
justly famous ; woollen cloth, and other fabrics. An extensive dyeing 
trade is carried on at Sanganer, near the capital. The principal trade 
route of the State is the Rajputana-Malwa State Railway, by which 
the Sambhar salt is carried to the North-Western Provinces and the 
Punjab, and by which also nearly the whole of the imports, such 
as English piece-goods, hardware, spices, grain, and Rohilkhand sugar 
are conveyed. The price of salt in 1882 was two shillings (i rupee) 
for 30 pounds. There is but little traffic northward from the capital, 
as the trade of Shaikhawati travels principally either norlh-east to 
the great mart of Bhawani in Hissar or south-west to Ajmir. The 
principal export from Shaikhawati is wool ; the imports are sugar, 
piece-goods, hardware, spices, and tobacco. Owing to the sandy 
nature of the soil, camels are used almost entirely in the Shaikha- 
wati trade. The Mandawar and Karauli road is an important trade 
route for all the cotton, grain, oil-seeds, raw sugar, tobacco, etc. grown 



54 JAIPUR NATIVE STATE. 

in the south and east of the State, where Hindaun is the principal 
mart. Copper and brass vessels are largely manufactured at the town 
of Siwai Madhupur, and exported southwards via Indargarh into the 
Haraoti States. Other important roads passing through the State are 
the Agra and Ajmir road, and the Jaipur and Tonk road. The Agra- 
Ajmir road is much less used since the opening of the railway to Ajmir. 
A black marble is obtained at Baislana ; cobalt and sulphate of copper 
in the hills near Khetri. The amount of customs revenue to the State 
was ^73,109 in 1882. 

There is a mint at the capital which turns out gold mohurs, rupees, 
and copper coins. The Jaipur coinage is distinguished by the jhar or 
sprig borne on the obverse. The gold mohur weighs 167-8 grains, the 
metal being absolutely pure. The rupee, which is alloyed with 4J 
grains troy of copper, weighs 175 grains. 

Co??imunications. — The Rajputana- Malwa State Railway on the 
metre (narrow) gauge runs from Agra to Jaipur city, and thence to 
Ajmir, with a branch line to Nasirabad (Nusseerabad). The line runs 
for 150 miles through Jaipur territory. It eventually joins the broad 
gauge line from Bombay at Ahmadabad in Gujarat. A line from 
Delhi, also on the metre gauge, and a part of the Rajputana-Malwa 
State Railway system, joins at Bandikui station in Jaipur territory. 
Short branches connect the towns on the Sambhar Salt Lake with 
this system. The whole number of railway stations in the State was 22 
in 1 88 1. The Agra and Ajmir road is 127 miles long, metalled almost 
throughout. Its general direction is from east to west across the 
Jaipur territory, and the railway carries most of its ancient traffic. The 
Jaipur and Tonk road, 68 miles, is now completed. This road passes 
the towns of Sanganer, Chatsii, and Newai. A third main road leads 
from Mandawar on the Rajputana-Malwa State Railway to the borders 
of the Karauli territory, 49 miles distant. A heliograph communi- 
cation with Fatehgarh in Shaikhawati is maintained by certain opium 
merchants to record the rise or fall in the price of the drug from day to 
day. There are 22 post-offices in the State. 

Education has made greater progress in Jaipur than in any other 
of the Rajputana States. The Maharaja's college at Jaipur city had a 
daily attendance, in 1882, of 628 students, who receive a good educa- 
tion in English, Sanskrit, and the vernacular languages, and are pre- 
pared for the matriculation and Arts Examination of the Calcutta 
University. There is also a school for the sons of Thakurs and high 
officials, with a daily attendance, in 1882, of 15, a Sanskrit college 
(daily attendance 100), and an industrial school (daily attendance 97). 
There are 12 girls' schools in the State; pupils (1882), 547. In the 
country districts there are 45 elementary schools, wholly supported 
and periodically inspected by the State, with 1065 pupils in 18S2 ; 



JAIPUR NATIVE STATE. 55 

and 410 indigenous schools, with an aggregate attendance of 8220 
pupils. Instruction is given both in Hindi and Urdu. The average 
annual cost of educating a young chief at the * Nobles' School' is 
^30. In 1882, ^615 was spent on female education. 

Besides the capital, Jaipur, the principal towns in the State are : — 
Chaken, population (1881) 6219; Amer, 5036; Ldlsot, 8743; Dosa, 
7384; Bdswa, 5791; Gijgarh, 5171 ; Hindaun, 12,761; Toda Bhim, 
7142; Bamniawas, 6125; Gangapur, 5880; Mddhopur, 14,075; Sikar, 
175739; Malpura, 8212; Simbhar, 10,794; Sri-AIadhopur, 6847; 
Fatehpur, 14,731; Ramgarh, 11,313; Nawalgarh, 10,032; Jhunjhnu, 
9538; Udaipur, 9161 ; Lachhmangarh, 8713; Bissau, 6546; Chirawa, 
5489; Singhana, 5259; Surajgarh, 5250; Patan, 11,886; Kot-Putli, 
8084; Khandela, 7949; Jilo (Patan), 5941; Bairath, 5649; Mandra, 
5567 ; Toda, 5546; and Khetri, 5283, all of which see separately. 

History. — The Maharaja of Jaipur is the chief of the Kachhwaha tribe 
of Rajputs, and claims descent from Rama, King of Ajodhya (Oudh). 
Between the mythical Rama and Dhola Rao, who founded the Jaipur 
State in a.d. 967, thirty-four generations are said to have intervened. 
At the time of the foundation of Jaipur, Rajputana was divided 
among petty Rajput and Mina chiefs, owing allegiance to the great 
Tuar dynasty of Rajputs, who then reigned at Delhi. Dhola Rdo and 
his Kachhwahas are said to have absorbed or driven out the petty 
chiefs, and to have founded a substantial dominion, known as Amber, 
Jaipur, or Dhiindar. Half a century later, the Kachhwaha chief, 
Hamaji, wrested Amber from the Minas, and Amber remained the 
capital until 1728, when the second Jai Singh abandoned it for Jaipur. 
The ninth chief in succession from Hamaji was Udikaran, the grand- 
father of Shaikh, who conquered for himself the District now held by 
the Shaikhawati sept of the Kachhwaha clan. 

On the irruption of the Mughals into Hindustan, Jaipur State at 
once succumbed to their supremacy, and the Jaipur house furnished 
some of their most distinguished military leaders. At this period, 
Baharma, one of the twelve sons of Prithwi Raja, was ruler in 
Jaipur, and to him among Rdjputs is attached the discredit of 
having been the first prince of the dynasty who paid homage 
to the Muhammadan power. Baharma's son, Bhagwan Das, became 
still more nearly allied to the Mughals ; for he is noted as one of 
the first instances of a prince who ' sullied Rajput purity by matri- 
monial alliance with the Islamite,' by giving his daughter in marriage 
to Prince Salim, who afterwards mounted the throne of Delhi as 
Jahangir. The adopted son of Bhagwan Das, Man Singh, was 
one of the most conspicuous of the imperial generals. Man Singh 
fought in Orissa, Bengal, and Assam ; and at a critical period, under 
great difficulties, he maintained his authority as Governor of Kabul. 



56 JAIPUR JSATIVE STATE, 

He was rewarded with the governments of Bengal, Behar, and the 
Deccan. The next chief of note is Jai Singh, the nephew of Man 
Singh, commonly known by his imperial title of Mirzi Raja. His 
name appears in all the wars of Aurangzeb in the Deccan. It was Jai 
Singh wlio contrived to capture Sivaji, the celebrated founder of the 
Maratha power. Eventually, it is said, Aurangzeb, becoming jealous of 
Jai Singh, caused his death by poison. 

Passing over three chiefs, we come to Jai Singh ii., commonly known 
as Siwai Jai Singh. Siwai is a title given by the Mughal Emperor, 
and adopted by his descendants to this day. The word means one- 
and-a-quarter, and is supposed to measure the superiority of the bearer 
to all his contemporaries, whom the unit signifies. Jai Singh ii., who 
ascended the throne in 1699, was chiefly remarkable for his scientific 
knowledge and skill. He caused many mathematical works to be 
translated into Sanskrit. He constructed observatories at Jaipur, 
Delhi, Benares, Muttra, and Ujjain, by which he was able to correct 
the astronomical tables of De La Hire, and to leave, as a monu- 
ment of his skill, lists of stars collated by himself, known as the 
'Tij Muhammad Shdhi,' or Tables of Muhammad Shah, the then 
Emperor of Delhi, in whose favour Jai Singh stood high. Removing 
his capital from the hills about Amber, where it had hitherto been 
placed, he laid out and built the present Jaipur (Jeypore) in 1728. 
The ancient capital Amber, and the modern capital Jaipur, are about 
five miles distant from each other. 

At a later period, the Rajas of Jaipur united with Udaipur (Mewar) 
and Jodhpur (Marwar) to resist the Muhammadan power. To regain 
the honour of intermarriage with Udaipur, which his family had lost 
by giving a princess to the Mughal Emperor, the Raja of Jaipur now 
consented that the issue of an Udaipur princess should succeed in 
preference to an elder son by other wives. This attempt to set aside 
the right of primogeniture brought great disasters both on Jaipur and 
Jodhpur. About this time the Jats of Bhartpur (Bhurtpore), after 
several successful encounters with the Jaipur chief, annexed a portion 
of this State. The defection of the chief of Alwar, about the year 
1790, further reduced the limits of the territory. 

By the end of the century, Jaipur had fallen into great con- 
fusion, being distracted by internal broils, and impoverished by the 
exactions of the Marathas, who had also entered the State. In 1803, 
political relations were first entered into with the British Government, 
the object being to form a league against the Marathas; but the 
alliance was dissolved by Lord Cornwallis. Meanwhile, the disputes 
between the Rajas of Jaipur and Jodhpur for the hand of the daughter 
of the Udaipur chief had brought both States to the verge of ruin, and 
Amir Khan, with his Pindari mercenaries and marauders, w^as exhausting 



JAIPUR NATIVE STATE. 57 

the country. In 181 7, negotiations began again; and in 18 18, a treaty 
was signed, by which the protection of the British Government was 
extended to Jaipur, and an annual tribute fixed. 

Two successive minorities which followed the death of Jagat Singh in 
1 81 8, gave opportunities for strife about the succession, and for much 
misgovernment. In 1835, on the succession of the late ^lahardja, 
Siwai Ram Singh, then two years old, as the result of a court 
intrigue, a serious disturbance in the city took place, in which 
Colonel Alves, the agent of the Governor-General in Rajputana, 
was wounded, and his assistant, Mr, Martin Blake, murdered. 
After this, the British Government took measures to insist upon 
order, to reform the administration as well as to support its 
effective action ; and the State has gradually become well governed 
and prosperous. When the ^lutiny broke out in 1857, the Maha- 
raja at once placed the whole of his available military power at 
the disposal of the PoUtical Agent, and in every way assisted 
the British Government. He was rewarded with the grant of 
the pargand of Kot Kasim. He also received a sanad granting the 
privilege of adoption. For his praiseworthy behaviour and liberality 
during the famine in Rajputana in 1868, he received an addition of 2 
guns to his salute for hfe ; and in 1877, this was again raised, making 
his personal salute 21 guns. For his general services and loyalty, he 
was created a Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of 
India, and nominated Counsellor of the Empress. Siwai Ram Singh 
died on the i8th September 1880, leaving no direct heir, and was 
succeeded by Kaim Singh (the younger brother of the Thakur of 
Isarda, and a descendant of the second son of Maharaja Jagat Singh), 
whom the chief had adopted on his death-bed. Kaim Smgh, who on 
accession assumed the name of Siwai Madho Singh, was born in 
1 86 1. In consideration of his youth, the administration of the State 
was conducted for two years by a council under the joint-presidency of 
the Maharaja and the Resident. On attaining his majority in 
September 1882, the chief, Kaim Singh, was invested with full governing 
powers. 

The right of succession, in the event of failure of direct heirs, 
is supposed to be vested in the Rajawat family or the descendants of 
the stock of Prithwi Raja, one of the former rulers. Prithwi Raja had 
twelve sons, to whom he gave estates known as the twelve Kotris. The 
number of Kotris, however, is now more than twelve, others having 
been obtained by descendants of early rulers, while some of the Kotris 
created by Prithwi Raja are extinct. About 70 lakhs of rupees 
(^700,000) from the revenues of the State are alienated in jdgirs and 
religious grants, but the available receipts are about ^500,000 per 
annum, which is nearly balanced by the expenditure. In 1S82-83, the 



58 JAIPUR NATIVE STATE. 

revenue was ;^495,876 ; and the expenditure, ;^488,599, including 
tribute of ^^40,000 to the British Government. 

The military force of the State consists of 65 guns (mostly of small 
calibre), 716 artillerymen, 3578 cavalry (including jdgirddr feudal 
horse), and 9599 infantry (5000 of which belong to special bodies). 
The number of forts is 29, with an aggregate of 216 guns of all 
calibres. Both the troops and the ordnance are of indifferent value, 
but sufficient for maintaining the tranquillity of the country. 

Administraiion. — The Maharaja, in common with nearly all the 
chiefs of Rajputana, exercises supreme civil and criminal authority 
within his territories, and has the power of life and death in respect of 
his own subjects. The administration is carried on by a council 
composed of eight members, presided over by the Maharaja, assisted 
by a secretary who acts as an ex officio member. Four departments — 
judicial, revenue, military, and external — are under the charge of three 
members of council, one of whom is a noble of Jaipur, another a native 
of Rajputana, and the third an official from another part of India. The 
principal feudatories of the State are Khetri, Sikar, Uniara, Patan, 
Baswa, Nawalgarh, Mandawar, and Surajgarh, with the thdkurs of the 
twelve Kotris mentioned above. In 1884, all transit duties, excepting 
the duty on opium and intoxicating drugs, were abolished by the 
Maharaja, 

Climate. — The climate is dry and healthy, and malarious fevers 
are of rare occurrence. In the cold season, the temperature is very 
agreeable ; but in Shaikhawati it is often unpleasantly cold, and hoar- 
frost frequently remains in the shade till long after sunrise. During 
the hot season, the winds from the west blow with great force in 
Shaikhawati and the northern portions of Jaipur ; but the sand soon 
parts with its heat, so that the nights are generally pleasant, and the 
mornings cool. Towards the south and east, the hot winds are less 
strong ; but owing to the soil not being sandy, the nights and mornings 
are not so cool. The average annual temperature of Jaipur city, taken 
from a record of five years, is 81-27° F. ; the maximum temperature 
of 1875 ^^'^s 106°, and the minimum 38°. In 1881, the maximum 
was 114°, and the minimum 36-8°. May and June are generally 
the hottest months; January and February the coldest. There is 
usually a fair rainfall throughout the State, except in Shaikhawati. 
Jaipur proper is seldom afflicted with the periodical famines which visit 
the neighbouring territories, for, being on the verge of the south-east 
and south-west monsoons, it receives rain from both. Cholera at times 
makes its appearance, but medical science is generally at hand to check 
its spread. In 1881, the attendance at the dispensaries scattered 
through the State, exclusive of the attendance (8833 out-patients, 568 
in-patients) at the Mayo Hospital in Jaipur city, was 55,785 out- 



JAIPUR CITY. 59 

patients and 639 in-patients. In the following year (1882), the total 
patients treated had increased to 72,269 in number. The number of 
dispensaries was 22 in 1882. Sanitation is obtaining steadily increasing 
recognition from the State Darbar. Vaccination is freely resorted to. In 
1 88 1, 19,088 persons were inoculated, and 30,996 in 1882-83. "^he 
medical institutions of the State are under the control of the Residency 
Surgeon. The rainfall at the capital during the fifteen years ending 
1 88 1 amounted to a yearly average of 24 inches; the maximum being 
42*5 inches in 1870, the minimum 12*6 inches in 1868. In 1881, the 
rainfall was 2 2 "81 inches. 

Jaipur {Jeypore). — Capital of the Native State of Jaipur (Jeypore), 
Rajputana, Central India. Jaipur is situated in lat. 26° 55' n., and 
lo"g- 75° 52' E., on the Rajputana-Malwa State Railway and the Agra 
and Ajmi'r trunk road; 149 miles north-east of Ajmir. Population 
(1881) 142,578. 

Jaipur is the largest town and the chief commercial centre of 
Rajputana. It is in many respects the finest of modern Hindu cities, 
and is said to be the only city in India built on a regular plan. 
The city takes its name Jainagar or Jaipur from the famous Maharaja 
Siwai Jai Singh 11. It was founded by Jai Singh 11. in 1728, and 
stands in a small plain, conjectured to be the bed of a dried-up lake. 
Jaipur is surrounded on all sides, except the south, by rugged hills, 
the summits of which are now, at all important points, crowned with 
forts. At the end of the ridge, overhanging the city on the north-west, 
is the chief defensive work, the Nahargarh, or ' Tiger Fort,' the rock 
face of which is so scarped as to be inaccessible on the south or city 
side ; while on the north, the ridge slopes towards Amber, the ancient 
capital of the State. A masonry crenelated wall, averaging in height 
20 feet, and in thickness 9 feet, encloses the whole city. In t1ie wall 
are 7 gateways, furnished with screen walls, all built of the same 
pattern, with 2 kiosks above and machicoulis over the entrance. At 
intervals are bastions and towers pierced for cannon, while the parapet 
is loopholed for musketry. The city is remarkable for the regularity 
and width of its streets. Some of the mosques, temples, and private 
residences have architectural pretensions. But in many cases the 
beautiful marble or carved red sandstone of true Hindu architecture 
has given place to imitations in stucco ; and the lofty crenelated walls 
which line the streets often form a sham facade to mean one-storied 
tenements. The town has an air of unreality, and an appearance of 
being rapidly made to order; but Amber, the ancient deserted city 
overhanging the mountain lake, five miles to the north-east, is as 
interesting from its genuine architecture as from its picturesque 
situation and eventful history. Its solid and patient work forms a 
striking contrast to the plaster-of-Paris ornamentation of the modern 



\ 

v 



60 JAIPUR CITY. 

Jaipur. Most of the buildings are of a pink colour. From east to west, 
Jaipur is a little over 2 miles in length, and in breadth about \\ mile. 
It is laid out in rectangular blocks, and divided by cross streets into six 
equal portions, which are in turn intersected at regular intervals by 
narrower paths, the sub-division proceeding until at last the thorough- 
fares become mere lanes. The main streets, paved, drained, and lighted 
by gas manufactured outside the city walls, are in feet in width, the 
secondary ones 55 feet, and the smaller 27 J feet. The houses of the 
nobility and the citizens are in the suburbs. The Maharaja's palace 
with its pleasure-grounds occupies the centre of the town, covering 
about one-seventh of the town area. 

Jaipur is a wealthy city. There are as many as 7 banking firms, 
whose aggregate business amounts to about 2^ crores of rupees 
(^£"2, 500,000), and who possess a capital of upwards of ;£6, 000,000 
sterling. In addition to these firms, there are several minor houses 
whose collective business may be estimated at half a crore (^500,000) 
a year. Exchange and banking constitute the greater portion of the 
trade of the place. The city is well provided with hospitals, dis- 
pensaries, almshouses, and schools. There is a School of Arts (with 
97 pupils) and an Industrial and Economic Museum, started in 1880. 
The Mayo Hospital, which is situated in the Ram Newas Gardens, 
forms one of the principal architectural features of the city ; while the 
Ram Newas Gardens themselves, 70 acres in extent, are among the 
finest and best laid out in India. The gardens are kept up at a yearly 
cost of ;£3ooo. An Exhibition, which was well attended, was held in 
Jaipur in 1882. The Jaipur College has been noticed in the account 
of the State. The mint and the jail are situated in the city. The 
imperial post-office, the telegraph office, and the Residency for the 
political officer accredited to the Jaipur court, are outside the 
city walls, where there are also a staging bungalow and a hotel. A 
menagerie containing a number of tigers is maintained by the Maha- 
raja. A large lake called the Manta tank is stocked with crocodiles. 
Good drinking water is brought into the city from the Aman-i-Shah 
river, about 4 miles distant. The water is raised by steam pumps 104 
feet into service reservoirs, which command the city, and through which 
it is delivered in iron pipes under 50 feet pressure. 

A regular Census of the city of Jaipur was taken in 1870, by which 
its population was ascertained to number 137,847 persons; the Census 
of 1881 returned a population of 142,578, among whom Hindus 
numbered 100,850; Muhammadans, 32,951; 'others,' unspecified, 
8777. One of the most interesting antiquities of the State is the Hindu 
observatory {/antra) at the capital. The observatory was erected early 
in the last century by Maharaja Siwai Jai Singh 11., the celebrated 
astronomer and mathematician, and is the largest of five he constructed 



JAIPUR TOWN— JAIPUR ZAMINDARL 6i 

in different cities of the Mughal Empire. The ancient observatory at 
Jaipur contains dials, azimuth circles, altitude pillars, etc. of huge size, 
and for the most part built of masonry covered with lime, upon which 
the graduations were carefully marked. The instruments have suffered 
much from age and exposure, and have not been used within the present 
generation. A meteorological observatory is in working order. The 
average rainfall for fifteen years ending 1881, was 24 inches. Highest 
maximum temperature in the same year, 117° F.; lowest minimum, 
36-8\ 

On the summit of a range of hills, a mile and a half east of 
Jaipur, is a sacred shrine called the Gulta, with a temple dedicated to 
Surya or the Sun-god. Below the platform, a spring issues, which 
pours over the rock by a fall of about 70 feet into the valley below. 
The water of this spring is considered sacred by the Brahmans. 
The ancient city of Amber is perched among the hills between 
four and five miles to the north-east of Jaipur. The ruins of Amber 
preserve traces of former splendour, but their solitude and desolation 
are complete. 

Jaipur. — Town in Lakhimpur District, Assam ; situated in lat. 27° 
15' N., and long. 95° 26' e., on the left bank of the Dihing river, on the 
frontier of the Naga Hills. In the neighbourhood are extensive coal- 
fields, with an estimated marketable out-turn of 10 million tons. The 
river is navigable up to this point by steamers during the rains, and 
50 miles higher by boats. The exports are tea, caoutchouc, beeswax, 
and ivory, valued at ^1600 ; the imports are rice, salt, tobacco, oil, 
iron, and cloth, valued at ;^2ooo. A small guard of Frontier Police 
is stationed here, occupying the old military cantonment. 

Jaipur {Jay a pur am). — Zaniinddri or tributary estate in Vizagapatam 
District, Madras Presidency; lying between 17° 30' and 20° n. lat, and 
81° 20' and 84° 4' E. long. Bounded on the north by Kalahandi in 
the Central Provinces ; on the east by the plain of Vizagapatam ; on 
the south by Rekapalli and Golconda ; on the west by Bastar. Area, 
9337 square miles. Population (1872) 452,454; (1881) 611,695 ; houses, 
T 34,111; annual tribute to Government, ^1600. The estate com- 
prises the following tdliiks : — Korapat (population, 157,171; houses, 
33,824); Naorangpur (population, 93,502 ; houses, 20,666) ; Malkangiri 
(population, 22,558; houses, 5425); Jaipur (Kotipad) (population, 
116,117; houses, 24,017); Gunapur (population, 153,822; houses, 
34,380); and Rayagada (population, 68,525 ; houses, 15,799). 

Jaipur zaminddri may be divided into two parts. The larger part, 
directly under the Raja and within the jurisdiction of the Assistant 
Agent, Hes on the so-called Jaipur plateau ; the other part, consisting 
of the tdliiks of Gunapur and Rayagada, is administered by the 
Senior Assistant Collector, whose head-quarters are at Parvatipur. ' To 



62 JAIPUR ZAMINDARL 

the east and north-east of Giinapur Hes the Saura Hill country, con- 
sisting of two table-lands, about 200 square miles in extent. North of 
Giinapur, the estate runs up in a wedge-like form to a distance of 70 
miles, between Kalahandi of the Central Provinces on the west, and 
Chinna Kimedi on the east, reaching very nearly to 20° n. lat. In 
the centre of this tract stands out the remarkable group of hills named 
Nimgiris, which rise to a height of 5000 feet, separated by valleys of 
not more than i2co feet from the ranges on either hand. The drainage 
from the Nimgiris and the neighbouring country flows directly south- 
east to the sea, forming at Kalingapatam the river Vamsadhara, so 
called from the bamboos {vanisd) growing on its banks, and the 
Nagavali at Chicacole. Exclusive of large estates held by semi-inde- 
pendent Kandhs, the upper portion of Jaipur za??iinddri is occupied by 
three powerful chiefs, one at Godairi, one at Bissemkatak, and the 
third at Singapur, feudatories of the State ' (Carmichael). The popu- 
lation subject to these chiefs (chiefly Kandhs and Sauras) numbers 
137,966, the largest villages being Giinapur, Rdydgada, Singapur, 
Bissemkatak. The western portion of the country consists of the 
taluks of Jaipur, Naorangpur, and Malkangiri ; while the taluk of 
Korapat lies in the east. The principal towns are Jaipur (1046 
houses and 4321 inhabitants), Kotipad (605 houses, 3096 inhabitants), 
Naorangpur (554 houses, 2843 inhabitants). 

The religion of the country is Hindu. Ethnically, the inhabitants 
include Aryans, Kolarians, and Dravidians. The Aryans are com- 
paratively recent colonists, and comprise the ruling and fighting men 
and the priests. The cultivators, called prajas (literally ' subjects '), 
number more than two-thirds of the entire population ; Aryans repre- 
sent one-seventeenth ; Pariahs, one-sixth. The mountaineers retain 
far greater independence than the rdyats of the Jaipur and Malkan- 
giri plateaux. In the uplands, patriarchal authority is still unassail- 
able ; in the lower-lying tracts it is only preserved in parts where the 
struggle is still carried on between cultivation and jungle. 

Every variety of land tenure is found throughout Jaipur. One 
variety is that in which the ownership of the soil still rests with the 
people, in contradistinction to the landlord tenure generally held by 
the zaminddrs. Only of late years has the annual gift in token of 
homage been commuted to a payment in kind or money. In such 
cases, the landowner is nearly always the head of a village ; and 
though it may be doubted whether he has any right to dispose of the 
soil for his private interest, he has for ages been in the habit of selling 
or mortgaging parts of the landed property of the village without 
reference to the Raja or his managers. From this patriarchal authority 
may be traced a regular gradation in the tenures, as tliey pass by degrees 
to the paramount authority of the Raja. 



JAIPUR ZAMINDARL 63 

The religious ceremonies and social customs of the various tribes 
differ but little from one another. The process of fusion of the habits 
of later immigrants with aboriginal customs is, however, very apparent. 
In those parts of the country which are in a prosperous condition, 
ideas and manners imported from the coast Districts are gradually 
overcoming and absorbing all aboriginal conceptions ; but, on the other 
hand, in jungle-covered and backward lands, the colonists are always 
corrupted by the superstitions of the indigenous races. Thus in 
Kotipad and Singapur, highly cultivated and flourishing tracts, the 
new-comers have taught the earlier races to burn their dead instead 
of burying them ; and the practice of early marriage is spreading 
among the richer rdyats — a custom altogether foreign to aboriginal 
notions. As an instance of the way in which religious rites are 
borrowed from the aborigines, the Meriah sacrifice may be quoted. 
This is believed to be strictly a Kandh rite ; it was adopted by the 
colonists, for there is evidence that it was practised by the former Rajas 
of this and the neighbouring hill States ; and in 1845 the appoint- 
ment of a Special Agent for the suppression of human sacrifice became 
necessary. This Agency was abolished in 186 1. A familiar example 
of this aboriginal influence is the increased belief in witchcraft, charac- 
teristic of forests and lonely tracts. 

The following is Mr. Carmichael's account of the zaminddn tenure : 
— ' At the period of the cession of the Northern Circars, we found the 
country divided into haveli and zaminddri. The haveli lands con- 
sisted of the old demesne or household lands of the Sovereign and 
tracts near to towns resumed by the Aluhammadans, and appropriated 
for the support of their numerous garrisons and establishments. 
These lands the local Faujdirs and Nawabs always retained under 
their immediate management, parcelling out the rest of the country 
into zaminddris. . . . But the Muhammadan rulers were impatient of 
details, and a mode was invented of transacting the business of revenue 
more in the gross. Its revenue agents, writes Mill, were rendered 
stationary in the Districts where they collected, and became responsible 
to Government for the revenue, receiving payment by a percentage or 
share of what they collected. Under native Governments, everything 
which was enjoyed, whether office or possession, had a tendency to 
become hereditary. There was a convenience in preserving in each 
District the same grand agent of revenue, and after him his son or 
successor, because each was better acquainted with the people and 
the resources of the District than, generally speaking, any other man 
could be. In this manner the situation of these agents became 
in fact hereditary ; and before the period of the English acquisitions, 
the Persian appellative of zaminddr had been generally appropriated to 
them.' 



64 JAIPUR TOWN. 

The Jaipur zaminddri and the family of its Raja are of old 
standing, and the origin of both is involved in a mist of tradition. 
The country was formerly held by a Sila Vansa ruler, who reigned at 
Nandapur, when the ancestors of the present house were retainers of 
the Gajapati rulers of Cuttack (Katak). * About the 15th century, 
Vinayak Deo, the founder, a Rajput of the Lunar line (Chandra 
vansa), is said to have married a daughter of the Gajapati ruler, who 
bestowed this principality upon him, on the extinction of the old line 
of the Nandapur chiefs. To secure his pretensions with the wild 
races of the highlands, the new feudatory took for his second wife the 
last surviving princess of the ancient stock of Sila Vansa rulers. 
Whatever the origin of the Sila Vansa dynasty, it is certain that an 
ancestor of the Jaipur family was in possession, not only of the country 
comprised in the limits of the Jaipur zatninddri as it now stands, but 
of all the present hill zaminddris which lie at the base of the ghdts, 
when the founder of the Vizianagaram Raj came to Chicacole in the 
train of the Golconda Faujdar, Sher Muhammad Khan, about the 
year 1652. The tribute payable by Jaipur to the Golconda com- 
mander was ;^24oo ' (Carmichael). 

Previous to the acquisition of the Northern Circars by the East India 
Company, Jaipur was subordinated to Vizianagaram ; and this relation 
was upheld by the British till 1794, when the Raja's loyalty after the 
battle of Padmanabhan was rewarded by a perpetual sanad. In 1803, 
his peshkash or tribute was fixed at ^£"1600. In addition to this, 
Jaipur pays ^300 annually to Bastar for the Kolipad country. In 
1848, the affairs of the estate fell into great confusion, owing to the 
insubordination of some members of the Raja's family. The disturb- 
ance went so far that the lower tdluks were attached by Government. 
The troubles lasted two years, and broke out again in 1855. In 
i860, for the first time, the British interfered in the administration 
of justice in the zaminddri ; and since the accession of the present 
Raja, the Assistant Agent has resided within Jaipur, and is aided by 
6 sub-magistrates and a strong police force. There were two unim- 
portant outbreaks of Sauras in 1865-66. Mr. Carmichael's Manual of 
Vizagapatam contains a full and interesting account of the zaminddA. 

Jaipur {Jayapuram, ' The city of victory '). — Town in Jaipur 
zaminddri, Vizagapatam District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 18° 55' n., 
and lono-. 82° 38' e. ; containing 1046 houses and (1881) 4321 in- 
habitants. Situated (at an elevation of 2000 feet above sea-level) 7 
miles north of the northern wall of the plateau of the Vizagapatam 
Hills. Jaipur has neither trade nor manufacture, and is only of im- 
portance as the residence of the Raja. The Assistant Agent and 
Superintendent have moved to Korapat on account of the unhealthi- 
ness of Jaipur. There is still a sub-magislrate. The town consists of 



JAIS—JAISALMER, 65 

a long straggling street lined with mud huts. The palace of the Raja 
and a large number of pagodas are the only buildings of note. 

Jais {Jais Rokha, or Rokha Jais). — Farga?id in Salon tahsil, Rai 
Bareli District, Oudh. Bounded on the north by Mohanganj par- 
gand ; on the east by Amethi pargand ; on the south by Parshadepur 
and Kteh2i pargands^ the Sai river forming the boundary ; and on the 
west by Rai Bareli pargand. A level and generally very fertile tract, 
but with extensive saline plains {tisar) in the east and north, with low- 
lying lands, subject to annual inundation. Around Jais town the 
soil is of exceptional richness, the poppy plant being extensively culti- 
vated. Area, 154 J square miles, or 98,882 acres, of which 84,443 
acres are cultivated and 13,531 available for cultivation. About 
three-fourths of the cultivated area is irrigated. Government land 
revenue, ;£9967, at an average rate of 2s. 4|d. per arable acre. Of 
the no villages comprising t\\Q pargand, 54 are held under tdhikddri, 
22 under zaminddri^ and 54 under pattiddri tenure. Kanhpurias 
own 76, and Musalmans 19 villages. Population (1872) 84,443; 
(1881) 86,084, namely, males 41,996, and females 44,088. Five lines 
of road intersect the pargand^ and a ferry is maintained across the Sai 
at Parshd-depur. Exports — grain ; imports — principally cotton and salt 
from Cawnpur. 

Jais. — Town in Salon iahsil, and head-quarters of Jais pargand, Rai 
Bareli District, Oudh ; situated on the Sultanpur and Rai Bareli road, 
4 miles west of Nasirabad, and 16 south-west of Salon. Lat. 26° 15' 
55" N., long. 81° 35' 55*^ E. Formerly called Udayanagar ; and cap- 
tured by the Muhammadans during the invasion of Sayyid Salar Masaiid, 
who gave the place its present name. Picturesquely situated on rising 
ground, among groves of mango trees. Population (1872) 11,317; 
(1881) 11,044, namely, Hindus, 5749 ; Muhammadans, 5281 ; 'others,' 
14. Area, 1581 acres. The town does not contain a single Hindu 
shrine. The Jains, however, have a temple dedicated to Parasnath. 
Two large mosques, and a handsome iiJidinbdra, dating from 200 years 
ago. The roof, walls, and pillars of the latter are profusely ornamented 
with illuminated texts from the Kuran. Garhd cloth and muslin, 
manufactured by Muhammadan weavers, form the sole export. Salt- 
petre is also manufactured, but not to any considerable extent. Three 
considerable bi-weekly markets ; Government Anglo-vernacular school. 

Jaisalmer {Jeysulmere). — Native State in Rajputana, under the 
political superintendence of the Western Rajputana States Agency of 
Central India. The State lies between lat. 26° 5' and 28° 23' n., and 
between long. 62° 29' and 77° 15' e. Its greatest length from east to / 
west is 172 miles, and greatest breadth from north to south, 136 miles. / 
It is in shape an irregular oval, the longest axis being 215 miles, lyinjg 
north-east and south-west. The area of the State is 16,447 square miles; 

VOL. VII. E / 



66 JAISALMER. 

and the population (1881) 108,143. It is bounded on the north by 
Bahawalpur; on the east by Bikaner (Bickaneer) and Jodhpur; on the 
south by Jodhpur and Sind ; on the west by Khairpur and Sind. 

Physical Aspects. — Jaisalmer is almost entirely a sandy waste, forming 
part of what is called ' the Great Indian Desert.' In the neighbour- 
hood of Jaisalmer city, within a circuit of about 40 miles, the soil is 
very stony, and sandstone rocks, flat-topped and destitute of vegetation, 
occur ; but with this exception, the aspect of the country is that of an 
interminable sea of sandhills, of all shapes and sizes, some rising to a 
height of 150 feet. The sandhills in the western portion of the State 
are covered with ///^^ (Calligonum) bushes ; in the eastern, with tufts 
of long grass. Nothing can well bear a more desolate appearance. 
The villages are far apart, and consist, as a rule, of a few circular huts 
or wigwams collected round a well of brackish water. Shifting sands 
are common, locally termed draens. Towards Tarnot and the west 
of Jaisalmer, there is an attempt at cultivation. In the east, near the 
large villages of Noh, Bikampur, and Birsilpur, fields have been formed 
in the valleys between the sandhills, where, when the season is favour- 
able, the inhabitants grow jodr and hdjra. Water is scarce, and 
generally brackish. The average depth of the wells is about 250 feet. 
A well recently measured by an officer of the Great Trigonometrical 
Survey, at Choria, 32 miles south-east of the capital, was 490 feet 
deep. Rain-water is used for drinking purposes as much as possible ; 
but owing to a precarious rainfall, the supply stored up in the village 
ponds often fails. There are no perennial streams in Jaisalmer, and 
only one small river, called the Kakni. The Kakni rises near the 
villages of Kotri, Gohira, and Latabana, and after flowing 28 miles, 
spreads over a large surface of flat ground, forming a lake called the 
Bhuj Jhil. When there is an exceptionally large rainfall, the Kakni 
deviates from its usual course near the village of Kaldhana, and, 
passing Lodhoroa, empties itself on a Rann, or flat salt marsh, 15 or 16 
miles beyond Bhuj, and there dries up. The river Lathi-ka-nadi 
formerly entered Jaisalmer from Jodhpur State. Its bed has contained 
no water since 1825. 

Climate. — The climate of Jaisalmer is dry and healthy. Epidemics 
are rare. Fever, spleen, skin disorders, guinea-worm, and small-pox are 
common diseases. The temperature is highest in May and June, when 
hot winds prevail with violence. As soon as rain falls, the weather 
becomes cool and pleasant. The coldest period is from the middle of 
December to the middle of February. The climate is liable to 
extremes of cold and heat, especially in the northern part of the State. 
No observations on the rainfall or temperature have been registered, 
b.ut the rainfall is sometimes very slight; in 1875, for instance, there 

jre only two rainy days. The country is, however, under the influence of 



JAISALMER. 67 

the south-west monsoon, and usually has a fair rainfall in June, July, 
and August. 

History. — The majority of the inhabitants of Jaisalmer State are 
Yadu Bhati Rajputs, and claim a very ancient lineage. They take 
their name from an ancestor named Bhati, who was renowned as a 
warrior when the tribe were settled in the Punjab. Shortly after the 
settlement in the Punjab, the clan was driven southwards by the King 
of Ghazni across the Sudej (Satlej), and found a refuge in the Indian 
Desert, which has been henceforth their home. It is probable that, 
like the Rahtor Rajputs, the clan is descended from one of the Indo- 
Scythic tribes, who penetrated into Hindustan at a very remote period. 
The Bhatis, subsequent to their entry into the desert tract, engaged in 
constant struggles with the neighbouring tribes, whom they overcame. 
They established themselves successively at Tarnot, Deorawal, and 
Jaisalmer. Deorawal was founded by Deoraj, who is esteemed the 
real founder of the present ruling family. Deordj was the first to take 
the title of Rawal. He is said to have been born in 836. In 1156, 
Jaisal, the sixth in succession from Deoraj, founded the fort and city 
of Jaisalmer, and made it his capital. Jaisal was succeeded by several 
warlike princes, who w^ere constantly engaged in raids and battles. 
But the taste for freebooting proved disastrous. On two occasions, 
namely in 1294, and shortly afterwards, the Bhatis so enraged the 
Emperor Ala-ud-din, that the imperial army captured and sacked the 
fort and city of Jaisalmer, which for some time remained deserted. 
The reign of Rawal Sabal Singh marks an epoch in Bhati history, for 
this prince, by acknowledging the supremacy of Shah Jahan, was the 
first of his line to hold his dominions as a fief of the Delhi Empire. 

Jaisalmer had now arrived at the height of its power ; the territory 
extended north to the Sutlej, comprised the whole of Bahawalpur west- 
ward to the Indus, and to the east and south included many Districts 
subsequently annexed by the Rahtors, and incorporated in Jodhpur 
and Bikaner. But from this time till the accession of Rawal Mulraj 
in 1762, the fortunes of the State rapidly declined, and most of the 
outlying Provinces were wrested from Jaisalmer. Owing, however, 
to its isolated situation, the State escaped the ravages of the Marathas. 
Rawal Mulraj was the first chief of Jaisalmer with whom the British 
Government entered into political relations. In 1S18, a treaty was 
concluded with Mulraj, by which the succession was guaranteed to 
his posterity; the chief was to be protected from serious invasions 
and dangers to his State, provided he was not the originator of the 
quarrel ; and he was to act in subordinate co-operation with the 
British Government. No tribute was demanded. Since the death 
of Mulraj in 1820, there have been no stirring events in Jaisalmer. 
Mulraj was succeeded by his grandson Gaj Singh, who died in 1846. 



68 JAISALMER. 

Gaj Singh's widow adopted Ran jit Singh, nephew of Gaj Singh. 
On the death of Ranjit Singh in 1864, his younger brother, the present 
chief, Maharawal Bairi Sal, who was born in 1848, came to the 
throne. 

The ruler of Jaisalmer is styled Maharawal, and holds his position 
as head of the Bhatis. The constitution of the State may be described 
as a tribal suzerainty in process of conversion to the feudal stage. The 
Bhatis are divided into numerous clans, which do not all spring from 
one brotherhood, as is the case with the Rahtors. Many of the 
tribal chiefs, although acknowledging the Maharawal as their suzerain, 
are to a great extent independent, and hold their estates revenue 
free. In some cases, the land is equally divided amongst all the 
sons; in others, the eldest son succeeds, and the younger brothers 
receive small portions as their inheritance. The Bhatis retain their 
Hindu usages, though with some degree of laxity, derived from 
their intercourse with Muhammadans on the northern and western 
frontiers. The Districts are governed by hakims (magistrates), who 
have, however, but little real power on the estates of the Thakurs or 
Rdjput chiefs. 

Agriculture. — Throughout Jaisalmer State, only rain crops, such as 
bdjra,Jodr, moth^ til, etc., are grown; spring crops of wheat, barley, 
etc. are rare. The system of cultivation is rude. When the rainy 
season commences, the sandhills are ploughed by camels, and the seed 
is planted deep in the ground. After the seed has sprouted, a few 
showers, at long intervals, bring it to maturity. As the light-built 
desert camels move quickly, each householder is able to put a large 
extent of ground under crop. Owing to scanty rainfall, irrigation 
is almost unknown. The land revenue is paid in kind. Wherever 
wheat or gram is grown, the State takes from the cultivators from a 
fourth to a sixth of the produce ; and of the rain crops, from a seventh 
to an eleventh. There are three different modes of collecting the 
State share of the out-turn. In the first mode, the crop is valued 
when standing ; in the second, when cut, but before threshing ; in 
the third, after it has been threshed out. In addition to the portion 
payable to the State, the cultivator has to settle the demands of the 
officials who look after the crops, and also of the grain storekeeper and 
the Maharawal's water supi>lier. These demands generally average 
half as much again as the State demand. Jdgij'ddrs take from their 
tenants of the cultivating class 4s. rent for as much land as can be 
cultivated with one pair of bullocks ; other tenants are permitted to 
till as much ground as they like rent free, on condition of military 
service. There are 461 villages in Jaisalmer, of which 229 are fiscal, 
71 are held hy jdgirddrs, 32 as charitable grants, 11 under title-deed, 
109 in bMwi (under this tenure the holder has to perform paid service 



JAISALMER, 69 

for the State when called upon), and 9 for services to the State. 
Certain villages are sanctuaries. If a criminal escape to a sanctuary 
village, he is out of the jurisdiction of the Maharawal. 

Population. — Previous to 1881 no Census of the Jaisalmer State had 
been taken, and for general purposes the population was estimated at 
72,000 people. The Census of 188 1 returned the following informa- 
tion : — Total population, 108,143; ^^^^j 16,447 square miles; number 
of persons to the square mile, 6-57. This scanty population is scattered 
through 413 villages and i town, Jaisalmer (10,965) : total number of 
houses, 26,217; number of persons per house, 4*12. The religious 
division of the people is as follows: — Hindus, 57,484, or 53*1 per 
cent.; Muhammadans, 28,032, or 25-9 per cent; Jains, 1671, or 1-5 
per cent.; 'others,' unspecified, 20,955; i person is returned as a 
Christian. As regards caste, the Hindus are thus divided — Brahmans, 
6055; Rajputs, 26,623; Mahajans, 7981; Jats, 403; other inferior 
castes, 16,422. Of the Muhammadans there are — Shaikhs, 273; 
Pathans, 258 ; ' others ' not specified, 27,501. 

Trade^ etc. — There are no manufactures of any kind, beyond the 
making of blankets of sheep's wool, and the cutting of platters and 
cups from stone found in the country. Large herds of camels, horned 
cattle, sheep, and goats are kept. The principal trade of Jaisalmer is 
in wool, ghi^ camels, cattle, and sheep, all of which find a ready market 
in Gujarat and Sind. Grain, sugar, foreign cloth, piece-goods, and 
other miscellaneous articles, form the chief imports. Neither the home 
manufactures nor the crops suffice for local wants. 

Admitiistratiofi. — There is one civil court at Jaisalmer. Criminal 
cases are disposed of by the diwdti (chief minister) at the capital, and 
in the interior by the hakims of the Districts. The Maharawal alone 
has the power of life and death. There is no separate jail at Jaisalmer. 
Prisoners are confined in the fort, or in such places as the authorities 
choose. Education is at a low ebb in the State. Government schools 
are non-existent. Jain priests are the chief schoolmasters, but their 
teaching is very elementary. There are no made roads in the State. 
Camels are the chief means of locomotion. 

The revenues of Jaisalmer, as compared with its area, are very small, 
amounting to about ;^io,ooo. In 1873-74, the income of the State 
amounted to ^11,854; the expenditure to ;^i5,9ii. No later figures 
are available. This low income is to be accounted for partly by 
the poverty of the country, and partly by the fact that the greater 
portion of the land belongs to feudal chiefs, related to the ruling 
family. 

The Maharawal has a force of 400 infantry, of whom many are 
mounted on camels, the animal ordinarily used for locomotion in 
these sandy tracts. The cavalry number about 500, including the 



70 JAISALMER—JAISINGHNA GAR. 

Feudal and Jaghirdar Horse. Of the cavalry, about 40 are Sikhs, and 
the rest of the forces, both infantry and cavalry, are natives of Rajputana 
or of the bordering Districts of Sind. The men are armed chiefly with 
the ordinary matchlock, sword, shield, or spear of the country,- but 
have no drill or discipline. They constitute an efficient police. The 
total number of serviceable guns is 12, served by 20 gunners. 

Jaisalmer (/eysulmere). — Chief town and capital of the Native State 
of Jaisalmer, Rajputana, Central India. Jaisalmer is situated in a broad 
belt of low rocky ridges. Lat. 26° 55' n., long. 70° 57' e. The town 
stands about 800 feet above the level of the sea. It was founded in the 
year 1 156 by Rawal Jaisal. The buildings are chiefly of yellow sandstone. 
At a short distance, the colour of the walls gives an appearance of mud ; 
on closer inspection, the excellent quality of the stone attracts attention, 
not only for its durability, but for its fine grain, affording great scope to 
the architect. This has been thoroughly appreciated by the wealthy 
inhabitants, for in few places is found such exquisite carving in stone as 
that which decorates the houses of some of the opulent Oswal and 
Palliwdl merchants in Jaisalmer. The fort caps a small hill, which 
overlooks the town. Its elevation is estimated at 250 feet, and its 
length at about 350 yards. The walls, which afford a double line of 
defence, are about 25 feet in height, and of great strength, being con- 
structed with large blocks of the same sandstone as that of which 
the city is built. The plan of the fortification is peculiar. It is 
apparently a succession of towers or circular bastions, the connecting 
curtains being also curved. Huge round boulders lie in close array 
along the battlements, ready for offensive purposes in case of assault. 
The view from the ramparts is not attractive. The foreground presents 
a succession of sterile rock-bound ridges, barely clad with stunted 
bushes, whilst on the horizon low undulations mark the commencement 
of the Indian Desert. The Maharawal's palace surmounts the main 
entrance of the fort. The interior is ill-arranged, and frittered away in 
numberless small apartments. Water is obtained from three good wells 
within the palace. The Jain temples in the fort are remarkable for 
their fine stone carving. The oldest temple was built in 137 1. A large 
annual fair is held within 10 miles of the city. 

Jaisinghnagar.— Village in Sagar tahstl, Sagar (Saugor) District, 
Central Provinces. Lat. 23° 38' n., and long. 78° 37' e. ; 21 miles 
south-west of Sagar town. Population (1881) 2742, namely, Hindus, 
1766; Kabirpanthfs, 449; Jains, 283; Muhammadans, 243; abori- 
ginal, I. Founded about 1690 by Raja Jai Singh, the ruler of Old 
Sagar, who built a fort, still remaining, to protect the country from 
the raids of petty chiefs. At the cession of Sagar (Saugor) to 
the British in 1818, this tract was included; and in 1826 it was 
assigned as a residence for Rukma Bai, one of the widows of Apa 



JAITAK—JAITPUR. 71 

Sahib. Bi-weekly market, with trade in grain, cloth, and provisions ; 
village school for boys. Police station ; post-office. 

Jaitak. — Hill fortress in Sirmiir (Sarmor) State, Punjab, crowning a 
steep ridge of slate, which rises above the Khiarda Diin. Lat. 30° 36' n., 
long. 77° 24' E. During the war in 18 14, the Gurkhas occupied this 
position with a garrison of 2200 men. They were attacked by two 
British detachments, 1700 strong, but without success; and it was not 
until after a tedious series of operations that the fort was finally cap- 
tured in the following year. Elevation above sea-level, 4854 feet. 

Jaitapur. — Seaport in the Rajd.pur Sub-division of Ratnagiri Dis- 
trict, Bombay Presidency, Lat. 16° 37' 30" n., and long. 73° 24' 30" e. ; 
average annual value of trade for five years ending 1881-82,^^210,575, 
namely, exports, ^110,905; imports, ;^99,67o. The population is 
reckoned as part of the population of Rajapur, and is about 2000 — 
mostly Muhammadan. The town, 4 miles from the entrance of the 
Rajapur river, is a place of call for coasting steamers, which stop tri- 
weekly for passengers going to and from Rajdpur. The port is said 
to be well sheltered from all winds. It has a custom house, post- 
office, and vernacular school. Formerly one of the chief ports of the 
Konkan : then known as Cetapur, Rajapur, or Suitapur. The Jaitapur 
lighthouse is placed on the mainland at the southern point of the 
Rajapur Hill. Height of lantern above the sea, 99 feet ; in clear 
weather its light is seen from a distance of 9 miles. 

Jaitpur. — Decayed town in Hamirpur District, North - Western 
Provinces, and former capital of a Native State. Lat. 25° 15' 35" n., 
and long. 79° 36' 25" e. Population (1872) 5159; (1881) 5440, 
namely, Hindus, 4830, and Muhammadans, 610. Area of town 
site, 172 acres. Picturesquely situated on the banks of the Bela Tal, 
65 miles south-west of Hamirpur. Probably founded in the early part 
of the 1 8th century by Jagatraj, son of the famous Bundela Raja, 
Chhatar Sal, who built the large fort still in existence. His descend- 
ants held the town and surrounding principality until a period subse- 
quent to the British conquest of Bundelkhand ; but on the occasion of 
our reverses at Kabul in 1842, Raja Parichat broke into rebellion, 
and, being captured, died a pensioner at Cawnpur, while his terri- 
tories reverted to the British Government. His widow still resides at 
Naugaon, and receives a pension of JQ200 per annum. Khet Singh, a 
member of Raja Parichat's family, was put in his place ; but having died 
without legitimate issue, the State, already placed temporarily in charge 
of British officers on account of financial embarrassments, was formally 
annexed. The town resembles a collection of separate villages, fully 2 
miles in length, but very narrow. Handsome temple ; two forts, one 
of which could contain almost the whole population ; police outpost ; 
village school. Small trade in grain ; manufacture and dyeing of 



7 2 JAJAMA U—JAJMA U, 

country cloth. The Bela Tal, a tank or lake, dammed up with solid 
masonry by the Chandel rulers of Mahoba in the 9th century, extends 
for 5 miles in circumference, but is now very shallow, the embankment 
having burst in 1869. Two canals, deriving their supply from the tank, 
irrigated an area of 526 acres in 1881-82. For police and conservancy 
purposes a small house-tax is raised under the provisions of Act xx. 
of 1856. 

Jajamau. — Town in Unao District, Oudh ; situated i mile north of 
the Ganges, and 22 north-west of Unao town. Lat. 26° 56' n., and long. 
80° 14' E. Founded in the reign of Aurangzeb by Jaji Singh Chandel, 
ancestor of the present tdliikddr. Population (188 1) 859, exclusively 
Hindus. 

Jajhoti. — Ancient name of Bandelkhand. 

Jajmau. — Head-quarters tahsil of Cawnpur District, North-Western 
Provinces, lying along the banks of the Ganges, which forms its north- 
eastern boundary, and containing the city of Cawnpur. It is traversed 
throughout its length by the Cawnpur branch of the Lower Ganges 
Canal. The Rind river forms the southern boundary of the tahsil, 
and the Pandu flows through its centre. The soil is largely cut up by 
ravines. Area, 269 square miles, of which 121 are cultivated. Popula- 
tion (1872), including the city of Cawnpur, 267,286; (1881) 289,333, 
namely, males 159,063, and females 130,270. Increase of population 
during the nine years, 22,047, or ^'2 per cent. Classified according 
to religion, there were, in 1881 — Hindus, 244,872; Muhammadans, 
41,102; Jains, 114; 'others' (mainly European troops forming the 
garrison of Cawnpur), 3245. Of the 220 villages comprising the 
tahsil, 144 contained less than five hundred inhabitants. Land 
revenue, ;^26,32o; total Government revenue, ;^29,485 ; rental paid 
by cultivators, ;£"43,997 ; incidence of Government revenue, 3s. 7d. 
per acre. 

Jajmau. — Town in Jajmau tahsil'm Cawnpur District, North-Western 
Provinces; situated on the right bank of the Ganges. Lat. 26° 26' n., 
long. 80° 28' E.; 6 miles south-east of Cawnpur city by land and 5 by 
water. Now an unimportant village, but once of some note. It was 
anciendy styled Siddhpuri, and still contains a landing-stage and temples 
dedicated to Siddheswar and Siddha Devi. The high mound overhang- 
ing the river is known as the fort of Raja Jijat Chandrabansi, whom the 
Chandels claim as their ancestor. Disgusted at the failure of a sacrifice 
made for a special purpose, he made over the fort, with its appanage 
of 1 7 villages, to a man of the sweeper caste. South of the fort rises 
the tomb of Makhdum Shah, built about 600 years ago ; and on the 
castle mound itself stands a mosque dating from the 17th century. 
The residents of this and the surrounding villages celebrate the holi 
festival five days after the usual date. They say that, many ages back, 



JAJPUR SUB-DIVISION AND TOWN 73 

on the Iwli and four following days, a fierce battle was raging between 
the Muhamm.idans and the Hindu Raja ; and in honour of the victory 
then gained, the Hindus have ever since kept this holiday on the same 
date as that on which they were forced to keep it in that year. 

Jajpur. — Sub-division of Cuttack District, Bengal. Area, 11 04 
square miles; number of villages, 3989; houses, 91,181. Population 
(1872)428,517; (1881) 499,498, namely, males 240,341, and females 
259,157. Total increase during the nine years ending 1881, 70,981, 
or i6*56 per cent. Classified according to religion, there were in 1881 
— Hindus, 487,748; Muhammadans, 11,248; Christians, 105; ab- 
original tribes, 28; 'others,' 369. Density of population, 452 per 
square mile; villages per square mile, 3*61; persons per village, 125; 
houses per square mile, 86; inmates per house, 5*5. This Sub-division 
comprises the 2 police circles {thdnds) of Jajpur and Dharmsala. One 
magisterial and i civil revenue court in 1883; regular police, 82 
men ; village watch, 1466 men. 

Jajpur. — Town, municipality, and head - quarters of Jajpur Sub- 
division, Cuttack District, Bengal ; on the right bank of the Baitarani 
river, in lat. 20° 50' 45" N., long. 86" 22' 56" e. Population 
(1872) 10,753; (1882) 11,233, namely, Hindus, 10,611; Muham- 
madans, 616; and 'others,' 6. Area of town site, 2891 acres. 
Gross municipal revenue (1881-82), £2"]^; rate of taxation, 5jd. 
per head of population. The town contains the usual sub- 
divisional and public buildings ; charitable dispensary ; Govern- 
ment-aided Anglo-vernacular school, etc. It was the chief town of 
the Province under the Kesari dynasty until the nth century, when 
it was superseded by Cuttack, the modern capital. Jajpur is celebrated 
for its settlements of Brahman Sivaite priests, and as the head-quarters 
of one of the four regions of pilgrimage into which Orissa is divided, 
viz. that sacred to Parvati, the wife of the All-Destroyer. In Jajpur 
are numerous ruins of Sivaite temples, sculptures, etc. For a descrip- 
tion of these remains, see Statistical Account of Bengal , xviii. pp. 85-89 
(quoted from Orissa). In the i6th century, this town was the scene 
of the struggle between Musalman and Hindu power, from which it 
emerged in ruins. However, it still ranks as the fifth town of Orissa, 
and derives much wealth from its yearly fair in honour of Baruni, 
' Queen of the Waters,' on which occasion crowds of pilgrims flock to 
bathe in the holy Baitarani, the Styx of Hindu mytholog}\ 

Jajpur. — Town in Udaipur (Oodeypore) State, Rajputana, Central 
India. Lat. 25° 38' n., long. 75° 19' e. ; lies 67, miles south-east of 
Nasirabad (Nusseerabad), and 278 north-west of Sagar (Saugor). Good 
water-supply; large bazar. A fort of considerable strength, situated 
on an isolated peak, commands the pass leading from Bundi (Boondee) 
into Udaipur. 



74 JAKHAN— JALALABAD, 

Jakhan. — Petty State in Jhalawar Division, Kathiawar, Bombay 
Presidency. Lies 4 miles east of Limbdi railway station. Popula- 
tion, 703 in 1 88 1. It consists of i village, with 2 independent 
tribute-payers. The revenue is estimated at ;^i57 ; and tribute 
of p^24, 4s. is paid to the British Government, and of jQ^^ 12s. to 
Junagarh. 

Jakhau. — Seaport in the Native State of Cutch (Kachh), Bombay 
Presidency. Lat. 23° 14' 30" N., long. 68° 45' e. ; lies 64 miles south- 
west of Bhuj. Population (1872) 5145 ; (1881) 4930j namely, 
Hindus, 1843 ; Muhammadans, 2094 ; Jains, 993. The town of Jakhau 
is on the south-west coast of Cutch, between 3 and 4 miles inland, in 
a plain bare of trees but yielding abundant crops. The landing- 
place is at Godia creek, 5 miles from the sea. Godia creek, dry at low- 
water, has a depth of from 8 to 1 2 feet at full tide. At springs, boats 
of from 20 to 25 tons burden can pass up. There is a stretch of 
backwater from the Indus to the Godia creek, known as Bagda, navig- 
able for craft of 8 and 10 tons all the year round. Jakhau carries on 
a large trade with Bombay, exporting grain and importing piece-goods, 
groceries, timber, sugar, oil, and dates. 

Jakkatala. — Military station in the Nilgiri Hills, Madras. — See 
Wellington. 

Jako. — Mountain peak in Simla District, Punjab, overhanging the 
station of Simla. Lat. 31° 5' n., long. 77° 15' e. The ridge, upon 
which stands the sanitarium and summer capital, culminates eastward 
in this noble height, 8000 feet above sea-level, and 1000 feet above the 
general elevation of the houses. Woods of deodar, pine, oak, and 
rhododendron clothe its sides and summit. Its circuit, by a tolerably 
level road, about 1000 feet below the peak, measures just 5 miles. The 
houses of Simla Station cluster most thickly upon the flanks of Jako 
and two neighbouring hills. 

Jalalabad. — District in the Kabul Province, Afghanistan; lies north 
and south of the Kabul river. The District of Jalalabad is about 80 
miles long from east to west, and, on an average, 35 miles broad from 
north to south. To the east it extends to the western mountains of the 
Khiibar and Bazar. On the south it is bounded by the Safed Koh 
range. On the west the boundary is a lofty spur from the Safed Koh, 
called Karkacha, between the valleys of Gandamak and Jagdalak. 
North of the Kabul river the surface of the District is diversified by 
spurs of the Safed Koh ; south of the river it is an irregular undulating 
tract, enclosing the small plains of Jalalabad, Chardeh, Peshbolak, 
Batikot, and others, covered with low, bare, and stony hills, and inter- 
sected by numerous streams from the Safed Koh. The district is 
entirely surrounded by hills, on one of which Noah's Ark is fabled 
to have rested. Two main roads traverse the District from east to 



JALALABAD. 75 

west, the one, after a certain portion of its course, joining the other at 
Gandamak. 

Jalalabad is divided for revenue purposes into eight sub-divisions. The 
principle of revenue administration is that Government takes one-third 
of the gross produce of the soil. The inhabitants of the District belong 
to many races and tribes, a small proportion of Hindus living as traders 
in every large village. The language of this part of the country is Pushtu, 
but many tribes use Persian, and some have dialects peculiar to themselves. 
Certain tribes, the Kuchis in especial, among whom are a percentage of 
Arabs, are migratory, and move to the region about Kdbul as the hot 
weather approaches. The climate of the Jalalabad District bears a 
general resemblance to that of Peshawar, but for two months the heat in 
the plains is excessive. Rain falls abundantly, the showers of the 
bdd-i-barsdt corresponding to the commencement of the rainy season 
in India. Fevers and small-pox are common ; vaccination, except by 
the native method of inoculation, is unknown ; eye diseases develop 
in the hot weather. During the winter, shocks of earthquake are 
frequent. 

Agriculture. — There are no towns of importance in the District, and 
only the low-lying parts in addition to the banks of the streams are 
cultivated. In secluded valleys the cultivation of fruit is engaged in, 
and travellers describe the blending together of orchard, garden, and 
field. The rabi^ or spring harvest, when the Safed Koh has sent down 
its supply of water from the melted snows, comprises large crops of 
wheat, barley, peas, opium, mustard, and linseed. The kharif^ or 
autumn harvest, is of cotton, jodr^ rice, and bdjra. Melons, cucumbers, 
pumpkins, and turnips are also grown. Wheat andy'icir are the staple 
food of the people. In a small portion of the District the ancient 
custom of vesh^ or redistribution of all the lands of the community at 
stated intervals, is found to exist. 

Administration, — The civil administration of the District is entrusted 
to a governor, or hdkim,, whose authority, however, is not exercised over 
the military commanders appointed by the Kabul Darbar. The hdk'un 
has a nominal salary, but carries on the revenue system by farming the 
taxes, levying fines, and by miscellaneous exaction. There is no 
regular administration of justice; civil disputes are referred to a 
Muhammadan Mulla or Kazi by mutual consent. 

The name Nangnahar is applied to the southern portion of 
Jalalabad District, including the district of Laghman. Laghman, 
properly Lamghan, is the seat of the ancient Lampagae. The name is 
almost certainly not connected with that of the patriarch Lamech, as 
the Musalmans assert, but is a distortion of the ancient Indian name 
Nagarahdra, borne by a city in the Jalalabad plain long before the 
time of Islam, and believed to have been the Nagara or Dionysopolis of 



76 JALALABAD TOWJSf. 

Ptolemy. Many topes and other Buddhist traces exist in the Laghmin 
valley, but there are no buildings of any size intact. 

History. — ^Jalalabad city was founded in 1570 by Akbar the Great on 
his way back from Kabul to India. The fort was built in 1638 in the 
time of Shah Jahan. The annals of the District date from a.d. 
977, and are mainly concerned with engagements that occurred in its 
valleys during the march of Afghdn rulers towards Hindustan ; but the 
modern history of the town of Jalalabad dates from 1834. In that 
year, after the Barukzai Khans had gained ascendancy over the Saduzai 
monarchs, Nawib Zaman Khdn, nephew of Azim Khan, was placed in 
the government of Nangnahar, and retained it peaceably until the Amir 
of Afghanistan, Dost Muhammad, presented himself with an army and 
a claim for revenue. The claim was arranged, and the Amir withdrew. 
The Nawab set about the fortification of the town, and was busily 
engaged in the work when the Amir again appeared. The Nawab 
resisted, but the town was seized and sacked. The Amir placed two of 
his brothers successively in the governorship. 

JaldMbad has twice been occupied by British troops. First in the 
course of the Afghan war of 1839-42, when Sir Robert Sale, in com- 
mand of the * illustrious garrison,' stoutly held out against the Afghan 
rebel leader, Muhammad Akbar Khan, from November 1841 to April 
1842, until relieved by General Pollock. The siege was memorable for 
the gallantry of its defenders. The enceinte of the town was over 2100 
yards in extent, out of all proportion to the powers of the besieged ; it 
was protected by no parapet except for a few hundred yards, and for that 
distance by one only 2 feet high ; the ramparts were ruins over which roads 
led into the country ; inside the walls the population was disaffected ; 
outside, 5000 insurgents occupied the many ruined tombs, mosques, 
forts, walls, and gardens from which a fire could be opened at 20 or 30 
yards on those inside the city. The British forces at their entrance had 
only provisions for two days, and with a small garrison were compelled 
to make constant sallies. By February 1842 the town had been 
rendered defensible, but in that month an earthquake rendered the 
previous work ineffectual. The * illustrious garrison,' however, held out. 
On the 7th April, an attack was made upon the enemy, which had the 
effect of raising the blockade ; and a week afterwards General Pollock 
marched in to the relief. Earlier in the same year (1842), Jalalabad 
was reached by Dr. Brydon, the sole survivor of General Elphinstone's 
army. The second occasion on which Jalalabad was occupied by 
British troops was during the Afghdn war of 1879-80. The fort, or 
Bala Hissar, was put into thorough repair, and quarters and hospitals 
were built. While the campaign lasted, the town was an entrepot for all 
kinds of military stores, and the head-quarters of the Khaibar division. 

Jalalabad. — Town in Jalalabad District, Afghanistan ; lies at a 



JALALABAD TOWN AND TAHSLL. 77 

height of 1946 feet, in the midst of a cultivated plain on the south of 
the Kabul river. Lat. 34° 24' n., long. 70° 26' e. Jalalabad is by road 
100 miles from Kdbul, and 91 from Peshawar. Between it and Pesha- 
war intervene the Khdibar and other adjoining passes; between it and 
Kabul, the passes of Jagdalak, Khurd-Kabul, etc. In 1840, the town, 
though its walls had an extent of 2100 yards, contained only 300 
houses, and a permanent population of 2000. The walls formed an 
irregular quadrilateral in a ruinous state, surrounded on all sides by 
buildings, gardens, the remains of the ancient walls, etc., affording 
abundant cover to an assailant. According to Burnes, Jalalabad is 
one of the filthiest towns in the East. It is advantageously situated 
for trade, as, besides being on the high-road between Peshdwar and 
Kabul, roads lead from it to Derbend, Kashmir, Ghazni, Bamian, and 
Yarkand. 

Jaldlabdd. — To^^^l in Hardoi District, Oudh ; 6 miles south-east of 
Mallanwan town. Population (1881) 1857, chiefly Kanaujia Brahmans, 
residing in 313 mud houses. Bi-weekly market. 

Jal^ldbad. — Town in Muzaffarnagar District, North-Western Pro- 
vinces. Lat. 29° 37' N., long. 77° 28' 45" E. Situated near the Httle river 
Krishni, 2 1 miles north-west of Muzaffarnagar town, on the road from Delhi 
to Saharanpur. Population (1872) 6904; (1881) 6592, namely, Hindus, 
3065 ; Jains, 44 ; and Muhammadans, 3483, the latter chiefly Pathans. 
Areaof town site, 155 acres. For police and conservancy purposes, a house- 
tax is levied under the provisions of Act xx. of 1856. Large market 
on Sundays and Fridays. The celebrated fort of Ghausgarh, built by 
the Rohilla leader Naji'b Khan, lay at a short distance from the town. 
Jalalabad was often sacked by the Marathas during the rule of Zabita 
Khan, and one member of that race still holds revenue-free grants in the 
neighbourhood. The Sikhs afterwards harried the country ; and nothing 
now remains of the site of Ghausgarh except mud walls, scattered 
bricks, a well 15 feet in diameter, and the ruins of a mosque. The 
town still possesses a considerable trade in local produce, and a channel 
of the Eastern Jumna Canal irrigates the surrounding country. The 
Pathans of Jalalabad remained quiet during the Mutiny of 1857, and 
one of their principal leaders did good service as tahsilddr of Thana 
Bahwan after its capture. 

Jalalabad. — Southern ^'^/w/Zof Shahjahanpur District, North-Western 
Provinces, lying along the north bank of the Ganges, and also inter- 
sected by the Ramganga and Sot rivers and other minor streams. 
The /^/wf/ includes three distinct tracts of soil — (i) The bhur or sandy 
tract in the extreme east, with an area of about 40 square miles, pro- 
ducing poor crops of wheat as the spring, and bdjra as the autumn 
harvest. (2) The tardi tract in the centre, including the valleys of the 
Ramganga and Bahgul, the soil of which consists of a fine alluvial 



78 JALALABAD TOWN, 

deposit, yielding rich crops of wheat with Uttle labour, and without the 
necessity of irrigation ; area, 128 square miles. (3) The ba7ikati tract, 
extending from the valley of the Ramganga to the Ganges, with an area 
of nearly 140 square miles, consisting of a hard clay soil, with a large 
extent of dhdk jungle and grass land nitersected by numerous flood- 
watercourses draining into the Sot river. Cultivation in this tract is 
very laborious, and frequent and copious irrigation is necessary to 
prevent the soil from hardening and cracking into wide fissures. When 
properly cared for, however, it produces very good wheat and millet. 
Two metalled and two unmetalled roads intersect the tahsil^ besides 
the ordinary cross country cart roads. The bankati tract, however, 
is badly off for roads, and those which exist are difficult to traverse in 
the cold weather, and are utterly impracticable during the rains, owing 
to the numerous watercourses and flood-channels. Water communica- 
tion for large boats is afforded by the Ganges and Ramganga rivers, 
along which a considerable traffic is carried on. The total area of the 
tahsilm 1881-82 was 329T square miles, of which i83"6 square miles 
were returned as under cultivation, 100 square miles as cultivable, and 
45'5 square miles as uncultivable waste. Population (1872) 165,763; 
(1881) 145,915, namely, males 79,990, and females 65,925, showing a 
decrease of 19,848, or 11-9 per cent, during the nine years. Classi- 
fied according to religion, there were, in 1881— Hindus, 133,435; 
Muhammadans, 12,477; and 'others,' 3. Out of 356 inhabited 
villages, 268 contained less than five hundred inhabitants. Land 
revenue (1881-82), ;£"2 1,132 ; total Government revenue, including 
local rates and cesses, ^£23,688 ; rental paid by cultivators, including 
cesses, jQaIi'^S^- '^^^ tahsil contains 2 criminal courts, the civil 
jurisdiction being included with that of the Tilhar mu7isifi. Strength 
of regular police, 63 officers and men, besides a rural police force of 
chmikiddrs. 

Jalalabad. — Town in Shahjahanpur District, North-Western Pro- 
vinces, and head-quarters of Jalalabad tahsil. Situated in lat. 27° 43' 
20" N., and long. 79° 41' 53" e., on the plain 2 miles north of the Ram- 
ganga river and 19 miles south of Shahjahanpur city. Population (1872) 
7127 ; (1881) 8025, namely, Hindus, 4077 ; Muhammadans, 3945 ; and 
' others,' 3. Area of town site, 117 acres. For police and conservancy 
purposes, a house-tax is levied under the provisions of Act xx. of 1856. 
An almost purely agricultural town. Boats from Cawnpur ascend the 
Rdmganga as far as Kola Ghat, opposite this town, where they receive 
cargoes of wheat and other food-stuffs. Bi-weekly markets are held on 
Mondays and Thursdays, but the trade of the place has much fallen 
off of late years, traffic having been diverted by the opening of the 
Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway. The public buildings consist of the 
usual iahsili courts and offices, poUce station, post-oflice, and Anglo- 



JALALI—JALALPUR. 79 

vernacular school. The town is described as having a miserable 
appearance ; the houses are nearly all mud-built, the bazar small, the 
shops i^^N^ and the roadway unmetalled. 

Jaldli. — Town in Koil tahsil^ Aligarh District, North- Western 
Provinces. Lat. 27° 51' 35" n., long. 78° 17' 35" e. ; 14J miles 
south-east of Aligarh town, on the route from Aligarh to Budaun. 
Population (1881) 4939? namely, 2831 Hindus, and 2108 Muham- 
madans. Area, 44 acres. For police and conservancy purposes, 
a house-tax is levied under the provisions of Act xx. of 1856. The 
town stands on a high site, between two raised distributaries of the 
Ganges Canal, but in an isolated position, and with no good roads. 
The most noteworthy inhabitants are the Sayyids, Shias by sect, a large 
and influential body, who are regarded as the leaders of their sect 
in the Upper Doab. They are the descendants of one Kamal-ud-din, 
who settled in the town about 1295 a.d., in the reign of Ala-ud-din. 
During the reign of Shah Jahan, this Sayyid family became sufficiently 
powerful to expel the old Pathan landholders, and thus obtained the 
full proprietary rights in the town which they still possess. ' These 
rights,' says the Settlement Officer, ' have since become so sub-divided 
that the individual shares are scarcely worth retaining. The reputation 
of the family is due to their having given so many useful subordinate 
officers to the British Government. Among its co-sharers, the village 
can boast of an exceptionally numerous body of men, who have obtained, 
or are now obtaining, distinction in both the military and civil services.' 
The town contains upwards of eighty mosques, of which thirty are of 
good size, one being a handsome building. The streets are narrow, 
tortuous, and unmetalled. There is no regular bdzdr^ and no trade. 
The town is an essentially agricultural one, inhabited by landholders 
and cultivators. Camping ground half a mile from the town. 

Jaldlkhera. — Town in Nagpur District, Central Provinces. Lat. 21° 
23' N., long. 78° 27' E. ; about 14 miles west of Katol, near the junction 
of the Jam with the Wardha. Population (1881)897, chiefly cultivators. 
According to tradition, the place once contained 30,000 inhabitants, 
but was ruined by the ravages of a band of Pathans. The remains 
of a large fort, said to be of Gauli origin, still exist ; and for 2 square 
miles around the village may be found traces of the old town. Probably 
Jalalkhera once formed a single large city, with Amner on the Berar 
side of the river. 

Jalalpur. — Sub-division of Surat District, Bombay Presidency. On 
the north the Sub-division is separated by the Purna river from Baroda 
territories \ on the east it is bounded by the Baroda Sub-division of 
Mahuwa ; on the south by the river Ambika ; on the west by the 
Arabian Sea. It forms a tract about 20 miles long and 16 broad. 
The area is returned at 189 square miles. Population (1881) 74,016; 



8o JALALPUR TAHSIL AND VILLAGE. 

average density, 392 persons per square mile. Since 1872, the 
population has increased by 3904. In 1881 Hindus numbered 
63,608, or 86 per cent, of the total; Muhammadans, 5428; 'others,* 
4980. According to the statistics of 1873-74 (the most recent avail- 
able), 94*7 per cent, of the cultivable land was then under cultivation. 
There are 91 villages in the Sub-division; houses, 14,680. The Sub- 
division of Jaldlpur is a level plain of deep alluvial soil, sloping towards 
the sea, where it ends in a salt marsh. Along the coast-line low sand- 
hills appear at intervals. With the exception of the salt lands near 
the coast, the Sub-division is rich, highly cultivated, and well supplied 
with water, groves of fruit trees, and valuable timber. The villages 
are large and prosperous. Besides the salt marsh on the coast, there 
are extensive salt marshes along the banks of the Purna and Ambika 
rivers, which flow through the Sub-division. In 1875, of the whole 
31,360 acres of salt marsh, more than half (16,794) were undergoing 
reclamation. The reclaimed land has been made to yield a small 
return of rice. In 1873-74, 62 per cent, of the cultivable land was 
under grain. Jodr., bdj'ra, and rice are the staple crops. Miscellaneous 
crops are pulses, gram, oil-seeds, sugar-cane, and plantain. The climate 
is mild and healthy throughout the year. Average rainfall, 54 inches. 
The land revenue (1881) was ;£"33,795. The Sub-division contains 
2 criminal courts, with i police station {thd7id) ; strength of regular 
police, 22 men; village watchmen {chaukiddrs), 720. 

Jalalpur. — Tahsil of Hamirpur District, North- Western Provinces, 
lying along the south bank of the river Betwa, now known as Muskara 

Jalalpur. — Town and municipality in Gujrat tahsil and District, 
Punjab. Lat. 32° 21' 35" n., long. 74° 15' e. ; 8 miles north-east of 
Gujrat town. Population (1868) 15,526; (1881) 12,839, namely, 
Muhammadans, 9496; Hindus, 3331; and Sikhs, 12. Number of 
houses, 2733. Municipal revenue (1882-83), ;£"787, derived from 
octroi, or an average of is. 2fd. per head. Jalalpur is situated in an 
open and highly-cultivated country, at the junction of cross roads leading 
to Sialkot, Jehlam, Jamu, and Gujrat. It has a good bdzdr and a 
large number of well-built houses. It is the second principal town in 
Gujrat District, and carries on a considerable shawl manufacture, the 
work of a Kashmiri colony. The manufacture, however, has greatly 
declined since the Franco-Prussian war, owing to the French demand 
for these goods having fallen off. The town contains a well-attended 
Government school, a town hall, commodious sardi with accommoda- 
tion for European travellers, police station, and dispensary. 

Jalalpur. — Village and municipality in Lodhran tahsil^ Multan 
(Mooltan) District, Punjab. Lat. 29° 30' 15" n., long. 71° 16' e. ; lying 
in the tongue of land between the Sutlej and the Trimab, twelve miles 



JALALPUR—JALALPUR-NAHVL 8i 

from their confluence. Population (1881) 3875, namely, Muham- 
madans, 2257 ; Hindus, 1613 ; and Sikhs, 5. Number of houses, 
622. Municipal revenue (1882-83), ;£'24o, or is. 2^d. per head 
of population. The town consists of a collection of brick houses, 
surrounded by an embankment to protect them from river inunda- 
tion. A fine domed building, covered with blue glazed tiles, marks 
the tomb of a saint, Sayyid Sultan Ahmad, who bears to this day a 
great reputation for casting evil spirits out of possessed persons. The 
trade of the town has decayed since the opening of the Indus Valley 
Railway. Manufacture of paper of excellent quality. The public 
buildings consist of a municipal office, police station, school-house, and 
sardi (native inn). 

Jalalpur. — Ancient ruined town in Jehlam (Jhelum) /^/wf/ of Jehlam 
District, Punjab. Situated in lat. 32° 39' 30" n., and long. 73° 27' e., 
close to the right bank of the Jehlam river. Head-quarters of a sub- 
ordinate police jurisdiction. The village has been identified by General 
Cunningham with the site of the ancient Bucephala, built by Alexander 
the Great in memory of his famous charger, which was killed in the battle 
with Porus at the crossing of the Jehlam. Remains of ancient walls still 
crown the summit of the hills, which rise to a height of 1000 feet above 
the village. Coins found among the ruins date back to the period of 
the Graeco-Bactrian kings. Even in the time of Akbar, the town covered 
a site four times as large as that which it now occupies ; but since 
the foundation of Pind Dd,dan Khan, and the shifting of the river 
channel 2 miles eastward, it has undergone a constant decay. Jalalpur 
is now nothing more than a small agricultural village, of no com- 
mercial or other importance, apart from the interest attaching to its 
antiquarian remains. 

Jalalpur-Dehi. — Town in Dalmau tahsil, Rai Bareli District, Oudh ; 
8 miles east of Dalmau, and 18 south-east of Rai Bareli town. Lat. 
26° 2 N., long. 81° 62' E. Founded close to the site of an ancient and 
ruined town, named Dehi, by one JaMl-ud-din, upon whom it was 
conferred as aytf^frby Ibrahim Sharki of Jaunpur. Population (1881), 
Hindus, 1116; Muhammadans, 669; total, 1885, residing in 362 
houses. Government vernacular school. A bi-weekly market is held 
at a little distance from the village. 

Jalalpur-Nahvi.— Town in Faizdbdd (Fyzabad) District, Oudh ; 52 
miles from Faizabad town. Lat. 26° 37' 10" n., long. 82° 10' 30" e. 
Pleasantly situated on the banks of the Tons river, which here runs 
in a winding channel, between high and precipitous banks. Popula- 
tion (1881), Muhammadans, 3792; Hindus, 2446; 'others,' 2; total, 
6240. Area of town site, 291 acres. A flourishing weaving town. An 
imdmbdra outside the town w^as built about a century ago, at a cost 
of ^400, by contributions from the weaving community, each man- 

VOL. vii. F 



82 JALANDHAR. 

contributing a quarter of a pice for each piece of cloth wrought by him. 
The circumstance was brought to the notice of the King of Oudh, who 
highly commended the weavers for their piety and liberality, and 
ordered them to continue the subscription, but to pay the proceeds 
into the royal treasury as a contribution to himself. 

Jalandhar {Julhindur). — A Division or Commissionership in the 
Lieutenant-Governorship of the Punjab, comprising the three Districts 
of Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur, and Kangra, each of which see 
separately. Lat. 30° 56' 30" to 32° 59' n,, long. 75° 6' 30" to 77° 49' 
15" E. Area of Jalandhar Division, 12,571 square miles, with 31 towns 
and 3951 villages; number of houses, 507,838, of which 384,189 are 
occupied and 123,649 unoccupied. Total population (1881) 2,421,781, 
namely, males 1,293,828, and females 1,127,953; proportion of males 
in total population, 53*4 per cent. ; number of families, 538,226. 
Average density of population, 193 per square mile; persons per town 
or village, 608; persons per occupied house, 6-t,. 

As regards religion, Hindus numbered 1,576,112, or 65*08 per cent. 
of the population; Muhammadans, 687,942, or 28-40 per cent.; 
Sikhs, 150,842, or 6*23 per cent.; Buddhists, 2860; Jains, 1942; 
Christians, 2056; Parsis, 8; and 'others,' 19. Classified ethnically, 
apart from religion, the population consists of the following tribes and 
castes, including Hindus, Muhammadans, Sikhs, etc. : — Jats, 320,618; 
Rajputs, 238,009; ChamarS; 231,041; Brdhmans, 217,828; Arains, 
163,191; Giijars, 95,156; and Tarkhans, 70,551. The exclusively 
Muhammadan classes, by race as apart from religion, includes — 
Pathans, 13,417 ; Shaikhs, 18,351 ; Sayyids, 11,126; and Mughals, 3351. 
The urban population in 31 towns and municipalities is returned at 
2355676, or 97 per cent, of the entire population of the Division. 
Rural population, 2,186,105, or 90-3 per cent. Of the 3982 towns 
and villages, 2556 are returned as containing less than five hundred 
inhabitants; 850 from five hundred to a thousand; 407 from one to 
two thousand ; 79 from two to three thousand ; 56 from three to five 
thousand; 28 from five to ten thousand; and 6 over ten thousand. 
The adult male population is thus returned according to occupation — 
(i) Professional class, 33,004 ; (2) domestic and menial class, 29,326; 
(3) commercial class, 14,012 ; (4) agricultural and pastoral class, 
438,190; (5) industrial class, 53,496; (6) indefinite and non-pro- 
ductive class, 53,497 ; (?) unspecified, 43»977- 

Of a total assessed area of 7,405,942 acres in 1878-79, as shown 
in the last quinquennial return of agricultural statistics, 2,058,796 
acres were under cultivation, of which 415,573 acres were artificially 
irrigated by private irrigation. Of the remaining or uncultivated 
area, 3157 acres were returned as grazing land, 315,184 acres 
as cultivable but not under cultivation, and 5,028,805 acres as 



JALANDHAR DISTRICT. 83 

uncultivable waste, nearly nine-tenths of which is included in the 
mountainous District of Kangra. The annual average area under crops 
for the five years 1877-78 to 1881-82, was 2,124,777 acres, the area 
under the principal crops being — Wheat, 779,969 acres ; Indian corn, 
332,303 acres ; rice, 177,913 acres ; barley, 116,621 acres ; yWr, 112,645 
acres; gram, 112,381 acres; moth, 75,024 acres; sugar-cane, 92,146 
acres; cotton, 55,597 acres; vegetables, 14,192 acres; tobacco, 8053 
acres; indigo, 2348 acres ; and poppy, 2026 acres. 

The total revenue in 1881-82, excluding canals, forests, salt, 
assessed taxes, fees, and cesses, was ;£"43o,457, made up as follows : — 
Land revenue, fixed and fluctuating, ;£3i2,397 ; tribute, ;£23,ioo ; 
stamps, ^47,337; excise, ^10,815; local rates, ;^26,8o8. The 
Division is under the general control of the Commissioner of 
Jalandhar, assisted by a Judicial Commissioner. The administrative 
staff for the various Districts comprises 3 Deputy Commissioners, each 
with a Judicial Assistant, 3 Assistant Commissioners, 8 extra-Assistant 
Commissioners, i cantonment magistrate, 3 honorary magistrates, 13 
tahsilddrs, and 13 miinsifs, besides subordinate officials. For further 
details, see separate District articles on Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur, and 
Kangra. 

Jalandhar {/ullundur). — British District in the Lieutenant - 
Governorship of the Punjab, lying between 30° 56' 30" and 31° 37' n. 
lat., and between 75° 6' 30" and 77° 49' 15" e. long. Jalandhar 
forms the southernmost District in the Division of the same name. 
It is bounded on the north-east by the District of Hoshiarpur ; on the 
north-west by the Native State of Kapurthala; and on the south by 
the Sutlej (Satlaj), which separates it from Ludhiana and Hoshiarpur 
Districts. Jalandhar stands thirtieth in order of area, and eighth in 
order of population, among the thirty-two Districts of the Province, 
comprising 1-24 per cent, of the total area, 4-19 per cent, of the total 
population, and 5*62 per cent, of the urban population of British 
territory. The District is divided into four tahsils or Sub-divisions, 
of which the Jalandhar tahsil comprises the northern portion, and 
Nawashahr, Phillaur, and Nakodar the southern portion, running in 
that order from east to west. Area, 1322 square miles; population 
(1881) 789,555 persons. The administrative head-quarters are at the 
town of Jalandhar. 

Physical Aspects.— The blunt triangular tongue of land, enclosed by 
the confluent streams of the Sutlej (Satlaj) and the Beas (Bias), bears 
the general name of the Jalandhar or Bist Doab. Its submontane por- 
tion belongs to Hoshiarpur ; the remainder is divided between the Native 
State of Kapurthala and the British District of Jalandhar. Below the 
hills, the whole Doab consists of one unbroken alluvial expanse, whose 
fertility extends without a single break from river to river. The Sikhs 



84 JALANDHAR DISTRICT. 

regarded it as the richest region in the Punjab plains; for although 
other tracts may be found of equal fruitfulness, in no other Doab does 
the cultivated land stretch so far back from the river banks. The 
entire District lies within the zone of rich cultivable soil, the detritus 
of the mountain system, which skirts the foot of the Himalayas. At 
places, a few acres are covered with a sandy layer ; but, except in these 
rare spots, one vast sheet of luxuriant and diverse vegetation spreads over 
the plain from end to end. Neither rock nor stone crops out in any 
part, nor does any eminence occur deserving the name of a hill. The 
highest point in the plateau, at Rdhon, near the eastern corner of the 
District, has an elevation of 1012 feet above sea-level. Somewhat 
farther to the west, at the little town of Hiiin, the general height sinks 
to 969 feet ; and from this point westward the surface gradually falls 
away toward the Beas valley. 

A well-defined bank marks the bed of the Sutlej on the Jalandhar 
side, below which stretches a tract of varying width, the bet or 
khddar, parts of which are annually fertilized by the deposit of silt 
during the inundations, and produce rich crops after their subsidence. 
The river contains in winter about 15 feet of water in its deepest 
parts, and it is navigable at all seasons for large flat-bottomed country 
boats of about 8 tons burden. The main channel shifts from year to 
year through the wide bed, often forming new islands by slight changes 
in its course. The present stream runs at an average distance of 
6 miles from the high bank. Opposite Phillaur, the Sutlej is crossed 
by a bridge of the Punjab and Delhi Railway. During the cold 
weather, a bridge of boats is maintained across the river for the 
traffic of the Grand Trunk Road. The torrents from the Siwalik Hills 
in Hoshiarpur District eventually unite in two main streams, the White 
(or east) and the Black (or west) Ben, the former of which runs through 
Jalandhar, while the latter holds its course through Kapiirthala terri- 
tory. The White Ben receives numerous affluents from the Hoshiarpur 
Hills, which meet it at right angles ; and, following a serpentine path 
in a deep channel, finally falls into the Sutlej 4 miles above its junction 
with the Beas. 

Several marshy lakes {jhils) collect a considerable quantity of 
water in the rains, which they retain throughout the dry season. 
The largest is that of Rahon, at the eastern corner of the District. 
It measures about 8650 feet in length by nearly 3000 feet in 
breadth; extreme area of about 500 acres. The next largest jMl 
is near Phillaur, with a length of about 6500 feet and a breadth of 
about 1900 feet; extreme area about 250 acres. The nodular lime- 
stone formation, known as kankar, is found plentifully in the District^ 
the best beds being within a radius of 10 miles from Jalandhar town. 
The District is almost entirely free from dangerous animals. Wolves, 



JALANDHAR DISTRICT. 85 

however, are occasionally seen, and rewards are offered for their destruc- 
tion. Numerous waterfowl frequent the various jhils ; and towards 
Kapurthala, antelope, nilgai, and hares are found. 

History. — The Jalandhar Doab at a very early period formed a 
separate Hindu kingdom, ruled over by a family of Chandrabansi Raj [)uts, 
whose descendants still exist as petty chiefs in the Kangra Hills. 
These Rajas trace their origin to Susarma Chandra, one of the heroes 
of the great war recorded in the Ma/idbhdrata, who retired from 
his ancestral realm of Multan (Mooltan) at the conclusion of the 
conflict, and founded the kingdom of Katoch or Traigartta in the 
Jalandhar Doab. The Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Hwen Thsang, in the 
7th century a.d., describes it as a large territory, including not only 
the present District, together with the Hoshiarpur and Kangra Hills, 
but also the modern States of Chamba, Mandi, and Sirhind. Jalandhar 
then formed its capital, but Kangra ranked as an important stronghold. 
We have no evidence in regard to the period at which the Rajput 
princes were driven out of their dominions in the plain country, and 
restricted to the hill tract over which their descendants still hold sway. 
A legend in the Padma Purdna ascribes the foundation of Jalandhar 
city to the great Daitya King Jalandhara, who became invincible 
by the practice of unusual austerities. At length, however, Siva 
conquered him by a disgraceful fraud, and the Yoginis or female 
demons devoured his body. A local version varies the tale by declaring 
that the giant king was crushed to death under a mass of mountains, 
imposed on him by Siva ; whereupon flames burst forth from his mouth, 
which lay under Jawala Mukhi, while his feet extended to the apex of 
the Doab at Multan. 

Under Muhammadan rule, the Jalandhar Doab was generally 
attached to the Province of Lahore, in which it is included as a 
sarkdr in the great revenue survey of Akbar's reign. Its governors, 
however, seem usually to have held a partially independent position, 
subject to the payment of a fixed tribute into the imperial treasury. 
The last and most famous among them, Adina Beg, played an 
important part during the downfall of Muhammadan power in the 
Punjab. The Sikh reaction extended to Jalandhar at an early period, 
and a number of petty chieftains established themselves by force 
of arms as independent princes throughout the Doab. In 1766 
the town of Jalandhar fell into the hands of the Sikh 7nisl, or con- 
federacy, of Faiz-uUa-puria, then presided over by Khushhal Singh. 
His son and successor, Budh Singh, built a masonry fort in the city, 
while several other leaders similarly fortified themselves in the suburbs. 
Meanwhile, however, Ranjit Singh was consolidating his power in the 
south; and in 181 1 he despatched Diwan Mokham Chand to annex 
the Faiz-ulla-puria dominions in the Jalandhar Doab. Budh Singh fled 



86 JALANDHAR DISTRICT. 

across the Sutlej ; and though his troops offered some litde resistance 
to the invader, the Maharaja successfully estabhshed his authority in 
the autumn of the same year. Thenceforth Jalandhar became the 
capital of the Lahore possessions in the surrounding Doab up till the 
date of British annexation. The petty sarddrs were gradually ousted 
from their estates, and the whole country brought under the direct 
management of the Sikh governors. Here, as elsewhere, the fiscal 
administration of the Sikhs proved very oppressive, especially under the 
last official appointed from the Court of Lahore, Shaikh Ghulam Mohi- 
ud-din, a tyrannical and grasping ruler, who exacted irregular taxes, 
and made over the tract to his son, Imam-ud-din. Neither of these 
persons resided regularly in the Doab, their charge being entrusted to 
lieutenants, the best known of whom were Sandi Khan in Hoshiarpur, 
and Karim Baksh in Jalandhar. 

At the close of the first Sikh war, immediately after the occupation 
of Lahore, the British Government annexed the whole tract of land 
between the Sutlej and the Beas, and erected the new acquisition 
into a Commissionership of the trans-Sutlej States. For two years 
the administration was directly dependent upon the Supreme Govern- 
ment. In 1848, however, the Commissioner became subordinate to 
the Resident at Lahore; and in the succeeding year, when events 
forced upon us the annexation of the entire Punjab, the administration 
of this Division was assimilated to the general system. The Com- 
missioner's head-quarters were fixed at Jalandhar, and three Districts 
were erected, having their centres at Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur, and 
Kangra. The assessment of the revenue at the first introduction of 
British rule disregarded the excessive demands of Ghulam Mohi-ud-din 
and his son, and followed the milder system of his predecessor, Misr 
Riip Lai, a Sikh ruler of exceptional humanity and justice, whose 
fiscal arrangements were found not unworthy of adoption under our 
own Government. 

Population. — The Census of 1855, the first that was taken in the 
Punjab, returned the population of the area at present included in the 
District of Jalandhar at 698,169; while the Census of 1868 returned 
the population at 794,418. The last enumeration in 1881 disclosed 
a population of 789,555. The apparent decrease of 4863 persons in 
thirteen years is explained by the fact that in 1868 the District con- 
tained a large number of labourers employed on the railway, who 
afterwards returned to their own homes. The Census of 1881 was 
taken over an area of 1322 square miles ; and it disclosed a total 
population of 789,555 souls, distributed among 1208 villages or towns, 
and residing in 115,663 houses. From these data the following 
averages may be deduced : — Persons per square mile, 597 ; villages per 
square mile, 0*95; houses per square mile, 128; persons per village. 



JALANDHAR DISTRICT. S7 

653; persons per house, 6-8; number of families, 181,369. Classified 
according to sex, there were — males, 431,435; females, 358,120 
proportion of males, 54*63 per cent. Classified according to age 
there were over 15 years — males, 271,746; females, 230,687 
total adults, 502,433, or 63-6 per cent, of the whole population 
Children of 15 and under numbered — males 159,689, and female? 
127,433; total children, 287,122, or 36-4 per cent, of the entire 
population. 

Classified according to religious distinctions, Hindus numbered 
338,292; Muhammadans, 358,601 ; Sikhs, 90,320; Jains, 690; Chris- 
tians, 1 631; and 'others,' 21. The tribal and caste division returns 
163,757 Jats, of whom 143,664 are Hindus or Sikhs. They are 
an industrious, thriving race, who hold almost half the land, and 
pay more than half the revenue. The Rajputs number 43,789 souls, 
of whom all but 5608 are Muhammadans. Once the lords of the 
country, they are now sinking into the utmost poverty. The other 
races include 30,535 Brahmans; 22,868 Khattris; 18,394 Gujars; 
7120 Kambohs; 3126 Baniyas; and 123,323 Arains. The Muham- 
madans by race, as apart from religion, include 9720 Shaikhs, 6909 
Sayyids, and 4808 Pathans. 

The District contained fourteen towns in i88r, whose names 
and populations were as follow: — Jalandhar (Jullundur), 52,119; 
Kartarpur, 9260; Alawalpur, 3802; Adampur, 2572; Banga, 
4565; Nawashahr, 4960; Rahon, 11,736; Phillaur, 7107; NUR- 
MAHAL, 8161 ; Mahatpur, 6oi I ; Nakodar, 8486; BiLGA, 6634; 
Jandiala, 6316; and Rurkha Kalan, 5492. Of the 1208 villages 
and towns within the District in 1881, 270 had less than two 
hundred inhabitants; 467 between two hundred and five hundred; 
298 between five hundred and a thousand ; 129 between one thousand 
and two thousand; 16 between two thousand and three thousand; 
17 between three thousand and five thousand; 9 between five and 
ten thousand ; i between ten and fifteen thousand ; and i with 
upwards of fifty thousand inhabitants. 

As regards occupation, the male adult population exceeding 15 years 
of age is classified as follows in the Census Report of 1881 : — 
(i) Professional class, including all Government officials and the 
learned professions, 12,440; (2) domestic and menial class, 14,799; 
(3) commercial class, including merchants, carriers, etc., 5021 ; (4) 
agricultural and pastoral class, including gardeners, 114,285 ; (5) in- 
dustrial and manufacturing class, 72,554; (6) indefinite and non- 
productive class, 18,606 ; (7) unspecified, 34,042. 

The language in common use is Punjabi, but the peasantry generally 
understand Urdu. 

Agriculture. — The District contains a total cultivated area oi (id-i^^i^T^ 



88 JALANDHAR DISTRICT. 

acres, or 1036 square miles, of which 225,722 acres are artificially 
irrigated by private irrigation works. Of the remaining area, 1032 
acres are returned as grazing land, 89,138 acres as available for culti- 
vation, and 93,154 acres as uncultivable waste. Wheat, barley, and 
gram form the staples of the rabi or spring harvest, tobacco and 
poppy being the only other important items. For the kharif ox autumn 
harvest, sugar-cane ranks as the most valuable crop \ while millet, 
Indian corn, and other common food-grains also cover a considerable 
area. The lowlands of the Sutlej produce hmited quantities of rice, 
and cotton and hemp are largely grown as autumn crops. Bdjrd is 
almost unknown. The area under the chief staples in 1882-83 ^"^^^ ^s 
follows: — Wheat, 238,043 acres; barley, 11,763 acres; gram, 44,523 
acres ; rice, 6407 acres ; sugar-cane, 44,300 acres ; Indian corn, 83,463 
acres ;yWr, 89,370 acres; cotton, 23,236 acres; moth, 64,714 acres. 
The total area for the rabi in 1882-83 was 424,445 acres; and for 
the kharif, 347,493 acres. The sugar-cane crop is commercially of 
the most importance to the cultivator, and is generally grown for the 
purpose of paying the whole or greater part of the revenue. Rotation 
of crops is only practised in the simple form of sowing land with 
spring crops after a long continuance of autumn staples, and vice versa. 
Manure is used near the towns, but not so largely as is desirable. 
Except on the low alluvial tract of the Sutlej, irrigation is carried on 
only by means of wells, worked with Persian wheels. In a few villages 
along the high bank of the Ben, also, Persian wheels are worked from 
the river. But water everywhere lies near the surface, and is absolutely 
necessary for the higher cereals and sugar-cane, so that well irrigation 
prevails very generally. 

The average produce per acre of the principal agricultural 
staples is returned as follows for 1882-83 : — Rice, 816 lbs.; cotton, 
no lbs.; wheat, 732 lbs.; inferior grains, 400 lbs.; refined sugar, 
600 lbs. ; tobacco, 1000 lbs. ; oil-seeds, 320 lbs. ; gram, 620 lbs. ; 
barley, 920 lbs. ; and jodr, 240 lbs. The estimated agricultural stock 
in the District is thus returned — Cows and bullocks, 446,682 ; horses, 
3617; ponies, 1063; donkeys, 8501; sheep and goats, 44,987. The 
division of the land among individual proprietors has proceeded 
to a very great extent. Nearly one-half of the tenants possess rights 
of occupancy. Total amount of Government assessment in 1881, in- 
cluding rates and cesses on land, ^135,418. Total estimated amount 
of rent paid by cultivators, ;^275,872. Rents range from 14s. io|d. 
per acre for unirrigated wheat lands, to £2, 8s. 6d. for rice, £2, 
IIS. ijd. for cotton, £2, 17s. for sugar, and £\, iis. 6d. for tobacco. 
Agricultural labourers receive their payment in kind. In towns, where 
cash wages prevail, they range from 2jd. to 4id. per diem for unskilled 
workmen. Prices of food-stuffs ruled as follows in January 1883 :— 



JALAXDHAR DISTRICT. 89 

AVheat, 2(}\ sers per rupee, or 4s. 3d. per cwt. : gram, 34 sers per 
rupee, or 3s. 4d. per cwt. ; barley, 43 sers per rupee, or 2s. yd. per 
cwt. ; Indian corn, 40 sers per rupee, or 2s. lod. per cwt. ; jodr, 36 
sers per rupee, or 3s. id. per cwt. 

Commerce afid Trade, etc. — The traffic of the District consists mainly 
in its agricultural produce. In ordinary years, grain is imported from 
Ludhiana, Firozpur, and the adjoining Sikh States, for export to the 
hills ; but occasional favourable seasons in Jalandhar, combined with 
high prices elsewhere, cause a large quantity of surplus grain to 
flow towards Agra and Bengal. Sugar-cane forms the chief com- 
mercial crop, and sugar and molasses are largely manufactured 
throughout the District, to supply the markets of Bikaner, Lahore, the 
Punjab, and Sind. The crushing of the cane goes on from the 
middle of November to the middle of February, after w^hich the refining 
process takes place. Some of the larger villages have as many as fifty 
sugar-cane presses working during the season. Ropes are made from 
the refuse of the sugar-cane. The only other manufacture which is 
extensively carried on is that of country cloth, the principal seats of 
which are at Jalandhar, Rahon, Kartarpur, and Niirmahal. Silver wire 
and gold and silver lace are also made to some extent at Jalandhar. 
The carpenter's work of Khan Khanan, and the scarves and thick 
cotton cloth of Rahon are famous beyond the limits of the District. 
English piece-goods and draught cattle constitute the chief items of 
the import trade. The Sind, Punjab, and Delhi Railway enters the 
District by an iron bridge across the Sutlej, and has stations at Phillaur, 
Phagwara (in Kapiirthala State), Jalandhar cantonment, Jalandhar town, 
and Kartarpur (for Kapiirthala town). It runs for a distance of 49 
miles through the District. The Grand Trunk Road crosses the Sutlej 
by a bridge of boats at Phillaur, runs nearly parallel to the railway, and 
leaves the District a few miles beyond Kartarpur. The Hoshiarpur 
and Kangra road is also metalled ; total length of metalled roads, 86 
miles. The District contains a total length of 373 miles of unmetalled 
road, and 80 miles of navigable river. The telegraph is in operation 
along the railway and the Grand Trunk Road. 

Admijiistration. — The District staff usually comprises a Deputy 
Commissioner, one or two Assistant Commissioners, and two or more 
extra-Assistant Commissioners, of whom one is a European, besides 
the usual fiscal and medical officers. The total revenue raised in the 
District in 1882-83 amounted to ^^i 74,597 ; of which sum the land- 
tax contributed ;^i2 2,oo7, or more than four-fifths. The incidence 
of the land revenue is the heaviest in the Punjab, in spite of which 
it is collected with great facility. The average assessment is returned 
at 3s. iijd. per acre of cultivation; 3s. 5-|d. per cultivable acre ; and 
3s. id. per acre of settlement area. The regular police force in 



90 JALANDHAR TAHSIL. 

1882-83 consisted of 364 officers and men, supplemented by 100 
municipal and 56 cantonment police. These figures show a total of 
520 constables, being at the rate of i policeman to every 2*54 square" 
miles of area and every 1490 of the population. In addition to the 
District and municipal police, a force of 11 79 village watchmen is 
maintained, being paid by a regular assessment upon houses. The 
District jail received during the same year 1005 prisoners, with a daily 
average of 327. It is in contemplation to build a larger and central 
jail at Jalandhar, with quarters for 950 prisoners. Education was 
carried on in 1882-83 by means of 157 Government and aided schools, 
with a total roll of 6882 pupils, giving an average of i school to every 
87 square miles, and 87 scholars to every thousand of the population. 
This is exclusive of private and uninspected schools ; and the Census 
Report of i88t returned 7329 boys and 433 girls as under instruction, 
besides 21,933 niales and 422 females able to read and write, but 
not under instruction. For fiscal and administrative purposes, the 
District is sub-divided into 4 tahsils or Sub-divisions and 9 thdfids or 
police circles. The 1 1 municipal towns had an aggregate revenue of 
;£"7025, or IS. ifd. per head of the population (119,311) within 
municipal limits. 

Medical Aspects. — The proximity of the hills renders the climate of 
Jalandhar comparatively moist. The annual rainfall for the thirty years 
ending 1881 averaged 28-49 inches. In 1881, the rainfall amounted 
to 34*63 inches, or 6"i4 inches above the average. Malarious fever in 
an endemic form proves the chief cause of mortality, but small-pox 
often appears as an epidemic, and dysenteric complaints are of frequent 
occurrence. The total number of deaths recorded in 1882 was 16,839, 
or 21 per thousand; of which 10,904, or 13*81 per thousand, were due 
to fever alone. There are 7 charitable dispensaries in the District, 
supported by local funds, which afforded relief in 1882 to 81,074 per- 
sons, of whom 878 were in-patients. Their joint revenue amounted to 
;^io,5i6, of which ^£'345 was contributed by private subscription. 
[For further information regarding Jalandhar, see the Settlement Report 
of the District^ by Mr. (now Sir Richard) Temple, dated October 185 1 ; 
the Gazetteer of Jalandhar District^ compiled and published under the 
authority of the Punjab Government (1883-84); the Punjab Census 
Report for 1881 ; and the Provincial and Departmental Ad?ninistratioJi 
Reports from 1880 to 1883.] 

Jdlandhar {/ullundur). — Northern tahsil of Jdlandhar District, 
Punjab. Lat. 31° 12' to 31° 37' n., long. 75° 28' 15" to 75° 51' 30" e. 
Area, 392 square miles, with 39,380 houses. Population (1881) 
243,759, namely, males 133,594, and females 110,165; average 
density of population, 622 per square mile. Number of families, 
56,198. Of the 399 villages comprising the tahsil, 275 contain 






JALANDHAR TOWN. 91 

less than five hundred inhabitants, and 84 others from five hundred 
to a thousand. The Muhammadans, who form the majority of the 
population, number 121,215; Hindus, 95,786; Sikhs, 24,834; and 
'others,' 1921. Total revenue, ^35,329. Of a total cultivated area 
of 191,412 acres in 1878-79, 45,485 acres were irrigated entirely by 
private enterprise. Of the uncultivated area, 32,672 acres were returned 
as cultivable but not under cultivation, and 59,482 acres as uncultivable 
waste. The annual average area under crops for the five years from 
1877-78 to 1881-82 was 198,978 acres, the area under the principal 
crops being — wheat, 101,588 acres; Indian corn, 21,058 acres ; /^^V, 
12,331 acres; moth, 15,199 acres; gram, 11,187 acres; barley, 3314 
acres; rice, 2599 acres; sugar-cane, 10,419 acres; cotton, 6205 acres; 
and vegetables, 2677 acres. The administrative staff, including the 
Divisional and District head-quarters, consists of a Commissioner and 
Assistant Commissioner, i Deputy Commissioner, with 3 Assistants, 
Small Cause Court Judge, i tahsilddr, 2 viunsifs, and 3 honorary 
magistrates. These officers preside over 11 civil and 12 criminal courts. 
Number of police stations (thdnds), 4; strength of regular police, 144 
men ; village w^atchmen (chauktddrs), 374. 

Jalandhar {Jidlundur). — Town, cantonment, municipality, and 
administrative head-quarters of Jalandhar District, Punjab. Lat. 31' 
19' 36" N., long. 75° 36' 48" E. Situated on the open plain, traversed 
by the Grand Trunk Road, and also by the Sind, Punjab, and Delhi 
Railway. 

Jalandhar lays claim to considerable antiquity, having been the 
original capital of the Rajput kingdom of Katoch, which dates back 
to the period anterior to Alexander's invasion, and is referred to 
the mythical epoch of the Mahdbhdrata. Hwen Thsang, the Chinese 
Buddhist pilgrim of the 7th century a.d., describes the town as 2 miles 
in circuit, the metropolis of a considerable State. Two ancient tanks 
alone attest the existence of the primitive Aryan city. Ibrahim Shah 
of Ghazni reduced the town to the Muhammadan yoke, and it appears 
as a place of considerable strength during the early Musalman tmies. 
Under the Mughal Empire it formed the capital of the Doab between 
the Sutlej and the Beas. {See Jalandhar District.) The modern 
city consists of a cluster of wards {muhallds), originally distinct, and 
each enclosed by a wall of its own. Some of them still remain 
detached, but the majority have now coalesced into one ; the houses 
between the walls have sprung up irregularly of late years. Numerous 
important suburbs, known as bastis, surround the city at distances of a 
mile or more. There is a fine sardt, built by Shaikh Karim Bakhsh, 
the local representative of Imam-ud-din. 

The population of Jalandhar town, including the cantonments, 
amounted in 1868 to 50,067, and in 1881 to 52,119 souls, thus 



92- 7ALANGI. 

distributed — Muhammadans, 31,326; Hindus, 18,514; Sikhs, 363; 
Jains, 373 ; and ' others,' 1543. Number of houses, 9043. Municipal 
income (1882-83), ;£3358- The American Presbyterian Mission 
maintains an excellent school, which educates up to the matriculation 
standard of the Calcutta University, and with its two branches is 
attended by about 700 pupils of all castes and creeds. A female 
school with about 80 pupils is also maintained by the Mission ; also a 
poorhouse, in which both in-door and out-door paupers receive relief. 
The trade, though considerable, presents little special interest. The 
staples of local traffic are English piece-goods for import and country 
produce for export. Railway stations both at the city and the canton- 
ment. The cantonment, which stands at a distance of 4 miles from 
the city, was established in 1846. It has an area of 7^ square miles, 
and a population (1881) of 9468 persons. The troops in garrison 
usually include i European infantry regiment, i battery of artillery, and 
I regiment of Native infantry. 

Jalangi (also called Kharia). — One of the three great rivers of 
Nadiya District, Bengal ; the other two being the Bhagirathi and the 
Matabhanga. All three streams are offshoots of the Padmd, and 
they are generally known as ' the Nadiya Rivers.' Reference is made 
in the article on Nadiya District to the importance and difficulty 
of keeping these rivers open for navigation, and a very complete sum- 
mary of the means taken by Government to effect this object will be 
found in the Statistical Account of Bengal^ vol. ii. pp. 19-32. The Padma 
(pronounced Padda), which is here the main stream of the Ganges, 
throws off the Jalangi at the point where it enters Nadiya District (lat. 
24° 11' N., long. 88° 49' E.). From this starting-point, the Jalangi 
flows in an exceedingly tortuous course along the north-west of the 
District, forming, for a distance of 50 miles (between the villages of 
Jalangi and Ramnagar), the boundary between Nadiya and Murshid- 
abad Districts. It then turns to the south, and, after innumerable 
windings, reaches Krishnagar, the chief town of Nadiya District, which 
is situated on its left bank. From Krishnagar, the river flows west until 
it meets the Bhagirathi at Nadiya town. The united stream thus 
formed takes the name of the Hugli {q.v.). The Jalangi, like the 
other head-waters of the Hugli, shows from time to time a tendency to 
deteriorate, by silting up, and by the formation of sandbanks or chars. 
Its condition as a waterway, and as one of the channels which 
feed the Hiigli from the Ganges, is a subject of much importance 
to the trade of Calcutta. The principal marts on the banks of the 
river are (besides Krishnagar) Karimpur, Chapra, and Swariipganj ; 
the trade is chiefly in grain, oil-seeds, and molasses. The rental 
of the Jalangi fisheries is valued at ^200 per annum. During the 
rainy season, the Jalangi is navigable by large native boats up to 



JALARAPETTA—JALA UN. 



93 



about 4 tons burden, but in the hot weather it is fordable at many 
points. 

Jalarapetta. — Town in Salem District, Madras Presidency.— 6Vf 

JOLLARPET. 

Jaldun. — British District in the Lieutenant -Governorship of the 
North-Western Provinces, lying between 25° 46' and 26° 26' n. lat., 
and between 78° 59' and 79° 56' e. long. Jalaun is the northern 
District of the Jhansi Division, situated in the tract of country west 
of the Jumna, known as Bundelkhand. It is bounded on the north- 
east and north by the river Jumna (Jamuna), on the west by the 
Gwalior and Datia States, on the south by the Samthar State and 
the river Betwa, and on the east by the Baoni State. Area, 1469 
square miles; population (1881) 418,142 persons. The administrative 
head-quarters are at Urai, but the most populous town in the District 
is Kalpi. 

Physical Aspects. — The District of Jaldun lies entirely within the level 
plain of Bundelkhand, north of the hill country, and almost surrounded 
by the Jumna and its tributaries, the Betwa and the Pahuj. The 
central region thus enclosed is a dead level of cultivated land, almost 
destitute of trees, and sparsely dotted with villages, many of them for 
long uninhabited. The southern portion especially presents one un- 
broken sheet of cultivation. Nearer to the rivers, the small streams 
have excavated for themselves a series of ravines, which drain the 
higher land dry, and so impoverish the soil. The sides of these 
ravines, which are covered with grass and jungle, compose the greater 
portion of the waste lands in the District. A few stunted trees also 
grow upon their slopes. 

The boundary rivers form the only interesting feature in Jalaun. 
Of these, the great stream of the Jumna is the chief, and indeed the 
only navigable river, even during the rainy season. Its banks, here as 
elsewhere, are high on the southern side ; but its bed is obstructed 
by numerous sandbanks and shallows. The Pahiij, which forms the 
western boundary for the greater part of its course, has steep and 
rocky banks ; and the Betwa, to the south, is rapid and unnavigable. 
The litde river Non flows through the centre of the District, which it 
drains instead of watering, by innumerable small ravines. The District 
contains no lakes or jhtls of importance, and no canals. It has no 
mineral wealth or forests. Woods which formerly existed along the river 
banks have been cleared, with the exception of the preserves of the 
Rajas of Rampur and Gopalpur, and the want of timber and even fuel 
is severely felt. As a whole, Jalaun is wanting in picturesqueness or 
beauty, but possesses great fertility and abundant agricultural resources, 
which, in the hands of a more enterprising and intelligent peasantry, 
might be easily developed into wealth and prosperity. Unfortunately, 



94 JALA UN, 

however, the general poverty and apathy of Bundelkhand at present 
weigh heavily upon the District, and greatly retard its progress. 

History. — Before the Aryan immigration, the region now known 
as Jalaun appears to have been inhabited by Bhils ; but its early 
history, after the Aryan conquest, is as mythical as the annals of other 
Indian countries. The first period concerning which anything can be 
stated with certainty is that of the Naga dynasty, which lasted from the 
ist to the 3rd century of the Christian era. A short account of their rule 
has been given under the District of Banda. After the dissolution of 
the Narwar monarchy, a period of dynastic struggles appears to have 
succeeded, during which the principal families of Bundelkhand in 
later times first rose into prominence. The eastern portion of the 
Naga dominions fell under the power of the Chandelas ; while the 
western Districts, including that of Jalaun, were ruled by a Rajput clan, 
the Kachhwahas. They seem to have held the greater portion of the 
District until the invasion of the Bundelas in the 14th century. But 
the town of Kalpi on the Jumna, the gate of the west, was conquered 
for the Musalman Princes of Ghor by Kutab-ud-din as early as the 
year 11 96 a.d. It was guarded by a strong Muhammadan garrison, 
and became the head-quarters for the administration of all their terri- 
tories beyond the Jumna, and the starting-point for their expeditions 
both into Bengal and the Deccan. When, early in the 14th century, 
the Bundelas, a race of hardy mountaineers, poured down from their 
southern fastnesses upon the fertile plain of the Betwd and the Pahiij, 
they occupied the greater part of Jalaun, and even succeeded for a 
short time in holding the fortified post of Kalpi. That important 
possession, however, was soon recovered by the Musalmans, and 
passed with the rest of their territories under the sway of the Mughal 
Emperors. 

Akbar's governors at Kalpi maintained a nominal authority over the 
surrounding country ; but the Bundela Rajas in the south were prac- 
tically independent of the Court of Delhi. Under Jahangir and Shah 
Jahan, the native princes were in a state of chronic revolt, which 
culminated in the war of independence under Chhatar Sal. On the 
outbreak of his rebellion in 1671, he occupied a large Province 
to the south of the Jumna, including the modern District of Jalaun. 
Setting out from this base, he reduced the whole of Bundelkhand, in 
which task he was assisted by the Marathas, then for the first time 
overrunning Central India under their earhest Peshwa, Baji Rao. 
Chhatar Sal died in 1734? and left by his will one-third of his dominions 
to his Marathd ally, on condition that his descendants should be main- 
tained in the remainder. The Marathas displayed their usual alacrity 
in occupying the territory thus bequeathed them, and in making such 
additions as from time to time seemed practicable. Their governor 



JALA UN. 95 

had his head-quarters at the important strategic post of Kalpi ; and 
before long succeeded in quietly annexing the whole of Bundelkhand. 

Under Maratha rule, the country was a prey to constant anarchy and 
intestine strife. The hills in the region south of the Betwa were 
crowned by the mud forts of robber chiefs, who swooped down upon 
the fertile plains, and left nothing to the miserable cultivators beyond 
the barest necessaries of life. To this period must be traced the origin 
of all the poverty and desolation which still, after nearly forty years of 
British rule, are conspicuous throughout the District. Our first con- 
nection with Jalaun arose from the treaty of Bassein in 1802. By that 
arrangement, the Peshwa agreed to cede certain portions of territory for 
the support of a British force. In order to carry out these terms, a 
supplementary arrangement was made with Raja Himmat Bahadur, by 
which his aid was purchased in exchange for a cession of lands. {See 
Banda District.) Kalpi and the surrounding country were included 
in this grant. Himmat Bahadur, however, died in 1804; and the 
pargand of Kalpi was thereupon handed over by the British to Nana 
Govind Rdo, who was in possession of the rest of the District. He had 
assisted Shamsher Bahadur, the Nawab of Banda, in his opposition to 
the British occupation ; but, after two years, he submitted to the new 
rulers, and was restored to all his possessions. 

In 1806, Kalpi was finally made over to the British, in exchange 
for certain villages, and formed part of the extensive District of 
Bundelkhand. The remainder of Jalaun was left in the hands of 
Govind Rao, and after his death passed to his son, and ultimately to his 
son's widow, a girl of only fourteen years. During the minority of her 
brother, whom she was permitted to adopt, the Jalaun State became 
wretchedly impoverished, and only yielded in 1838 one-fourth of the 
revenue which it was estimated to produce in 1803. The country fell 
almost into a wilderness, and many villages were entirely depopulated 
by emigration. But the boy chief died without issue in 1840, and 
his territories lapsed to the British Government. In the following 
year, Chirg^on, a neighbouring Native State, was annexed, owing to 
the rebellion of its chief. In 1844, three oih^x pargands were ceded by 
Sindhia for the support of the Gwalior Contingent. At various later 
dates, portions of Jalaun were made over to Hamirpur, Jhansi, and 
other surrounding Districts: and in 1856, the present boundaries were 
substantially settled. During the period of British rule before the 
Mutiny, Jalaun, like other portions of Bundelkhand, recovered its 
prosperity only by very slow degrees. The zaminddrs had been left 
heavily in debt, and almost ruined, by the government of Govind Rao ; 
and the assessments made at the various subsequent settlements fol- 
lowed, perhaps, too closely the native system. Property was so greatly 
depreciated, that in some cases no purchasers could be found for 



96 . JALA UN. 

estates which had lapsed to the Government. This state of things 
continued down to the outbreak of the Mutiny in the spring of 1857. 

News of the rising at Cawnpur reached Kalpi early in June ; and 
shortly afterwards, intelligence arrived that the Europeans at Jhansi 
had been massacred. Thereupon the men of the 53rd Native Infantry 
deserted their officers; and on the 15th of June, the Jhansi mutineers 
reached the District, and murdered all the Europeans on whom they 
could lay their hands. Meanwhile, the Giirsarai chief, Kesho Rao, 
adopted a wavering policy, and assumed supreme authority in the 
District, — at first on the ground that it had been entrusted to him by 
the Deputy Commissioner, but afterwards on his own responsibility. 
He kept a few European officers as prisoners for some months, until 
after the defeat of the infamous Nana Sahib and his flight from Cawnpur ; 
but those events induced him to change his tone, and to treat with 
General Neil for their restoration. After sending them in safety to 
Cawnpur, the chief established himself for a time at Jalaun ; but upon 
the arrival of Tantia Topi in October, the usual anarchic quarrels arose. 
Kesho Rao was deposed ; his son was seized by the rebels ; and the 
mutineers of Jalaun, joining those of Gwalior, set out for Cawnpur. 
Meanwhile, the natives everywhere revelled in the licence of plunder 
and murder which the Mutiny had spread through all Bundelkhand. 
In May 1858, after the fall of Jhansi, Sir Hugh Rose's force entered the 
District, and routed the rebels at Kiinch. There he left some troops of 
the Giirsarai chief, whose allegiance had returned with the advent of 
the British forces. A Deputy Commissioner was put in charge of the 
District at Kiinch, and Sir Hugh Rose advanced to attack the strong 
rebel position at Kalpi. On the 23rd May, he drove them from that 
post, and shortly afterwards marched in pursuit towards Gwalior. 
Unfortunately he was unable to leave any troops in garrison, except a 
small body to guard the passage at Kalpi; and accordingly, on his 
withdrawal, the western portion of the District fell once more into 
anarchy. Plundering went on as before ; and in July and August, the 
rebels again attacked and pillaged Kiinch and Jalaun. The latter town 
was immediately recovered by a detachment from the garrison at Kalpi ; 
but it was not till September that the guerilla leaders were defeated, 
and some further time elapsed before the work of reorganization could 
be effected. Since the Mutiny, the condition of Jalaun appears to have 
been steadily, if very slowly, improving ; and it is hoped that the more 
lenient fiscal arrangements of the present day will conduce to the 
prosperity of this still backward region. 

People. — All enumerations of the population previous to 1865 were 
so imperfect as to be practically useless, even if they were not rendered 
unavailable for purposes of comparison by great differences in the area 
of the District. The Census of 1865 showed the total number of 



JALA UN. 97 

inhabitants to be 405,604. In 1872, the population had decreased to 
404,447, being a falling off of '3 per cent., the decrease being due to 
deaths from famine and emigration, particularly in 1869. By 1881 the 
population had recovered itself, and was returned at 418,142, showing 
an increase of 13,695, or 3-4 percent., in the nine years since 1872. The 
general results arrived at by the Census of 188 1 may be summarized as 
under: — Area of the District, 1469 square miles; number of towns and 
villages, 857; number of houses, 66,734; persons per square mile, 
284*5 ; inhabited villages per square mile, 0*58 ; houses per square 
mile, 45 '4 ; persons per village, 488; persons per house, 6 '2. Classified 
according to sex, there were 216,145 males and 201,997 females; pro- 
portion of males, 52 per cent. Classified according to age, there were, 
under 15 years — males 80,555, and females 70,260; total children, 
150,815, or 36*07 per cent. : 15 years and upwards — males 135,590, 
and females 131,737 ; total adults, 267,327, or 63*93 per cent. About 
89 per cent, of the inhabitants belong to the rural, and 1 1 per cent, 
to the urban, population. As regards religion, Hindus numbered 
392,332, or 93*8 per cent, of the total population; Muhammadans, 
25,666, or 6*o per cent.; Jains, 130 ; and Christians, 14. 

The principal landowning tribes are — Brahmans, numbering 53,887 ; 
Kayasths, 8790; Kiirmis, 18,473; Giijars, 6583; and the Kachhwahas 
and Sengars, whose numbers are not returned separately in the 
Census Report. The Kachhwahas, who are Rajputs, are the 
leading clan of the District, and comprise most of the great native 
families. The Sengars, a clan originally Brahman, which has inter- 
married with Rajputs, and is now ranked amongst them, are also 
numerous and influential; during the Mutiny they were conspicuous 
as plunderers. Total Rajputs, 40,7 3 3- The Maratha pandits, who 
formed part of the governing body till 1840, are few in number, but 
wealthy; in 1857 they were almost unanimously rebellious. Many of 
them have since emigrated to Gwalior or to the Maratha country. 
The other most numerous Hindu castes in the District are the 
following: — Baniyas, 16,464; Ahirs, 13,639; Chamars, 60,232; 
Gadarias, 12,121; Kachhis, 28,418; Koris, 21,164; and Lodhis, 
12,305. The Musalmans have no social or political importance, 
and in sect they are almost exclusively Sunnis. There is no native 
Christian settlement, nor has the Brahma Samaj made any progress in 
the District. 

As regards occupations, the Census Report returns the male 
population under six classes:— (i) Professional, including Government 
officials and the learned professions, 5216; (2) domestic servants, 
board and lodging-house keepers, 1433 ; (3) commercial class, including 
merchants, traders, carriers, etc., 3780; (4) agricultural and pastoral 
class, including gardeners, 84,294; (5) manufacturing and industrial 

VOL. VII. G 



98 JALA UN. 

class, 31,498; (6) indefinite and non-productive class, including general 
labourers, male children, etc., 89,924. There were four towns in 1881 
with a population exceeding 5000, namely, Kalpi, 14,306; Kunch, 
13,739; Jalaun, 10,057; and Urai, 7738. Of minor villages and 
towns, 336 contain less than two hundred inhabitants ; 275 between 
two hundred and five hundred; 151 between five hundred and a 
thousand ; 71 between one thousand and two thousand ; and 20 between 
two thousand and five thousand inhabitants. The language in common 
use is a dialect of Hindi, but a corrupt form of Urdii is spoken in the 
Muhammadan villages. 

Agriculture.— 'T\iQ staple crops of the District are cereals, gram, and 

cotton. Of these, gram occupies the largest area ; and next in point of 

acreage come wheat, and the two millets known as jodr and bdjra. 

Cotton was very extensively cultivated during the scarcity caused by the 

American war ; and although the total out-turn is now only one-tenth 

of that produced in 1864, it still ranks fifth of all crops grown in 

Jalaun. About 5 lakhs worth (say ^50,000) is exported annually. 

Oil-seeds, dye-stuffs, and sugar-cane are also raised, but in no large 

quantities. The seasons are those prevalent throughout Bundelkhand, 

— the kharif or autumn crops, sown in June or August, consist chiefly 

of millets and cotton ; the rabi or spring crops, sown in November 

or December, are mainly gram and wheat. Of the total area of 

1477 square miles in 1881, 952 square miles were returned as 

under cultivation, 215 as cultivable, 259 as uncultivable, and the 

remainder as revenue-free and non-assessed. This is exclusive of 85 

square miles comprising the three semi -independent chiefships of 

Rampura, Jagamanpur, and Gopalpur, concerning which no details 

are available, and which pay no tribute or revenue to Government. 

The kharif or autumn food crop in 1881 was grown over an area of 

182,548 acres, and non-food crops over 70,533 acres. The rabi ox 

spring harvest area was returned at 370,384 acres of food crops, and 

5501 acres of non-food crops. Total kharif and rabi area, including 

land twice cropped, 629,966 acres. The cultivation of the al plant 

(Morinda citrifolia) holds a prominent place in the District, and the 

dyeing of cloths therefrom is the staple industry of the towns of Kiinch, 

Kalpi, Sayyidnagar, and Kotra. The total produce of grain is estimated 

at 2,987,292 maunds, or 2,194,745 cwts., of which 2,313,210 maunds 

are required for home consumption, leaving 674,081 maunds^ or 495,241 

cwts., valued at ^134,816, for export. 

Rotation of crops is practised to a slight extent, and exhausting staples 
are sown only after a long rest. Manuring is not resorted to, except in 
the case of sugar-cane and other expensive produce. The practice is, 
however, on the increase. Irrigation was employed in 1881 over 
18,889 acres. Of this area, 7719 acres, situated in pargand Kiinch to 



JALA UN. 99 

the south of the District, are watered by the natural channel known as 
the/^z/, which flows from the uplands in the Native State of Samthar. 
The remainder is artificially irrigated from wells; only an insignificant 
fraction being supplied from tanks. A scheme is (1883) in progress, 
however, for damming up the Betwa, and distributing abundant irriga- 
tion by means of canals. Jalaun has suffered at times, like the sur- 
rounding Districts, from the noxious kd?is grass. The condition of the 
peasantry is still far from comfortable; their houses and villages are 
squalid, and the usual apathetic poverty of Bundelkhand is noticeable 
in their dress and surroundings. Both zaminddrs and cultivators are 
generally deeply in debt to the village banker ; and they have learned 
to look upon such indebtedness as the normal economical state. 

About one-half of the land is held by cultivators possessing rights of 
occupancy. A holding of 90 acres is considered large ; one of 20 to 25 
acres, a fair middle-sized farm. The adult male agricultural population 
in 1881 was returned at 83,991, namely, landholders, 8960 ; estate 
agents, 719; cultivators, 57,961; and field labourers, 15,033. The 
adult female agriculturists numbered 35,844, namely, landholders, 
1819 ; cultivators, 26,612; and field labourers, 7413. Total amount 
of Government assessment, including local rates and cesses levied on 
the land, ;^ 108, 643, or 3s. 6|d. per cultivated acre. Total rental, 
including cesses, etc., paid by the cultivators, ;£'2o6,8i5, or 6s. 7d. per 
cultivated acre. Rents run from 2s. 7d. to 7s. 6d. per acre, according 
to the nature of the soil and the caste of the tenant, the lower castes, 
such as Kurmis and Kachhis, paying more than Bundelas and 
Rajputs for lands of the same quality. The average rate on all 
classes of land is 5s. 4jd. per acre. Profits are hoarded, or spent in 
jewellery for the women ; nothing is employed as capital in land 
improvements or investment. Wages have risen much of late years ; 
the chief causes being the rise in price of food-stuffs, the increased 
demand for labour on the railways, and the cessation of the former 
stream of immigrants from Oudh. whose people now find employment 
and security under British rule in their own country. These various 
influences have produced a rise of 25 per cent, during the last ten 
years. The average wages of tailors are now about 7jd. per diem; 
carpenters, blacksmiths, head masons, 6d. per diem ; common 
masons, road-makers, 3d. to 4jd. ; boys, 2 Jd. ; women and children, 
|d. to ijd. xA.gricultural wages are paid to a great extent in kind. 
The average prices of the chief food-grains in 1882-83 (in Jalaun 
pargana) were as follows :~Gram, 29 sers the rupee, or 3s. lod. 
per c\v\.. ; Jodr, 28 sers the rupee, or 4s. per cwt. ; wheat, 21 strs 
the rupee, or 5s. 4d. per cwt. ; common rice, 14 se?'s per rupee, or 8s. 
per cwt. 

Natural Calaviiiies. — Drought is the great danger to be apprehended 



loo JALA UN. 

in Jalaun. Famine or scarcity from that cause occurred in 1783, in 
1833, in 1837, and in 1848. The last important drought was that in 
August and September of 1868. Two-thirds of the autumn, and one- 
half of the cold-weather, crops were then destroyed. No actual famine 
resulted, but great distress prevailed, especially in the remote southern 
villages, until the summer of 1869. The surplus grain of the Doab 
passed through Kalpi southward and westward in large quantities. At 
Urai, rations of i lb. per adult and ^ lb. per child were distributed 
by Government. Large numbers were also assisted by private 
charity at Kalpi. In the south, relief works were opened in the 
shape of road-making and excavation of tanks. The total cost of the 
relief operations amounted to ^1864, and the average number of 
persons daily relieved was 1800. The maximum price of gram during 
the scarcity was 9 sers 3 chhaidks the rupee, or about 12s. 2:|d. per cwt. 
Jalaun is more favourably situated for communication with the Doab, 
via Kalpi and Shergarhghat, than any other District of the Jhansi 
Division; but even here the agricultural population suffered much 
hardship in 1868, and lost one-third of their cattle. It was necessary to 
suspend the collection of a large portion of the revenue; but no 
advances were needed for the purpose of buying seed, as was the case 
in neighbouring Districts to the south. 

Comnm-ce and Trade. — Jalaun is almost entirely an agricultural 
District, and its chief exports are cotton and grain. Kalpi is the 
great mart of the District, through which traffic passes north-westward 
by Cawnpur, and south-eastward toward Mirzapur and Calcutta. Kiinch 
is also a considerable trading town. The business of the outlying 
villages is chiefly conducted at fairs, where English cloth and other 
European goods are beginning to make their appearance. There are 
scarcely any manufactures of sufficient importance to deserve record. 
Coarse cotton cloth is woven for home use ; and the dyeing of such 
fabrics with the red al dye, obtained from the root of Morinda citrifolia 
grown in the District, is the staple industry of the principal towns. No 
mines or forests exist in Jalaun. The communications are moderately 
good. The river traffic by Kalpi is chiefly for through goods ; and the 
Jumna is little used as a highway. The nearest railway station is at 
Phaphiind on the East Indian line, in Etawah District, which is con- 
nected with the towns of Urai and Jalaun by a good commercial road, 
crossing the river at Shergarh. There is also a great military road from 
Kalpi to Jhansi, metalled throughout. Total length of roads, 534!- miles. 
In times of flood, however, the Betwa and the Pahuj are often im- 
passable for days, 

Admmtstraiio?i. — It is almost impossible to give any intelligible 
account of the fiscal history of this District within reasonable limits, 
owing to the frequent changes, transfers, and redistribution of villages 



JALA UN. loi 

and /^zr^w/Ji made with the surrounding Districts and Native States. 
When Jalaun was first taken over by the British Government from the 
family of Govind Rao, the last chief, who died without heirs in 
1840, it was already greatly impoverished by their misgovern- 
ment'. The existing assessments were found to be too high, and 
successive reductions became necessary from time to time. After 
the Mutiny, a lighter settlement was introduced, which seems to be 
working beneficially for the restoration of agricultural prosperity. The 
revenue in i860 amounted to ^128,026, and the expenditure to 
;£"47,6oi, or rather more than one-third of the revenue. In 1870, the 
receipts had fallen to ;£ii2,i28, and the expenditure to ^24,813, or 
rather m.ore than one-fifth of the revenue. The immense difference in 
the expenditure at these two dates, amounting to a decrease of nearly 
one-half, is chiefly due to the great retrenchment in the items of justice, 
police, and pubhc works. In 1882-83, the total revenue of Jalaun was 
^120,624, of which ^90,942, or 75-39 per cent, was derived from the 
land-tax. The other principal items are excise, stamps, and fees in 

courts of justice. 

The administration is on the non- regulation system, which unites 
civil, criminal, and fiscal functions in the same officer. The District 
is administered by i Deputy Commissioner, 2 Assistant^ Com- 
missioners, 3 extra-Assistant Commissioners, and 5 tahsilddrs. It 
contains 25 police stations. The regular and municipal police in 1882 
numbered 573 men, maintained at a cost of ^5818, of which ^5018 
was paid from imperial revenues. There were also 1237 village watch- 
men, paid at the rate of 3 rupees a month. The total machinery, 
therefore, for the protection of person and property, consisted in 1882 
of 18 10 men, giving i man to every o-8i square mile of the area and 
to every 231 of the population. The statistics of crime in the same 
year were as follows :— Murder, 6 cases; robbery, 3; house-trespass, 
224; theft, 759; cattle theft, 64. There is i jail in the District, the 
average daily number of prisoners in which was 114 in 1882. Educa- 
tion has been progressing slowly of late years. In i860 there were 
1434 children under instruction in Government-inspected schools; in 
1871, the number had increased to 2703; in 1882-83, the Government 
schools were returned at 98, with 2597 pupils. This, however, is 
exclusive of private and uninspected indigenous schools; and the 
Census of 1881 returned 4013 boys and 28 girls as under instruction, 
besides 13,761 males and 86 females able to read and write, but not 
under instruction. The District is divided into 5 fiscal divisions, 
with an aggregate in 1882 of 1294 estates, the average land revenue 
from each being £']o, los. The District contains 3 municipalities— 
Urai, Kalpi, and Kunch, with a total municipal population of 35,797. 
In 1882-83, their aggregate revenue amounted to ;£'2i82, of which 



102 JALA UN TAHSIL AND TOWN 

J^i'JS9 ^vas derived from octroi, or an average taxation of is. per head ; 
expenditure, ^^2238. 

Medical Aspects. — The climate of Jalaun, though hot and dry, is not 
considered unhealthy. The mean temperature is about 81-9° F. for 
the whole year; the monthly averages being as follows : — January, 65° ; 
Februar}^, 75'5°; March, 80°; April, 90°; May, 96*5°; June, 95*2°; 
July, 90*2°; August, 87*2° ; September, 86"2° ; October, 82*5°; 
November, 68*2°; and December, 66^ The rainfall for the ten years 
preceding 1881 was as follows : — 1871-72, 43*0 inches; 1872-73, 28*8 
inches; 1873-74, 31-4 inches; 1874-75, 43-6 inches; 1875-76, 35-5 
inches; 1876-77, 32*18 inches; 1877-78, i5"4 inches; 1878-79, 20*4 
inches; 1879-80, 33*0 inches; and 1880-81, 15*0 inches. Annual 
average for the 10 years, 29*82 inches. 

The prevailing diseases of Jalaun are fevers, dysentery, and other 
bowel complaints. The total number of deaths recorded in 1881 was 
16,074, being at the rate of 38*40 per thousand, of which 24*41 
per thousand were assigned to fevers. The endemic diseases are 
chiefly attributable to bad drainage, impure water, and dirty habits. 
The want of shade not only induces a dry and hot atmosphere, but is 
also answerable for much sickness. Rinderpest broke out in the District 
in 1870, but was repressed by a rigorous system of segregation and 
quarantine before it had caused any serious loss. [For further infor- 
mation regarding Jalaun, see Seitlenie7it Report of the District^ by 
Colonel Ternan, Mr. E. White, C.S., and Colonel Lloyd, dated 1870; 
the Gazetteer of the North- Western Proinnces., by Mr. E. T. Atkinson, 
C.S. (vol. i., Government Press, Allahabad, 1874) ; the Census Repoi't 
of the North- Western Provinces for 1881 ; and the Provincial and 
Departmental A dmi7iistration Reports from 1880 to 1883.] 

Jalaun. — Central northern tahsil of Jalaun District, North-Western 
Provinces, consisting of a level plain, stretching inward from the 
southern bank of the Jumna, and conterminous wath Jalaun pargand. 
Area, 323 square miles, of which 242 are cultivated. Population 
(1872) 91,501 ; (1881) 94,873, namely, males 40,098, and females 
45,775. Classified according to religion, there were, in 1881 — Hindus, 
89,404; and Muhammadans, 5469. Of the 231 villages comprising 
the tahsil., 1 70 contained less than five hundred inhabitants ; 40 from 
five hundred to a thousand; 18 from one to two thousand; and 3 
upwards of two thousand. Land revenue, ^22,226; total Govern- 
ment revenue, ^^25,067; rental paid by cultivators, ;£"5o,975; incidence 
of Government revenue per acre, 2s. 5d. In 1884, the ^^-7/^// contained 
2 civil and 2 criminal courts, with 3 police stations {thdtids). Strength 
of regular police, 41 men; village watchmen {chaiikiddrs), 330. 

Jalaun. — ^Town in Jalaun District, North-Western Provinces, and 
former capital of a Native State. Lat. 26° 8' 32" n., long. 79° 22' 42" e. 



JALDHAKA—JALESAR, 103 

The town occupies a large area, and contains a considerable number 
of good houses, and a ruined fort, demolished in i860, the former 
residence of the I^Iaratha governors. The principal inhabitants are 
Marathd Brahmans, known as Dakhini Pandits, whose ancestors held 
offices under the Peshwa's deputy. The position of the town is low, 
and surrounding swamps engender cholera and malarious fever, for 
which reason the head-quarters of the District have been fixed at 
Urai, instead of in this place. Population (1881) 10,057, namely, 
Hindus, 8604, and Muhammadans, 1453. Tahsili^ police station, 
dispensary, school. A good new bazar known as Whiteganj has 
recently been constructed on the extensive open site of the old fort, 
at a cost of ;£"5ooo. No manufactures, little trade. A good road runs 
to Shergarh ferry on the Jumna, 14 miles from Phaphund station on 
the East Indian Railway. 

Jaldhaka. — River of Northern Bengal, rising in the Bhutan Hills. 
It flows from north to south, marking the boundary between the British 
District of Darjiling and the State of Bhutan ; passes through Jalpai- 
guri District ; sweeps eastward into Kuch Behar, and, after a south- 
easterly course, joins the Dharla or Torsha River, with which it 
has several cross communications, near the trading villages of Durgapur 
and Gitaldaha in that State. In the upper part of its course, the 
Jaldhaka is called the De-chu ; its principal tributaries in Darjiling 
District being the Paralang-chu, Rang-chu, and Ma-chu, all on its right 
bank. In the lower part of its course, the Jaldhaka is known as the 
Singimari; its chief affluents in Jalpaiguri are the Murti and the Dina, — in 
Kuch Behar, the Mujnai, Satanga, Duduyi, Dolang, and Dalkhoa. The 
Jaldhaka is a wide river, but very shallow. 

Jalesar. — North-eastern tahsil of Etah District, North-Western 
Provinces, lying in the Doab plain, but much intersected by ravines 
along the banks of the Isan Nadi. The tahsil was recently transferred 
to Etah from Agra District. Area, 227 square miles, of ^vhich 
152 are cultivated. Population in 1872, 125,591 \ in 1881, 118,925, 
namely, males 64,672, and females 54,253. In 1881, Hindus 
numbered 103,487 ; Muhammadans, 13,135 ; Jains, 2295 ; 'others,' 8. 
Number of tov,'ns and villages, 158. Land revenue, ;£"2 7,53i ; total 
Government revenue, ;^37,oi5 ; rental paid by cultivators, ^56,661. 

Jalesar. — Town and municipality in Etah District, North-Western 
Provinces, and head-quarters of Jalesar tahsil. Lat. 27° 28' n., long. 
78° 20' 30" E. Situated on the Doab plain, 38 miles east of the 
Jumna and of Muttra. Station on the East Indian Railway, at Jalesar 
road. Population (1881) 15,609, namely, Hindus, 9371 ; Muham- 
madans, 5998 ; Jains, 239 ; Christian, 1. Area of town site, 222 acres. 
Municipal revenue in 1882-83, £^1^\ f'^om taxes, ^871, or is. ifd. 
per head of population. 



1 04 J A LES WAR—JAL GA ON. 

Jaleswar (popularly Jellasore). — An old border town between 
Bengal and Orissa, now within the north-east boundary of Balasor Dis- 
trict ; situated in lat. 21° 47' 20" n., and long. 87° 13' 35" e., on 
the Calcutta high-road. The name is also applied to an ancient 
Muhammadan circle or sarkdr, which comprised the present Midnapur 
District, including Hijili. During the last century, the East India 
Company had a factory at Jaleswar, and established some sort of order 
along the neighbouring frontier. On the abolition of the Company's 
factory, the town ceased to have any external importance as a seat of 
trade. 

Jalgdon. — Town and municipality in the Nasirabad (Nusseerabad) 
Sub-division, Khandesh District, Bombay Presidency ; station on the 
Great Indian Peninsula Railway, 261 miles north-east of Bombay. Lat. 
20° 25' N., long. 74° 33' E. Population (1872) 6893 ; (1881) 9918, 
namely, Hindus, 8234; Muhammadans, 1297; Jains, 269; Christians, 
2d> ; Parsis, 3; and 'others,' 87. Municipal income (1882-83), 
;^2968 ; municipal expenditure, ;^28i9; rate of taxation, 4s. ijd. 
per head of the population (9882) within municipal limits. Area 
of town site, 417 acres. Seat of an assistant superintendent of 
police, of the revenue authorities of the Sub-division, and of a 
sub-judge's court. The railway was opened in i860. Situated in 
the centre of a rich cotton-growing district, Jalgaon has during the 
last fifty years risen to the position of an important mercantile town. 
During the American war (1862-65), the town was the great cotton 
mart of Khandesh. It suffered severely from the fall in the value of 
products at the close of the war, but its trade is steadily recovering. 
The chief articles of commerce are cotton, linseed, and sesamum. 
There were at Jalgaon in 1882 three full-power cotton-presses, one large 
cotton ginning factory, and one cotton spinning and weaving mill, all 
worked by steam. In the same year, the number of looms was 220, 
and of spindles, 19,000. The Bombay Bank has a branch, and sends 
an agent during the busy season (November-May). The town has been 
greatly improved of late years. A new suburb. Pollen Pet, has been 
built ; a market-place laid regularly out ; and a new school and dis- 
pensary erected. There are also a travellers' bungalow, post-office, 
ind?nlatddr's court, native rest-house, police station, and municipal 
office. The municipality has laid out a garden on the site of part of 
the old cotton market. One of the most striking of many handsome 
buildings in the new suburb is a three-storied dwelling built by the 
J)dtel or head-man of Pathri. Water is carried through iron pipes from 
the Mehrun lake, two miles distant. A good road joins Jalgaon and 
the railway station. There is also a metalled road between Jalgaon 
and Neri, 14 miles distant. 

Jalgaon. — Village in Arvi ta/isil, Wardha District, Central Provinces, 



JAL GA ON—JAL GA ON-JAMBOD, 1 05 

6 miles north-west of Arvi, and 40 from Wardha town. Population 
(1881) 212 1, chiefly agriculturists. Hindus numbered 1991 ; Muham- 
madans, no; Jains, 14; aborigines, 6. Fine pan and other gardens; 
90 wells. Bi-w^eekly market ; school. 

Jalg^on. — Taluk of Akola District, Berar. Lat. 20° 16' 45" to 21° 
t6' 45" N,, long. 76° 25' to 77° 26' E. Area, 392 square miles; contains 
3 towns and 162 villages, with 19,428 houses. Population (1867) 83,110; 
(1881) 105,739, namely, 54,434 males and 51,305 females; average 
density, 26974 persons per square mile. Total increase (1867 to 
1881), 22,629, or 27*23 per cent. Classified according to religion, there 
were, in 1881 — Hindus, 98,071; Muhammadans, 7521; Sikhs, 40; 
Jains, 100; and Pdrsis, 7. Agriculturists numbered 77,152, or 72*9 
per cent, of the total population of the tdliik^ the average area of culti- 
vated and cultivable land being 2*86 acres per head of the agricultural 
population. Of the total area of 392 square miles, 360 square miles 
were assessed for Government revenue in 1881, of which 3io"5 square 
miles were returned as under cultivation; i6"2 square miles as cultiv- 
able ; and 33*2 square miles- as uncultivable waste. Total Government* 
land revenue, including local rates and cesses levied on the land, 
;£"33,2i8, or an average of 3s. 4d. per cultivated acre. The tdbik is 
crossed by the Nagpur Branch of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway ; 
Jalam junction (with branch to Khamgaon), Shegaon, Paras, Dapki, 
Akola, and Borgaon stations, are situated in it. The taluk contains 
I civil and 2 criminal courts ; police stations {t hands) ^ 2 ; regular 
police, 47 men ; village watchmen {chaukiddrs), 176. 

Jalgaon. — Par^and o( BsLnvdni State, Deputy Bhil (Manpur) Agency, 
Central India. Area, 672 square miles, of which 11,334 acres are 
cultivated, 105,500 acres cultivable, and the remainder barren and 
hilly. Revenue (1877-78), ;£"828. Population (1881) 4196, dwelling 
in 88^ houses. Khetia and Melan are the two largest villages in 
the pa rgand. 

Jalgaon- Jambod. — Town in Akola District, Berar ; called Jalgaon- 
Jambod, from an adjacent village, to distinguish it from Jalgaon in Khan- 
desh. Lat. 21° 3' n., long. 76° 35' e. ; situated 44 miles north-west 
of Akola town, 8 miles south of the Satpura Hills, and 6 miles 
from the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, the nearest station being 
at Nandiira, in Buldana District. Population (1867) 8763; (1881) 
10,392, namely, 5267 males and 5125 females. Of the total popula- 
tion, 8649 ^^'^re returned as Hindus; 17 15 Muhammadans; 10 
Sikhs; 11 Jains; and 7 Parsis. Area of town site, 142 acres. A 
pass over the hills north of the town leads to Asirgarh and Burhanpur, 
but is nearly impracticable even for pack-bullocks. On the crest of the 
hills, between Jalgaon and Burhanpur, and commanding the road, 
is the village of Bingara, inhabited by Muhammadan Bhils. The 



io6 JALIA AMRAJI—JALNA. 

only water procurable in these hills for many miles is supplied by a 
tank near Bingara. Jalgaon is mentioned in the Ain-i-Akbari as the 
head-quarters of a pargand. Spring water is abundant. In many large 
gardens, principally on the western side of the town, grapes, plantains, 
and betel creepers are grown. Weekly market. Average import of 
cotton, 5000 bullock-loads, of about 260 lbs. each. The town contains 
an extra-Assistant Commissioner's court, the usual tahsil buildings, a 
middle-class school, police station, charitable dispensary, and post- 
ofhce. 

Jalia Amraji. — Petty State, Undsarviya District, Kathiawar, 
Bombay Presidency ; situated about 9 miles south-west of Palitana. 
Jalia Amraji consists of i village, with i independent tribute-payer. 
Population (1881) 608. The tdhikddrs are Sarviya Rajputs. The 
revenue is estimated at ;^2 2o ; tribute of ;^i2, i6s. is paid to the 
Gaekwar of Baroda, and i6s. to the Nawab of Junagarh. 

Jalia Dewani. — Petty State in Halar District, Kathiawar, Bombay 
Presidency. Jalia Dewani consists of 10 villages, with i independent 
tribute-payer. The revenue is estimated at ^^1300 ; tribute of 
;^ii8, 3s. is paid to the Gaekwar of Baroda, and ^37 to the Nawab 
of Junagarh. 

Jalia Manaji. — Petty State, Undsarviya District, Kathiawar, 
Bombay Presidency. Jalia Manaji consists of i village, with i inde- 
pendent tribute - payer. Population (1881) 180. The revenue is 
esdmated at ^200 ; tribute of ^3, 2s. is paid to the Gaekwar of 
Baroda. 

Jalna. — Town and cantonment in Aurangabad District, Haidarabad 
(Hyderabad) State (Nizam's Dominions), Southern India. Lat. 19° 
50' 30" N., and long. 75° 56' e. ; lies on the right bank of the Kun- 
daiika stream, opposite the town of Kadirabad, and 240 miles 
north-west of Sikandarabad (Secunderibad), 38 miles east of Aurang- 
abad, and 210 miles north-east of Bombay. Population (1881) 6258. 
A British cantonment, occupied by a regiment of the Haidarabad 
Contingent, is situated on a gentle declivity to the east of the town, at 
an elevation of 1652 feet above the sea, in an arid tract of country. 
Population (1881) 9933. The lines, built in 1827, extend from 
south-east to north-west, and can accommodate a troop of horse 
artillery, one regiment of Native cavalry, and three regiments of Native 
infantry. Sita, wife of Rama, is said to have resided anciently at Jalna, 
then called Jankapur. In the time of Akbar, Jalna was held as a 
jdgir by one of the Mughal generals. Abu-1-Fazl, the Muhammadan 
historian, dwelt in the town when exiled from Akbar's court. During the 
Maratha war in 1803, British troops under Colonel Stevenson occupied 
the place. The only public buildings of note are the sardi^ a stone- 
built rest-house, and a mosque. There are 3 Hindu temples. Trade 



JALOR—JALPAIGURL 107 

has declined. The only manufactures carried on in Jalna now are those 
of cotton cloths, gold and silver lace. A fort, erected in 1725, now 
occupied by a tahsilddr's guard, stands in the east quarter of the 
town. In the fort is a remarkable well, the sides of which are 
excavated into galleries and chambers. The gardens of Jalna, to the 
north of the fort, are celebrated in the Dekhan, and the fruit is sent 
in large quantities to Haidarabad, Bombay, and other distant places. 
Half a mile to the west of Jalna is the Moti Talao, an immense tank, 
supplying the town with water. Jalna cantonment has a post-office, 
travellers' bungalow, and two churches, one of which belongs to the 
Free Church Mission, and has a school attached to it. 

Jalor. — Town in the Native State of Jodhpur or Marwar, Rajputana. 
Lat. 25° 22' N., long. 72° 57' 45" E. Jalor, situated on the southern 
border of the vast sandy plain of Mdrwar, was founded early in the 
Christian era by the Pramara dynasty. It is built of large masses 
of cut stone in a good state of preservation. The town is of con- 
siderable importance. Drinking vessels of bell-metal, prettily engraved, 
are made by Thatheras. The fort of Jalor is 800 yards long and 400 
wide, and commands the town from an eminence of 1200 feet. The 
main entrance is on the northern face, and leads up a steep, slippery, 
stone roadway, passing three distinct lines of defence, all of consider- 
able strength, and mounting guns on the outer face of the fort. There 
is but a single rampart wall, about 20 feet in height. In former ages it 
was famous for its strength, and the many gallant sieges it withstood. 
There are two tanks in the fort. 

Jalori (or Sriket). — Mountain range in Kangra District, Punjab ; one 
of the minor Himalayan chains. It is an offshoot of the mid-Himalayan 
system, which traverses the Sub-division of Seoraj in Kiilu, and throws 
off a lofty spur to the north, separated from the outer Himalayas or 
Dhaola-dhar range by the deep gorge of the Bias (Beas). It forms the 
dividing ridge beween the affluents of that river and the watershed of 
the Sutlej (Satlej). The range is crossed by two roads, one, the Jalori 
Pass (height, 10,980 feet), leading towards Simla; the other, the 
Basleo (10,880 feet), towards Rampur, in Bashahr State. 

Jalpaiguri. — The north-eastern District of the Rajshahi Kuch Behar 
Division, in the Lieutenant-Governorship of Bengal. It lies between 
26° o' 35" and 26° 59' 30" N. lat, and between 88' 22' 40" and 89° 55' 
20" E. long., occupying an irregularly shaped tract south of Bhutan and 
north of the State of Kuch Behar and Rangpur District. Area, 2884 
square miles. Population (1881) 581,562 persons. The administra- 
tive head-quarters are at Jalpaiguri town, which is also a military 
station. 

Physical Aspects. — From a geographical point of view, as well as for 
administrative purposes, the District is divided into two distinct parts — 



io8 JALPAIGURL 

the Regulation tract, lying towards the south-west, which originally formed 
portion of the permanently settled District of Rangpur ; and the strip 
of country, about 22 miles in width, running along the foot of the 
Himalayas, which was annexed from Bhutan in 1865, and is known as 
the Western Dwars. The former of these tracts resembles in most 
respects the neighbouring Districts of Rangpur and Dinajpur. Its 
continuous expanse of level paddy fields is only broken by the groves 
of bamboos, palms, and fruit-trees, which encircle the homesteads 
of i\\Qjotddrs, or substantial tenant-farmers. There is but little waste 
land along the banks of the numerous small streams and water- 
courses which intersect this south-western portion of the District. 
With the exception of a few patches of tree jungle and brushwood, the 
only large tract of uncultivated country in the Regulation Division of 
the District is a valuable and extensive sal forest, comprising an area 
of 50 or 60 square miles, the private property of the Raikat of 
Baikunthpur. 

In the other tract, comprising a part of the Bhutan Dwars, the 
scenery is very different. This tract, which was annexed at the close of 
the war of 1864-65, forms a flat, level strip of country, averaging about 
22 miles in width, running along the foot of the Bhutan Hills. Its 
chief characteristics are the numerous rivers and hill streams which 
flow in every direction, and the large tracts of sal forest and heavy 
grass and reed jungle, interspersed with wild cardamoms. These 
grass and reed tracts are especially dense and luxuriant along the banks 
of the rivers and streams, where they grow many feet in height ; in 
some places they are impenetrable by man. Here the beautiful cotton 
tree (Bombax malabaricum) is to be found growing in great luxuriance 
and with surprising vigour and rapidity, resisting even the action of the 
fires by which the jungles and undergrowth are yearly consumed at the 
commencement of every cultivating season. With this single exception, 
these vast tracts of grassy jungle are almost treeless, and bring out into 
greater relief the village sites, situated few and far between. These 
little hamlets are remarkable for the most luxuriant vegetation. Large 
clumps of bamboos and groves of plantain trees hem them in on all 
sides, almost hiding the houses from view. Above them are seen the 
tall, graceful betel-nut palms, and here and there a few other large 
trees, such as mango, jack, and pipal ; and round about the dwellings, 
in fact up to the very doorways, are shrubs and creeping plants of 
endless form and variety. Fine fields of rice and mustard are also 
found in the vicinity of the villages. The scenery in the north of 
the Dwars, along the foot of the mountains, where the large rivers 
debouch upon the plains, is very grand and beautiful, especially at 
the point where the Sankos river leaves the hills. In the neighbour- 
hood of the Bhutan range, for from five to ten miles before reaching 



JALPAIGURL 109 

the hills, the land rises gradually. In this tract the soil is only from 
three to four feet deep, with a substratum of gravel and shingle ; and 
in the dry season the beds of the streams for some miles after leaving 
the hills are dry, the water reappearing farther down. 

The only mountainous tract in the District is that portion of the 
Bhutan range in the immediate neighbourhood of the military outpost 
of Baxa, near the northern boundary line of the District, which is 
marked by the Sinchula Hills, a range varying from 4000 to a little 
over 6000 feet in height. Baxa, on one of the principal routes into 
Bhutan, is itself situated on a lower range of hills varying from 1659 
to 2457 feet in height. 

The principal rivers in the District, proceeding from west to east, 
are the Mahananda, Karatoya, Tista, Jaldhaka, Duduya, Mujnai, 
Torsha, Kaljani, Raidhak, and Sankos — all of which see separately. 
These rivers are nearly all navigable by boats of between 3 and 4 tons 
burden for a considerable portion of their course, but in the upper 
portion of the Dwars Sub-division, navigation is impeded by rapids ; 
and, as already stated, owing to the porous nature of the soil near the 
hills, the beds of the rivers in this tract are without water in the dry 
season for some few miles after debouching upon the plains. The rivers 
all flow down from the hills in a southerly direction ; they are constantly 
changing their main channels, and the country is everywhere seamed 
by deserted river beds. 

The Government forest reserves in the Western Dwars Sub-division 
cover a total area of 428^ square miles. In Jalpaiguri Sub-division, 
the only forest tract is a valuable private estate known as the Baikunth- 
pur jungle, from which a considerable quantity of sal timber is floated 
down the Tista. The large area of pasturage in the Western Dwars 
affords grazing ground to immense herds of cattle and buffaloes 
which are annually driven up from Bengal. The only mineral of 
importance is limestone, which is largely quarried in the shape of cal- 
careous tufa along the base of the Bhutan Hills. A small copper mine 
also exists near Baxa. The large game found in the District are wild 
elephants and mithun or wild cattle, found only close to the hills ; 
and rhinoceros, buff'aloes, tigers, leopards, bears, wild hog, deer, etc. 
Among the smaller animals are fallow-deer, hog-deer, antelope, 
hares, foxes, porcupines, wild cats, jackals, and monkeys. The 
principal game birds are pea-fowl, floriken, wild ducks, teal, red 
and black partridges, quail, snipe, golden plover, etc. Fish abound 
in the rivers. 

History. — The District of Jalpaiguri first came into existence in the 
year 1869, when the Titalya Sub-division of Rangpur was incorporated 
with the Western Dwars, and erected into an independent revenue unit. 
The criminal jurisdiction alone had been assigned to the Deputy Com- 



no 



JALPAIGURL 



missioner of the Western Dwdrs two years before ; the civil jurisdiction 
was not finally transferred till 1870. 

The permanently settled portion of Jalpdiguri has no history of its 
own, apart from that of the parent District of Rangpur. Its boundaries 
are perplexingly intermingled with those of the Native State of Kuch 
Behar, from which it was conquered by the Muhammadans in com- 
paratively recent times. At the present day, by far the wealthiest land- 
owners are the Maharaja of Kuch Behar himself, and the Raikat of 
Baikunthpur, who is descended from a younger branch of the Kuch 
Behar family. This tract is administered in accordance with the 
ordinary Regulations and Acts in force throughout Bengal. 

The Western Dwdrs became British territory as the result of the war 
with Bhutan in 1864-65. That war had been provoked by the gross 
insults offered to a British ambassador by the Bhutia Government in 
1863. As no apologies were offered, it was resolved forthwith to effect 
by force of arms the permanent annexation of the Dwars ; by which 
step a command would be gained over the hill passes, and a race 
closely allied with the people of Bengal would be delivered from Bhutia 
anarchy. Accordingly, in December 1864, four strong military columns 
made a simultaneous advance, and occupied the Dwars and the hill 
posts above, after slight opposition. But in the beginning of 1865, the 
Bhutias recovered heart. They threatened in force the whole line of 
British outposts, and drove away the garrison at Diwangiri with the 
loss of two mountain guns. The abandoned post was speedily recovered; 
and before the close of the year, the Bhutias consented to accept the 
terms of peace which had been offered to them before the outbreak 
of hostilities, and, in addition, to surrender the two guns they had 
captured. By this treaty the Dwars were ceded in perpetuity to the 
British Government; and an annual allowance of ^2500 was granted 
to Bhutan, which sum has now been increased to ;£"5ooo. Since 
that date our relations with Bhutan have been peaceful, and the 
frontier raids, which were previously of common occurrence, have 
altogether ceased. 

The newly-acquired territory was immediately formed into the two 
Districts of the Eastern and Western Dwc4rs, of which the former has 
been since incorporated with the Assam District of Goalpara. In 1867, 
the Dalingkot Sub-division of the Western Dwars, which lies high up 
among the mountains, was annexed to Darjiling ; and the remainder, 
as already mentioned, was formed into the new District of Jalpaiguri, 
with the addition of a portion taken from the unwieldy jurisdiction of 
Rangpur. The Dwars are still administered in a provisional manner, 
being reckoned as a non-Regulation tract. The entire soil is held khds, 
or under direct Government management, temporary settlements being 
made with the actual cultivators ; and a large portion has been reserved 



JALPAIGURI. Ill 

by the Forest Department. Great tenderness has been shown in 
all dealings with the aboriginal population. A careful record was 
made of all rights and interests in the land at the time of the settlement 
in 1870, when an enumeration of the people and houses was also con- 
ducted. Cultivation is now rapidly extending through the Dwars, 
wherever practicable ; and, as will be presently shown, the introduc- 
tion of the tea-plant has opened out a new source of i)rosperity. 
It is believed that the population has more than doubled during the 
twenty years which have elapsed since British annexation. From 
motives of precaution, a regiment of Native infantry is stationed in 
permanent cantonments at the hill pass of Baxa. 

Populatio?i. — Prior to 188 1, no synchronous Census of the entire 
District was made in Jalpaiguri ; the enumeration in 1872 was con- 
fined to the permanently settled part of the District, the Settlement 
Officer's estimate of the population of the Western Dwars in 1870 
being accepted. These figures made up a total population in 1872 
of 418,665. In 1 88 1, a simultaneous enumeration over the whole 
District disclosed a total population of 581,562, the increase 
amounting to 162,897, or 38-9 per cent., in the nine years. 
Although there can be no doubt that a very large portion of this 
reported increase is due to deficiencies in the previous enumeration 
and estimate, it is certain that a considerable portion represents a 
real advance in the population. The spread of tea cultivation of late 
years has attracted much European capital and native labour to the 
Western Dwars Sub-division. The general results arrived at by the 
Census of 1881, may be briefly summarized as follows :— Area, 2884 
square miles ; number of villages, 971 ; houses, 98,101, of which 94,795 
were occupied and 3306 unoccupied. Population, 581,562, namely, 
305,555 males and 276,007 females. Average density of population, 
201-65 ?£•* square mile, varying from 60-23 in the Western Dwars 
or Alipur Sub-division, to 343*41 in the head-quarters Sub-division. 
Number of villages per square mile, -34 ; persons per village, 955 ; 
houses per square mile, 34*02; persons per house, 6*13. It seems 
probable that, when railway communication is completed during the 
next few years between Jalpaiguri and the overcrowded Districts of 
Behar, a considerable influx of population will set in toward the Dwars. 
Classified according to age, there were, under 12 years — 102,230 
males and 95,479 females; total children, 197,709, or 34 percent, of 
the total population. As regards religion, Hindus numbered 367,891, or 
63-3 per cent, of the population ; Muhammadans, 208,513, or i^-Z per 
cent.; Buddhists, 486; Jains, 6; Christians, 159; and non-Hindu 
aboriginal tribes, 4507. The great bulk of the population belongs to 
the semi-Hind uized aboriginal tribe known as Koch or Rajbansi, 
which numbers 208,322 in the permanently settled tract, and is 



112 J ALP A IG URL 

ascertained to form as much as two-thirds of the total inhabitant! in 
the Western Dwars. To these figures there ought to be added a large 
proportion of those returned in the Census Report as Musalmans, who 
are known historically to be of Koch descent. The head-quarters of 
this race are in the adjoining State of Kuch Behar; but Kochs, 
Rajbansis, or Pah's are thickly scattered through all Northern Bengal, 
from Assam to the frontier of Purniah. Aboriginal tribes include 
Uraons and Mechs. Their numbers are not returned separately in the 
Census Report, but the latter race is strongly represented in the Dwars, 
where they constitute about one-ninth of the population. They are 
identical with the iVssam tribe of Cacharis, and probably connected 
with the Kochs. Their mode of agriculture is that known as jum, 
which consists in burning down a fresh patch of jungle land every year ; 
on these clearings, rice, cotton, and mustard are grown together, the 
only agricultural implement used being the ddo or hill knife. Of the 
Hindus proper, the most numerous caste is that of the low caste of 
Tiors, numbering 35,896, and Bagdis, who form the great majority of 
the labourers on the tea gardens, 24,527. Brahmans numbered 3909 ; 
Rajputs, 1269; Kayasths, 3782; Baniyis, 2672; Kaibarttas, 5838; and 
Tantis, 5453. The Muhammadans are classified according to sect into 
Sunnis, 189,441 ; Shias, dZiZ ; and unspecified, 12,244. The Christians 
include 81 Europeans, 2 Australians, 14 Eurasians, and 62 natives of 
India and 'others.' Yaishnavs and other caste-rejecting Hindus 
numbered 3448. The Brahma Samaj is represented by about 20 
members, who meet regularly at Jalpaiguri town. 

The population is of a purely rural character. There is only one 
town with upwards of 5000 inhabitants, and even trading villages are 
few. The only places worth mention are Jalpaiguri town on the 
Tista river, with a population in 1881 of 7936, which is distinguished 
from other villages merely by the civil offices ; the prosperous mart of 
Baura, also on the Tista ; the military outpost of Baxa, half-way up the 
Sinchula mountains ; and the widespread ruins of the city of Prithu 
Raja, one of the fabled monarchs of the early kingdom of Kamriip. 
Small forts, temples, and tanks, built by Hindus or Muhammadans, 
abound in the south-western corner of the District, which formed, two 
centuries ago, the extreme limit of the Mughal Empire. Of the 971 
villages comprising the District, 195 are returned as containing less 
than two hundred inhabitants; 345 from two to five hundred; 245 
from five hundred to a thousand; 174 from one to two thousand; 11 
from two to three thousand ; and i upwards of five thousand inhabit- 
ants. As regards occupation, the male population are returned under 
the following six classes: — (i) Professional, including military and 
civil officials, and the learned professions, 481 1 ; (2) domestic servants, 
inn and lodging-house keepers, etc., 9559; (3) commercial class, 



JALPAIGURL 113 

including merchants, traders, carriers, etc., 14,260; (4) agricultural 
and pastoral class, including gardeners, 146,574; (5) manufacturing 
and industrial class, artisans, etc., 14,161; (6) indefinite and un- 
specified, comprising general labourers and male children, 116,190. 

Material Cotiditmi of the People. — The people of Jalpaiguri District 
are well off, happy, and contented. The necessaries of life are cheap 
and easily procurable ; and the means of gaining a livelihood 
by agriculture is open to all. There is abundance of rich soil, 
especially in the Western Dwars, still easily reclaimable ; and as the 
rents are very light, the prosperous condition of the people naturally 
follows. The ordinary dress of a well-to-do shopkeeper generally 
consists of a waistcloth {dhuti), with a cotton sheet or shawl {chdddr), 
when at home ; with the addition, when visiting friends or places of 
public resort, of a coat {chapkdji or pird?i), a turban or cap, and 
a pair of shoes. The dress of a well-to-do husbandman or land- 
holder {Jotddr) is similar to the above. The clothing of an ordinary 
peasant, who cultivates his holding with his own hands, consists, while 
engaged in field work, of simply a narrow strip of cloth round the loins 
{7ia?igti) ; but when making a visit or attending market, he wears a 
waistcloth and cotton shawl. The houses are generally built on 
supports of bamboos or wooden posts, well thatched with grass on a 
framework of bamboo or reeds ; the walls are of bamboo mats, reeds, 
or grass, generally plastered over with mud, the different parts of the 
house being tied together with string or rattan. A shopkeeper has 
usually two or three rooms in his house, with a verandah, and a small 
out-house for cooking and storing his grain. A peasant's dwelling 
generally consists of two rooms, but the homestead of a well-to-do 
jotddr often contains as many as ten or twelve separate huts within an 
enclosure. 

Agriculture. — Rice constitutes the staple crop in all parts of the District. 
Of the total food supply, the d?nan or haimantik rice, sown on low-lying 
lands and reaped in winter, forms from 60 to 75 percent. ; the remainder 
is made up by the dus or bhadai rice, sown on high lands and reaped 
in September ; and by wheat and barley. Mustard seed is extensively 
grown throughout the District ; cotton is the export staple of the Dwars, 
jute and tobacco of the Regulation tract. Manure, in the form of 
cow-dung, is used by the cultivators for special crops, the quantity being 
determined by the number of cattle that they own. Irrigation is com- 
monly practised in the Western Dwars. Aman rice land is never suffered 
to lie fallow, but the peasants recognise that the other crops grow better 
if the soil enjoys an occasional rest. There is still spare land unculti- 
vated even in the Regulation tract ; and in the Western Dwars it has 
been estimated that about three-fourths of the land now waste is capable 
of cultivation. The average produce of paddy or unhusked rice from an 

VOL. VII. H 



114 JALPAIGURL 

acre of land is about 22 cwt, worth locally from ^2, los. to £^\. In 
the Dwars, the rent of rice land varies from is. to 6s. per acre; in the 
remainder of the District, from 2s. to 7s. 6d. Jute land lets at some- 
what higher rates. The land in the Western Dwars is managed as the 
immediate property of Government ; in the Regulation tract, the zamin- 
ddrs are the proprietors, subject only to the payment of a fixed revenue. 
But the subordinate tenures in either case are much the same. First 
comes xhQjofddr^ who usually possesses a permanent interest in his farm, 
and has under-tenants called chukdniddrs or muldnddrs. The actual 
cultivator is the prajd^ who has no rights in the soil, but is allowed to 
retain a share of the produce. It has been the object of the recent 
settlement in the Western Dwars to fix the relative positions of these 
several parties. 

The rate of wages in Jalpaiguri are somewhat arbitrary, as the majority 
of the day-labourers are immigrants from Chutia Nagpur or Nepal. 
The ordinary wages of labourers are 6d. a day, or from los. to 12s. a 
month ; skilled workmen earn from ^i to j[,2 a month. These rates 
are considerably higher than used to be paid before the Bhutan war of 
1864. The prices of food-grains appear to have considerably more 
than doubled of late years. In i860, common rice fetched from is. 4d. 
to IS. 8d. per cwt. ; by 1870, the price had risen to 4s. id. ; and by 
1882-83 to 5s. 4d., the average rate for the five years preceding 
1882-83 being 7s. per cwt. 

The calamities of flood or drought are almost unknown in the Dis- 
trict, and a general destruction of the crops from such a cause has 
never occurred. Scarcity elsewhere only affects Jalpaiguri by stimulat- 
ing the exportation of grain, and thus raising the market prices. In 
the improbable event of a local scarcity, the inhabitants of the Dwars 
could fall back upon the wild produce of the jungle ; while those in 
the settled tract have now been saved from the danger of isolation by 
the proximity of the Northern Bengal State Railway. If the price of 
rice were to rise in January, after the harvesting of the d?nan crop, to 
I OS. per cwt, it should be regarded as a sign of approaching distress. 

Tea. — The soil and climate of the Western Dwars have proved 
extremely suitable for the tea plant. The cultivation and manufacture 
of tea has made rapid progress of late years, and the industry is now 
established on a secure basis. In 1876-77, the total number of 
plantations was 13, covering an area of 818 acres, and yielding 29,520 
lbs. of tea. By 1882, the number of gardens at work was 60, with 4670 
acres under mature, and 3598 acres under immature plants. Total 
out-turn in 1882, 1,865,801 lbs. ; average out-turn, 399 lbs. per acre 
of mature plants. The gardens are situated at an elevation of from 
250 to 1500 feet. The chief requisite for a large development of the tea 
industry in the Western Dwars is improved communications, and many 



JALPAIGURL 115 

planters have freely subscribed to the construction of roads. The state 
of the roads, and deficiency of means of communication, can only be 
realized by travelling through the north-eastern part of the District. 
British capital has flowed rapidly into tea cultivation in that tract, but 
it has had to encounter great difficulties, from the poverty of the local 
road-funds, which it is hoped that the Government will before long 
remove. Jalpaiguri District has important advantages over the neigh- 
bouring Districts of Assam for the purposes of tea cultivation, as the 
labour supply finds its way freely into it, without being placed under the 
surveillance of the law. More restrictions have been found necessary to 
ensure the health and safety of coolies on the longer journey to Assam, 
and to protect them in their new and often isolated homes. The com- 
parative nearness of Jalpaiguri to the labour-yielding Districts of Chutia 
Nagpur enables the coolies to make the journey in small parties of 20 
to 150, by foot or by rail, under native head-men, and without the 
intervention of European agency or of legislative safeguards for their 
recruitment and transit. Jalpaiguri District does not therefore come 
under the operation of the Labour Transport or internal Emigration 
Act^. The railway which intersects the District still further simplifies 
the problems of immigration. 

Mafiufactures, etc. — No special native industries have been developed 
in Jalpaiguri. Among the lower classes, and especially with the 
aboriginal tribes, the scanty garments are woven by members of the 
household, who also build their own dwellings and make their own 
agricultural implements. Of late years trade has been stimulated by 
the demand for agricultural produce from the south, and by the 
institution of fairs on the Bhutan frontier. The chief exports are jute, 
tobacco, timber, tea, and a little rice. The imports are piece-goods, 
salt, and betel-nuts. The tobacco trade is concentrated at the busy 
mart of Baura, on the Tista, whence the produce is despatched down 
the river to the emporia of Sirajganj, Narayanganj, Manikganj, and 
Goalanda. Baura can be reached by large boats of from 30 to 40 tons 
burden all the year round. Jalpaiguri town, higher up the same river, 
is only accessible by such vessels during the rains. The Karatoya is 
the second river in commercial importance ; the chief mart on its banks 
is Debiganj, whence large quantities of timber are floated down into 
Dinajpur and Pabna. The timber-cutting is effected by the Mechs, 
who are very skilful at hollowing trees into canoes. 

The Northern Bengal State Railway intersects the District throughout 
its entire length, with stations at Haldibari, Jalpaiguri, Shikarpur, and 
Siliguri, whence the line is continued to Darjiling by the narrow gauge 
Darj fling and Himalayan railway. The Jalpaiguri Sub-division is well 
supplied with roads, some of which are maintained by the Public 
Works Department, while the majority are under local management. 



ii6 JALPAIGURL 

This advantage it owes to its being on the highway both to Darjiling 
and Bhutan, and also to its commanding the emigration route between 
Behar and the Assam valley. There are no artificial canals. 

Admimstra/ion.— In 1870-71, the net revenue of Jalpaiguri District 
amounted to ;£32,994, towards which the land-tax contributed 
^23,983, or 72 per cent. ; the net expenditure was £'i(>,i3S^ or just 
one-half the revenue. In 1881-82, the net revenue of Jalpaiguri 
District had increased to ^50.268, of which ^37,844 was derived 
from the land-tax. The land revenue derived from the permanently 
settled tract amounts to ;^i3,675- The settlement in the Western 
Dw^ars is made for a period of ten years with X\\ejotddrs or farmers, 
except in the case of the Mechs, who pay a capitation tax. For police 
purposes, the District is divided into 8 ihdfids or police circles, with 4 
outposts. In 1882, the regular police force numbered 282 men of all 
ranks, maintained at a total cost of ^5879. In addition, there was a 
rural police or village watch of 12 15 men. The total machinery, there- 
fore, for the protection of person and property consisted of 1497 
officers and men, giving one man to every i -9 square mile of the area 
or to every 388 persons in the population. The estimated total cost, 
including the rural police, which is maintained by the villagers, was 
^£12,263, averaging £^, 5s. per square mile and 5d. per head of 
population. In that year, the total number of persons in Jalpaiguri 
District convicted of any offence, great or small, was 839, being i 
person to every 693 of the population. By far the greater proportion 
of the convictions were for petty offences. There is one jail in the 
District, at Jalpaiguri town, recently constructed in place of the 
old one condemned on account of its excessive unhealthiness. In 
1882, the average daily number of prisoners was loi, of whom 3-5 
were females; the labouring convicts averaged 97-9. These figures 
show I prisoner to every 5752 of the population. 

Education encounters great difficulties in Jalpaiguri, partly owing to 
the circumstance that the people are not gathered into villages, but live 
each family in its own sequestered homestead. In 1870, the earliest 
year for which statistics are available, the number of schools open was 
64, attended by 1372 pupils. By 1882, the inspected schools had 
increased to 155, and the pupils to 3582, showing i school to every 
1 8-6 square miles, and 4-2 pupils to every thousand of the population. 
This is exclusive of uninspected schools. The Census Report of 1881 
returned 5349 boys and 135 girls as under instruction, including schools 
not inspected, besides 12,023 males and 193 females who are able to 
read and write, but not under instruction. 

The District is divided into 2 administrative Sub-divisions, with 8 
police circles ; and the Western Dwars are again parcelled out into 1 1 
minor divisions ox pargands. In 1882, there were 3 civil judges and 6 



JALPAIG URI SUB-DIVISION AND TO IVN. 1 1 7 

stipendiary magistrates. The only municipality in the District is the 
municipal union of Jalpaiguri, which in 1882-83 had an income of 
^499, of which £aA1 ^vere derived from direct taxation. Average 
incidence of taxation, is. 3jd. per head of municipal population. 

Medical Aspects.— T\\Q climate in the vicinity ot Jalpaiguri town does 
not materially differ from that common to Northern Bengal, except that 
the rainfall is heavier, and during the cold months fogs and mists are of 
daily occurrence. The prevailing wind is from the east. The average 
annual rainfall for the 12 years ending 1881 was i26'io inches; the 
average temperature is about 76° F. The climate of the Western 
Dwars is markedly different, especially on the lower slopes of the 
Bhutan Hills. I'he hot weather here disappears altogether, and the 
rains last continuously from April to October. The average annual 
rainfall at Baxta for the 12 years ending 1881 was returned at 219-28 
inches, the temperature at 74°. 

The principal diseases are malarious fevers, especially severe in the 
fardi ; splenitis, enlargement of the liver, diarrhoea, and dysentery. 
Goitre is very common in the hilly portion of the Dwars ; and the native 
troops stationed at Baxa regularly suffer from scurvy, which is said to 
be induced by the impossibility of obtaining fresh vegetables during the 
prolonged rainy season. Of recent years, some very fatal outbreaks of 
cholera have occurred The registered statistics (which are below the 
truth) show a registered death-rate during 1882 of 15-34 per thousand. 
There were in 1882 four charitable dispensaries in the District, at which 
295 in-door and 8301 out-door patients were treated during the year. 
[For further information regarding Jalpiiguri, see Hunter's Statistical 
Account of Bengal, vol. x. pp. 215-327 ; the Census Reports of Bengal 
for 1872 and 1881 ; and the Bengal Administration Reports.] 

Jalpaiguri.— Head - quarters Sub -division of Jalpaiguri District, 
Bengal. Area, 1493 square miles; number of villages, 814; houses, 
86,106. Total population (1881) A91^119^ namely, 259,347 males 
and 238,432 females ; average density of population, 333-4 per square 
mile; average persons per village, 611; houses per square mile, 
5970 ; persons per house, 5-78. Hindus numbered 300,747 ; Muham- 
madans, 196,192; Christians, 123; Buddhists, 439; Jains, 6; and 
aborigines, 272. This Sub-division comprises the six police circles of 
Jalpaiguri, Siliguri, Bodi, Patgram, IMainaguri, and Kairanti. In 1883 it 
contained 2 civil and 8 criminal courts; strength oi regular police, 185 
men ; village watch or rural police {chaiikiddrs), 1002. 

Jalpaiguri.— Chief town and administrative head-quarters of Jal- 
paiguri District, Bengal ; situated on the west or right bank of the Tista, 
in lat. 26° 32' 20" N., long. ^^^ 45' 38" e. Population (1881) 7936, 
namely, Hindus, 4245; Muhammadans, 3647; and 'others,' 44. 
Area of town site, 1800 acres. Formerly a cantonment for a regiment 



1 1 8 JALFESH-JAMALPUR. 

of Native infantry, but the military force is now withdrawn. This 
town has only risen into importance from the creation of the District as 
a separate jurisdiction in 1869, since which date its population has 
doubled, and its prosperity greatly increased by the opening of the 
Northern Bengal State Railway. The town is a municipal union, 
and in 1882-83 had an income of ^499, of which ;j^447 were derived 
from direct taxation. Average incidence of taxation, is. 3id. per head 
of municipal population. 

Jalpesh. — Town in the Western Dwars, Jalpaiguri District, Bengal. 
Lat. 26° 31' N., long. 88° 54' 30" e. Noted for its annual fair, held on 
the occasion of the Siva-rdtri festival in February, at the temple of Jal- 
pesh, which is about two hundred years old, and built on the site of a 
still older structure. It contains an image of the god Siva. The articles 
sold at the fair are chiefly cloth goods, umbrellas, hookahs, brass utensils, 
blankets, gJii, etc. This gathering lasts for ten days, and is attended by 
about 2000 people. 

Jamalabad (or Narasmha-angadi). — Town in Uppinangadi tdhik^ 
South Kanara District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 13° 2 n., and long. 
75° 22' E. ; houses, 235. Population (187 1) 11 12. Not returned in 
the Census Report of 1881. Founded by Tipii Sultan, who encamped 
here when returning from Mangalore in 1784, and, noticing the strength 
of its situation, built and garrisoned a fortress on an almost inaccessible 
rock, lying to the west of the town and rising sheer from the plain. 
Jamalabad was destroyed by the Coorg Raja in 1799. The garrison, 
however, held out for six weeks against a British force, and only sur- 
rendered after a bombardment v/hich cut away their sole means of 
retreat. The commandant committed suicide. The unusual pro- 
portion of Muhammadans in the neighbouring village attests its former 
military occupation. 

Jamalavaya Durga. — Hill in Tiruvur Sub-division, Kistna District, 
Madras Presidency. Lat. 16^ 57' 22" N., long. 80° 2>^' 8" e. ; 1856 feet 
above sea-level. 

Jamdlpur. — Sub-division of Maimansingh District, Bengal. Lat. 
24° 43' to 25° 25' 45" N., and long. 89° 38' to 90° 20' 45" e. Area, 1244 
square miles; towns and villages, 1879; houses, 65,402. Population 
(1872) 414,469; (1881) 497,766, namely, males 255,010, and females 
242,756. Increase of population in nine years, 83,297, or 2o"io per 
cent. Average density of population, 400 per square mile ; villages 
per square mile, 1*5; persons per village, 265; houses per square 
mile, 63; persons per house, 7 '6. According to religion, Muham- 
madans numbered 381,572, or 76*6 per cent.; Hindus, 110,740, or 
2 2*3 per cent.; Christians, 12; non-Hindu aboriginal tribes, 5442. 
This Sub-division comprises the 3 police circles {thdnds) of Jamalpur, 
Sherpur, and Diwanganj. In 1883, it contained a deputy magistrate 



JAMALPUR—JAMB U. 119 

and deputy collector's court and 2 miinsifs courts ; regular police, 79 
men; village watch, 851 men. 

Jamalpur. — Head-quarters town and municipality of Jamalpur Sub- 
division, Maimansingh District, Bengal ; situated on the west bank of the 
Brahmaputra, in lat. 24° 56' 15" n., and long. 89° 58' 55" e. Population 
(1881) 14,727, namely, Muhammadans, 10,360; Hindus, 4366; 'other,' r. 
Area of town site, 9318 acres. Gross municipal revenue (1881-82), 
;2f43o, of which ;2{^4i3 was derived from taxation; rate of taxation, 
6|d. per head of municipal population (15,264). Jamalpur is connected 
with Nasirabad (Nusseerabad), 35 miles distant, by a good road ; ferry 
across the Brahmaputra. This town was a military station up to 1857. 

Jamalpur. — Town and municipality in Monghyr District, Bengal ; 
situated at the foot of the Monghyr Hills, in lat. 25° 18' 45" n., long. 
86° 32' 1" E. Chiefly noted as containing the largest iron workshops 
in India, which belong to the East India Railway Company, on its 
loop-line, 299 miles from Calcutta, covering an area of 3c acres. These 
works, in addition to about 500 European workmen, employ about 
3000 native labourers, and have attracted the best iron-smiths from 
many parts of Behar. The Company does its work through a number 
of native middle-men, who are paid by the piece. Population (1872) 
10,453; (1881) 13,213, namely, Hindus, 9625; Muhammadans, 3038; 
and 'others,' 550. iVrea of town site, 832 acres. Municipal income in 
1881-82, ^1523, of which ;^i429 was derived from taxation; average 
incidence of taxation, 2s. i|d. per head. Neat and substantial dwellings 
for the European employees and their families are laid out in streets and 
squares near. the railway station. The native town and bazar is separated 
from the European quarter by the railway. Jamalpur contains an insti- 
tute with library and reading rooms, a theatre, swimming bath, church, 
schools, race-course, and cricket ground, maintained or largely supported 
by the railway authorities. The water-supply is afforded by means of 
a canal cut from the base of the Monghyr Hills. 

Jambu. — The northern channel leading inland from False Point 
anchorage, on the coast of the Bay of Bengal, Cuttack District, Orissa, 
Bengal. A winding stream, which renders navigation dangerous, 
especially during the freshes, when a strong current comes down. A 
bar stretches across its mouth for about three-quarters of a mile, with i 
foot of water at lowest tide ; after this the channel gradually deepens 
to 10 feet (lowest tide), and higher up still, to 18 feet. Towards Deul- 
para, some 12 or 15 miles from the mouth, the Jambu shoals and 
narrows to such an extent that this point becomes the safe limit of 
navigation for heavily laden country boats. The entire course of this 
channel is through a desolate country, which during floods forms one 
large sea or jungle-covered swamp. The Jambu is now the property of 
the Maharaja of Bardwan. 



120 JAMB UGHORA—JAMB UKES WAR AM. 

Jambughora. — Chief village of the Narukot State, Panch Mahals 
District, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 22° 19' 30" n., long. 73° 47' e. 
Here in 1858, the Naikda tribe attacked a detachment of the 8th Regi- 
ment Native Infantry. In 1868, Jambughora was sacked by a robber 
band from Joriya in Kathiawar. Since then a police station designed 
with a view to defence has been erected at a cost of ^£42 70. It is a 
quadrangular enclosure, having at each of the four corners a bastion, 
with steps leading to a roof, terraced and provided with parapets 
loopholed for musketry. The chief of the Narukot State lives at 
Jhotwar, half a mile to the north-west. School and dispensary. 

Jambukeswaram (a title of Siva). — A famous temple in Srirangam 
island, Trichinopoli, Madras Presidency. Lat. 10° 51' n., and long. 
78° 44' E. ; f of a mile east of the great Srirangam {Seringhaju) temple, 
but rivalling the latter in architectural beauty and interest, and probably 
exceeding it in antiquity. * It possesses only three courts, but these 
are much larger than the inner ones of the other temple ; and being 
built on a uniform and well-arranged plan, produce a finer effect. It 
probably belongs to the 12th century, and must have been completed 
before the larger pagoda was begun. The first gateway of the outer 
enclosure is not large, but it leads direct to the centre of a hall 
containing some 400 pillars. On the right, these open on a tank fed 
by a perpetual spring, which is one of the wonders of the place. The 
corresponding space on the left was intended to be occupied by the 
600 columns requisite to make up the 1000, but this was never com- 
pleted. Between the two gopiiras of the second enclosure is a very 
beautiful portico of cruciform shape, leading to the door of the 
sanctuary, which, however, makes no show externally, and access to 
its interior is not vouchsafed to the profane. The age of this temple 
is the same as that of its great rival, except that, being all of one 
design, it probably was begun and completed at once, and, from the 
simpUcity of its parts and details, may be earlier than the great build- 
ings of Tirumalla Nayak. If we assume 1600 a.d., with a margin of ten 
or fifteen years either way, we shall probably not err much in its date.' 
— (Fergusson.) 

There is an error in the foregoing as to the number of the so-called 
*iooo pillars.' 'There are in reality 796 of them, and, if the 142 
round the litde tank that adjoins the hall are added, the total reaches 
938. There are five enclosures in the building. Of these, the first 
or inner one, in which the nimdna is, measures 123 feet by 126 feet, 
with a wall 30 feet high round it. The second is 306 feet by 197, with 
a wall 35 feet high; there is a gopura 65 feet high in this enclosure, 
and several small mandaps. The third enclosure is 745 feet by 197, 
surrounded by a wall 30 feet high. In this are two gopiiras, in 
height 73 and 100 feet respectively; there is a cocoa-nut tope in 



JAMB UL GHA T A— JAMB USAR. 1 2 1 

this portion of the building, containing a small tank and temple, 
to which the image from the great Vishnu pagoda in the Srirangam 
island is brought for one day in the year. The hall and tank described 
by Mr. Fergusson are in the fourth enclosure, which measures 2436 
feet by 1493 ; the wall surrounding it is 35 feet high and feet 
in thickness. The fifth or outer enclosure contains 4 streets of 
houses ; here is a small gopura, about sixty years old, over the western 
entrance. 

'Several inscriptions are found in the various parts of the building ; 
but these are of no great use from a historical point of view, as they are 
simply accounts of grants of land made to the pagoda from time to 
time, and, with a single exception, without dat€s. One of them, however, 
is stated to have been written about the year 1480 a.d. ; and if this be 
relied on, we must conclude that the temple is nearly 400 years old. 

'It appears that the Jambukeswaram pagoda had an endowment 
of 64 villages in 1750; in 1820, it owned only 15 ; in 1851, a money 
allowance of J^^^S ^^^ given to the pagoda in lieu of its lands, 
and this sum is now paid to the trustees every year.' — (Lewis 
Moore, C.S.) 

Jambulghata.— Town in Chanda District, Central Provinces. Lat. 
20° 33' N., and long. 79° 30' E. ; 7 miles north-east of Chimur. The 
market, held twice a week, is the largest in the District, the chief 
products sold being cotton cloth and iron. The extensive quarries of 
soapstone, a mile from the village, have been worked for over a hundred 
years ; about 50 cart-loads are annually quarried and fashioned into 
bowls and platters. Near these quarries are others of a very fine black 
serpentine, where for three years Raghuji iii. employed 250 workmen on 
fixed wages for eight months in the year. With the stone he constructed 
a temple at Nagpur. Since his death, the quarries have fallen in, 
and in 1881 the village contained only 605 inhabitants. Police 
outpost. 

Jamblir.— Village in Nanjarajpatna tdhik of Coorg. Situated in 
lat. 12° 34' N., long. 75° 53' E. Population (1881) 172. Thirteen miles 
from Merkaraon the Manjirabad road. Head-quarters of the Parpattigar 
of Gadinad. Weekly market on Thursdays. Small tomb and temple 
of Singaraj, one of the Rdjas of Coorg. Coffee estates in the neigh- 
bourhood. 

Jambusar.— Sub-division of Broach District, Bombay Presidency ; 
bounded on the north by the river Mahi ; on the east by Baroda terri- 
tory ; on the south by the Dhadhar river ; on the w^est by the Gulf 
of Cambay. Total area, 373 square miles. Population (1872) 
93,249; (1881) 77,772, namely, 40,415 m^les and 37,357 females; 
total decrease (1872 to 1881), 15,477, or 19-9 per cent. Density of 
population, 208-5 per square mile. In 1881, Hindus numbered 



122 JAMBUSAR. 

63,882; Muhammadans, 13,036; and 'others,' 854. The Sub- 
division contains i town and 82 villages ; numbers of occupied houses, 
18,711; unoccupied houses, 4184: civil courts, i; criminal courts, 
2; regular police, 53 men; village watchmen {chatckiddrs), 694; police 
stations {thdnds), i. Land revenue (1882-83), ;^79,479. There 
is a total cultivable area within the Sub-division of about 156,000 
acres. Six square miles are occupied by the lands of alienated State 
villages. The country consists of two tracts of level land. Towards 
the west lies a barren plain, and in the east is a well-wooded stretch of 
light soil. In the latter tract are large and sweet springs, but in the 
former tract the water-supply is defective. Number of wells (1874), 
700; tanks, 323 ; ploughs, 5927; carts, 5036; oxen, 17,092; cows, 
2448; buffaloes, 18,645; horses, 656. The staple crops are /^ar 
(Sorghum vulgare), bdjra (Holcus spicatus), wheat, and miscellaneous 
crops of pulses, peas, tobacco, cotton, and indigo. The average annual 
rainfall is 23-5 inches. 

Jambusar. — Chief town and municipality of the Jambusar Sub- 
division of Broach District, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 22° 3' 30" n., 
and long. 72° 51' 30" e. Population (1872) 14,924; (1881) 11,479, 
namely, 5925 males and 5554 females. Of the total population in 
1881, 8741 were Hindus, 2379 Muhammadans, 129 Jains, i Christian, 
16 Parsis, and 213 'others.' Area of town, 348 acres; persons 
per acre, 32. Municipal revenue (1882-83), ^^664; municipal 
expenditure, ;£^595; rate of taxation, is. 6d. per head of municipal 
population. In former times, when Tankaria, 10 miles south-west 
of Jambusar, was a port of but little less consequence than Broach, 
Jambusar itself enjoyed a considerable trade. Indigo was then the 
chief export. Of late years, since the opening of the railway (1861), 
the traffic by sea at Tankaria has much fallen off. On the other hand, 
Jambusar is only 18 miles distant from the Palej station, on the Bombay, 
Baroda, and Central India Railway ; and as roads have recently been 
made connecting Jambusar both with Palej and Broach (27 miles), a 
traffic by land has to some extent taken the place of the old sea-borne 
trade. It is in contemplation to connect Broach and Jambusar by rail. 
In preparing cotton for export, 3 ginning factories were employed here 
in 1874. Tanning, the manufacture of leather, and calico printing are 
carried on to a small extent, and there are also manufactures of ivory, 
armlets, and toys. In 1880-81 the imports were valued at ^21,1 15, 
and the exports at ^125,419. Jdmbusar has a subordinate judge's 
court, post-office, and dispensary. The town was first occupied by the 
British in 1775, and remained in their possession until 1783, when it 
was restored to the Marathds. Under the treaty of Poona (181 7), 
it was finally surrendered to the British. To the north of the town is 
a lake of considerable size sacred to Nageswar, the snake-god, with 



JAMB VA— JAMES AND MAR V SANDS. 1 23 

richly-wooded banks, and in the centre of the water a small island 
about 40 feet in diameter, overgrown with mango and other trees. 
The water-supply is chiefly derived from this tank. In the town is a 
strong native-built fort, erected by Mr. Callender when Jambusar was 
held by the British from 1775 to 1783. This fort furnishes accom- 
modation for the treasury, the civil courts, and other Government offices. 

Jambva. — River of Gujarat (Guzerat), Bombay Presidency. The 
Jambva or Jambuva rises near Devalia in Jarod Sub-division of Baroda 
State, runs a course of 25 miles past the palace of Makarpura, near 
the hunting grounds of the Gaekwar, and terminates near Khalipur. 
Two stone bridges have been thrown across it ; one at Kelanpur on 
the Baroda-Dabhoi road, the other near Makarpura. 

James and Mary Sands. — Shifting and dangerous alluvial deposits 
formed in the channel of the Hiigli, by the meeting of the backwater of 
the Rupnarayan with the discharge of the Damodar. Both of these 
last-named rivers enter the Hugli at sharp angles from the west ; the 
Damodar nearly opposite Falta, about 27 miles by water from Calcutta, 
and the Rupnarayan, opposite Hiigli point, 33 miles down the river from 
Calcutta. The James and Mary Sands stretch more or less completely 
up the Hugh' channel throughout the six miles between the mouths of 
these two rivers; although the name is sometimes appropriated to the 
more southern portion of the shoals. The mouth of the Damodar river 
is situated in lat. 22° 17' n., and long. 88° 7' 30" e., and that of the 
Rupnarayan in lat. 22° 12' N., and long. 88° 3' e. 

These fatal sands have long been a terror to seamen, and still form 
the most dangerous obstacle in the navigation of the Hiigli. The 
name was commonly supposed to be a corruption of the Bengali 
words jdl-?min\ ' The Waters of Death.' But Sir George Birdwood 
has discovered in the India Office mss. the following entry : — ' The 
Royal James a?id Mary [James 11. and Mary of Modena] arrived in 
Balasore Roads from the west coast in August, with a cargo of red- 
wood, candy, and pepper, which she had taken up in Madras. Coming 
up the river Hiigli on the 24th of September 1694, she fell on a sand- 
bank on this side Tumbolee Point, and was unfortunately lost, being 
immediately overset, and broke her back, with the loss of four or five 
men's lives.' 'Tumbolee Point' is shown in the chart of 1745 at the 
north entrance to the Riipnarayan river. It is now called Mornington 
Point. The wreck of this Royal Ja?nes and Mary was the origin of the 
name of the sandbank, and shows that it was a dangerous obstruction 
to navigation as far back as 1694. 

How its dangers were subsequently increased by the opening of the 
new mouth of the Damodar will be presently mentioned. The sharp 
angle at which the Rupnarayan enters the Hiigli, opposite Hiigli Point, 
would alone suffice to check the current of the main stream of the 



124 JAMES AND MARY SANDS. 

larger river, and to cause a deposit of its silt. It is probable, therefore, 
that, independently of the discharge of the Damodar by its new mouth, 
6 miles above the Riipnarayan debouchure, dangerous sandbanks had 
existed from a remote period in this section of the Hiigli river. The 
sandbanks apparently spread upwards during the first half of the i8th 
century ; that is to say, during the period when the main body of the 
Damodar waters was gradually forcing its way southwards to the new 
Damodar mouth opposite Falta. But the above entry in the ' Consul- 
tations ' for 1694 prove that this section of the Hiigli was a dangerous 
one at the end of the 17th century. 

The records of the Calcutta Bankshall or Port Office commence in 
1768, and they speak of the James and Mary Sands as an existing 
shoal without any reference to their having been recently formed. The 
proximate cause of their deposit is supposed to have been the shifting 
of the course of the Damodar river. The nearly right angle at which 
the Riipnarayan enters the Hiigli would, as above mentioned, have 
sufficed to check the flow of the Hiigli current, and lead to a deposit 
of silt. But when the Damodar river changed its course, and forced its 
way into the Hiigli, also nearly at a right angle, and only 6 miles above 
the mouth of the Riipnarayan, a double and an aggravated process of 
shoaling took place. The James and Mary Sands are the result. 

This change in the course of the Damodar was going on probably 
throughout the first half of the 18th century. Formerly, the Damodar 
entered the Hiigli at Naya Sarai, about 8 or 10 miles above Hiigli 
town. A branch, or tidal channel from the Damodar, still marks this 
old course of the river. The Damodar was, under the Muhammadan 
Government, confined to that old course by a series of embankments, 
which counteracted the natural tendency of the river to straighten 
itself out to the southwards. But the main body of the Damodar 
gradually broke through its embankments, and found its way south- 
ward to its present point of debouchure into the Hiigli about 62 miles 
by the river below its old entrance at Naya Sarai. The result was two- 
fold : first, a deterioration of the upper part of the river which had 
formerly been fed by the old Damodar ; and second, the aggravation 
of the James and Mary Sands already formed by the junction of the 
Riipnarayan and the Hiigli. 

The period at which this change took place is not fixed. But a clear 
tradition of it existed among the European inhabitants of Calcutta in 
the beginning of the present century ; and the change is attested by 
early maps which mark the ' Old Damodar ' as entering the Hiigli at 
Naya Sarai. The probability is that the change gradually went on 
during a number of years, and that its effects were distinctly felt by 
the Calcutta merchants in the last half of the past century. The 
deterioration of the upper part of the river above Calcutta, has been 



JAMES AND MARY SANDS. 125 

strongly marked since 1757, when Admiral Watson's 64-gun ship sailtd 
up to Chandarnagore, and when the French Company's ships of 600 
and 800 tons are said to have laid off that port. The deterioration of 
the lower part of the river, represented by the James and Mary Sands, 
although undoubted, has been by no means so well marked. On the 
one hand, it must be remembered that, in former times, ships of 700 
tons usually, or almost invariably, remained at Diamond Harbour below 
these shoals. On the other hand, it should also be stated that the reason 
for this was not necessarily the shallowness but the narrowness of the 
channel, which rendered it difficult for sailing vessels to tack. We 
know that in 1801, the Cou?ttess of Sutherland^ a ship of 1445 tons 
old measurement, was launched above Calcutta, and sailed down the 
river. 

Various projects have been proposed to enable ships to avoid this 
dangerous shoal. About 1821-22, apian was under discussion for cutting 
a ship canal from above Falta to Diamond Harbour, so as to escape 
the James and Mary shoals. In 1839, a prospectus of a larger under- 
taking, a Diamond Harbour and Calcutta Railway Company, was 
issued by Captain Boileau of the Bengal Engineers, with a view to 
avoid the James and Mary and other shoals in the course of the Hiigli. 
These schemes were not carried out; and in 1853, statements were 
placed before the Government, pointing to a serious deterioration in 
the navigable capacity of the Hiigli. The Calcutta Chamber of 
Commerce called the attention of Government to the 'difficult and 
dangerous state of the river Hiigli, which threatens at no distant period 
to render access to the port of Calcutta altogether impracticable for any 
vessels but those of the smallest tonnage.' The Marquis of Dalhousie 
accordingly issued a Commission, which,after examining evidence extend- 
ing from 1804 to 1854, reported in the latter year. All agreed that the 
James and Mary shoals were among the worst and most dangerous in 
the river ; but great difference of opinion existed as to their increasing 
deterioration of late years. Out of twenty-three experts, fifteen con- 
sidered that there was, on the whole, no change for the worse ; and 
eight bore witness to a marked deterioration. The same uncertainty 
still exists among the experts of the river. Since the Hiigli Commission 
reported, two lines of railway have been made respectively to Diamond 
Harbour, and to Port Canning on the Matla river. Both of these rail- 
ways avoid the dangers of the James and Mary, and other obstacles 
between those shoals and Calcutta; and indeed Port Canning was 
founded at a large expense on the Matla with this view. But neither 
of these two railways has attracted any share of the commerce of 
Calcutta, and vessels drawing up to 26 feet still pass up and down the 
river. 

The James and Mary Sands have two channels named respectively 



126 JAMI—JAMIRA. 

the Eastern and the Western Gut. The following description of them 
is taken from the Hiigli Commission's Report of 1854; but it will be 
superseded before long by a survey of the Hiigli river, now under 
preparation by Captain Petley, R.N., Deputy-Conservator of the Port of 
Calcutta. The Eastern Gut ' lies close along the left bank of the river/ 
the Western Gut ' along the right bank. As a rule, these channels have 
never good water at the same time, but close and open alternately, 
according to the season of the year. Some of the witnesses, however, 
speak to one or two years within their experience when the two 
channels were open together, but with bad water in both. The Eastern 
Gut is opened by the freshes of the wet season, when the flood-tides 
are weak, and the united waters of the Damodar and Hiigli direct the 
force of the strong ebb-tides down the left bank of the latter river. 
The free flow of the current on the opposite or western bank, being 
impeded by the rush of water below from the Riipnarayan almost at 
right angles, silt is deposited, and the Western Gut fills up. The latter 
channel, on the other hand, is reopened by the strong flood-tides of the 
south-west monsoon, when the Makripatti Lumps, joining on to the 
Hiidi sand, form a bar across, and close the south entrance of the 
Eastern Gut. The Western Gut is subject to continual fluctuations as 
to the position of the best water, and both channels show most 
important differences in soundings at similar periods, in different 
years.' Such was the general course of the fluctuations of the James 
and Mary Sands up to the date of the Hiigli River Committee in 
1854. For their more recent history, we must await Captain Petley's 
survey. 

The dangers of the James and Mary Sands add materially to the 
charges on ships coming up the Hiigli. An establishment for watching 
the constantly shifting channels has to be maintained. The perils of 
the passage through these shoals have also to be considered in the 
charge for pilotage. The evil reputation which the James and Mary 
give the river has seriously affected the rates of insurance on ships 
entering or departing from Calcutta. Examples of recent wrecks have 
been given in article Hugli River. 

Jami. — Town in Srungavarapukota taluk of Vizagapatam District, 
Madras Presidency; situated on the Gosthani river, in lat. 18° 3' n., 
and long. 83° 18' e. Houses, 1228. Population (1871) 6088; (1881) 
5029, of whom 4962 were Hindus and 67 Muhammadans. Area, 
3289 acres. Jami was formerly the head-quarters of a taluk. Indigo 
factory. 

Jamira. — One of the tidal estuaries by which the waters of the 
Ganges merge into the sea, in the Sundarbans, Bengal; between the 
Matla and the Hiigli rivers, and flowing through dense jungle. Lat. 
2\ 36' N., and long. 88° 31' e. 



JAM-JO- TAND 0—JAMKHHER. 1 2 7 

Jam-jO-TandO, also called Tando Jam. — Town and municipality in 
the Haidarabad tdliik of Haidarabad District, Sind, Bombay Presidency. 
Lat. 25° 25' 30" N., long. 68° 34' 30" e. Population (1871) 1897; 
(1881) 2072. The Muhammadans are chiefly of the Nizamani, Sayyid, 
and Khaskeli tribes; the Hindus principally Lohanos. Municipal income 
(1882-83), ;£"i 24; expenditure, ^93 ; incidence of taxation, is. per head. 
Founded by the Talpur dynasty, and now the residence of the Khanani 
branch of the Talpur Mi'rs. Jam-jo-Tando lies on the main road, 
leading from Haidarabad, via Alahyar-jo-Tando, to Mirpur Khas, ten 
miles south-west of Haidarabad. There is a vernacular school. The 
term Tando means a town or village founded by a Biliich chief. 

Jamkhandi.— Native State under the Political Agency of Kolhapur 
and the South Maratha y^z^/Vi-, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 16^ 26' to 
16° 47' N., and long. 75° 7' to 75° 37' e. Area, 492 square miles. 
Population (1872) 102,346; (i88r) 83,917, namely, 41,495 males 
and 42,422 females; total decrease in nine years, 18,429, or 18 per 
cent.; density of population, 170*6 persons per square mile; revenue 
(1881-82), ^35,622; expenditure, ^35,169. Of the population in 
1881, 73,910, or 88 per cent., were Hindus ; 7628, or 9 per cent., 
Muhammadans; and 2379 'others.' Number of towns, i ; villages, 80; 
occupied houses, 14,890 ; unoccupied houses, 2902. A soft stone of 
superior quality is found near the village of Marigudi. Products of the 
State are — cotton, wheat, the ordinary varieties of pulse and millet. 
Manufactures — coarse cotton cloth and nativ'e blankets, for home 
consumption. In 1882-83 there were 24 schools, including r English 
school; besides 30 indigenous schools: total number of scholars, 
1229. The chief, Ramchandra Rao Gopal, or Apa Sahib Patwardhan, 
a Brahman by caste, ranks as a first-class chief of the South Maratha 
country. For purposes other than military, he maintains a retinue of 
57 horse and 852 foot soldiers; and he pays to the British Government 
a tribute of;£2o84. He holds a .f^;z^^ of adoption, and the succession 
follows the rule of primogeniture. The chief has power to try his own 
subjects for capital offences without the express permission of the 
Political Agent. The survey has been at work in the State since 
1881-82. Until lately communications were backward; in 1S81-82, 
however, ;,^i8oo was spent on their improvement. 

Jamkhandi. — Chief town of the State of Jamkhandi, South Maratha 
jdgirs, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 16° 30' 30" n., and long. 75^ 22' e. ; 
70 miles north-east of Belgaum, 68 miles east of Kolhapur, and 162 
miles south-east by south of Poona. Population (1872) 12,493 > (1881) 
10,409, namely, Hindus, 8460; Muhammadans, 1921 ; and Jains, 28. 
Jamkhandi is a municipality, with an income of about £'joo. 

Jamkhher. — Sub-division of Ahmadnagar District, Bombay Presi- 
dency ; situated to the south-east of Ahmadnagar city, and east of the 



1 2 8 JAMKI-JAMMALAMAD UG U. 

Sina river, indenting into and intermixed with the Nizam's Dominions. 
The largest compact portion lies in lat. i8° t,t; 40" to 18° 52' 20" n., 
and long. 75° ii' 20" to 75° 35' e. Area, 482 square miles; contains 
I town and 74 villages, with 11,217 houses. Population (1872) 
72,994; (1881) 60,960, namely, 30,925 males and 30,035 females; 
decrease in nine years, 12,034, or 16-5 per cent. In 1881, Hindus 
numbered 55,953; Muhammadans, 3196; 'others,' 1811; density of 
population, 126-5 per square mile. Land revenue (1882-83), ;£9786. 
The Sub-division contains i civil and i criminal court ; number of police 
stations {thd7ids), i ; regular police, 36 men ; village watchmen {chauki- 
ddrs), 237. The chief town of the Jamkhher Sub-division is Kharda. 

Jamki. — Town in the Sialkot tahsil of Sialkot District, Punjab ; 
situated 4 miles north-west of Daska, in lat. 32° 23' n., long. 74° 26' 
45" E. Population (1881) 4157, namely, Hindus, 2207; Muham- 
madans, 1609; and Sikhs, 341. A third-class municipality, with an 
income in 1881-82 of ;£229 ; average incidence of taxation, is. 2d. per 
head of population. Said to have been colonized about 500 or 600 
years by one Jam, a Chuna Jat from Sahuwala, assisted by a Khattri 
named Pindi. It was originally called Pindi Jam, afterwards changed 
to Jamki. An extensive trade in sugar is carried on. 

Jamli. — Village of Jhabua State, Bhopawar Agency, Central India. 
A considerable village, distant from Sardarpur 24 miles north, and from 
Jhabua city 30 miles north-east. The residence of a Thdkur^ one of 
the Uinrdos ; his income is ^400, and he pays an annual tribute of 
^100 to the Indore Darbar. 

Jammalamadligu (lit. the ' Pool of Rushes '). — Tdliik or Sub- 
division of Cuddapah (Kadapa) District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 
14° 36' to 15° 5' N., and long. 78° 7' to 78° 32' 30" e. It is 
bounded on the north by Kurnool (Karniil) District, west by Bellary 
District; on the south and east by the Pulivendla and Proddotur 
tdluks. Area, 616 square miles. Population (1881) 91,958; living 
in I town and 126 villages; number of houses, 18,918; density 
of population, 149 per square mile. Hindus numbered 82,910; 
Muhammadans, 7253; and Christians, 1795. Since 1871 the population 
has decreased 17 per cent, due to the famine which devastated 
Southern India in 1876-78. 

Two hill ranges intersect the idluk^ but in no place attain an 
elevation of more than 1000 feet, and are bare of vegetation. The 
greater part of the tdluk is drained by a stream formed by the junction 
of the Pennair and Chitravati. The Pennair and Chitravati join 
near Gundloor, and then pass through the precipitous gorges of 
Gandikota. The soil is of the kind called ' black cotton ' soil. 
As irrigation is little resorted to, the crops raised are mostly 'dry' 
crops. Cholam and cotton are the staples grown, the latter being 



JAMMALAMAD UG U—JAMMU. 1 2 9 

largely exported to Madras ; miscellaneous crops are indigo, gram, and 
oil-seed. The number of tanks was, in 1875, 30 ; land cultivated 
with 'wet' crops or those depending on irrigation, 2690 acres. Water 
is deficient in the taluk. Inundations of the Pennair and Chitra- 
vati, however, occur. In 185 1, a flood swept away the village of 
Chautapalli at the confluence of the rivers. The taluk is ill supplied 
with roads, particularly in the southern corner of it. Altogether there 
were only 35 miles of road in 1875. The Madras Railway, north-west 
line, crosses the Chitravati on a wrought-iron viaduct within the taluk. 
The viaduct has 40 arches of 70 feet span. There are two railway 
stations within the taluk, at Muddniir and at Condapiir. Condapiir is 
14 miles from Jammalamadugii, the chief town of the taluk. About 
7 miles of the Madras Irrigation Company's Canal cross the north-east 
corner. Traffic is mostly carried on by means of pack-bullocks. 
The taluk in 1883 contained 2 criminal courts; police stations 
{thdmis\ 7 ; regular police, 63 men. Land revenue, ^21,025. 

The natural fortress of Gandikota, and the fort of Jammalamadiigu 
at the passage of the Pennair near Muddniir, are two remarkable places 
in the taluk. Fort Gandikota overhangs the Pennair from a scarped 
rock 300 feet above the water. Innumerable stone steps lead to the 
mingled bastions and temples which crown the summit. Fort Gandikota 
was the key to the valley of the Pennair. 

Jammalamadugii. — Chief town of the Jammalamadugii taluk or 
Sub-division of Cuddapah (Kadapa) District, Madras Presidency. 
Lat. 14° 51' N., long. 78' 28' E. Population (1871) 4835; (1881) 
4846, namely, 2382 males, 2464 females. Of the total population in 
1881, 3600 were Hindus, 1241 Muhammadans, and 5 Christians. 
Area of town site, 3391 acres. The town contains a Government 
school, and a mission attached to the Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel. Police station. Jammalamadugii is a busy centre of 
trade, with large exports of indigo and cotton. A small cloth manu- 
facture is carried on. The business season is from March to May. The 
Car festival of Narapu-ramswami is held in May ; about 3000 visitors 
attend. 

Jammu {Jamu, Jummoo). — Province and town in Kashmir State, 
Punjab. Population (1873) 41,817. No regular Census was taken of 
Kashmir in 1881. Situated in lat. 32° 43' 52" n., and long. 74° 54' 14" e., 
on the Tdvi, a tributary of the Chenab, among the mountains of the 
outer Himalayan range. The people are, as a rule, Hindus. The town 
and palace stand upon the right bank of the river ; the fort overhangs 
the left or eastern shore at an elevation of 150 feet above the stream. 
The lofty whitened walls of the palace and citadel present a striking 
appearance from the surrounding country. An adjacent height com- 
mands the fortress, rendering it untenable against modern artillery. 

VOL. VII. I 



130 JAMNA—JAMNER. 

Extensive and handsome pleasure-grounds. Ruins of great size 
in the suburbs attest the former prosperity of the city. Once the 
seat of an independent Rajput dynasty, whose dominions extended 
into the plains, and included the modern District of Sialkot. It was 
afterwards conquered by the Sikhs, and formed part of Ranjit 
Singh's dominions. For its subsequent acquisition by Gulab Singh, 
see Kashmir. 

Jamna. — River of Northern India. — See Jumna. 
Jamnagar.— State in Bombay. — See Nawanagar. 
Jamner.— Sub-division of Khandesh District, Bombay Presidency. 
Lat. 20° 32' 30" to 20° 52' 20" N., long. 75° 34' 50" to 76° 3' 45" e. 
Jamner Sub-division is bounded on the north by Nasirabad (Nusser- 
abad) and Bhusawal Sub-divisions ; on the east by Berar ; on the south 
by the Haidarabad State (the Nizam's territory) ; on the west by Pachora 
and Nasirabad. Area, 525 square miles; contains 2 towns and 156 
villages, with 16,010 houses. Population (1872) 70,321; (1881) 
83,535, namely, 42,779 males and 40,75^ females ; average density, 
159 persons per square mile; increase in nine years, 13,184, or 187 
per cent. In 1881, Hindus numbered 73.613, or 88 per cent, of the 
population; Muhammadans, 6706, or 8 per cent.; 'others,' 3216. 
Land revenue (1882-83), ;£22,376. 

Most of the Sub-division of Jamner consists of a succession of rises 
and dips, with streams of which the banks are fringed with babiU 
groves. In the north and south-east low straggling hills covered 
with young teak rise out of the plain. There is a plentiful and 
constant supply of water. On the whole, the climate is healthy ; 
but at the close of the rains fever and ague prevail. The rainfall 
averages 30 inches. The chief streams of the Sub-division are the 
Vaghar, with its tributaries the Kag and the Siir, the Harki, and the 
Sonij. Most of these streams rise in the hills called Satmalas. In 
addition to the rivers, there was in 1880 an additional supply of water 
from 1950 wells. Generally speaking, the soil is poor. There is 
black loam in the valleys, and on the plateaux a rich brownish 
mould called kali iminjal. The Jamner Sub-division is said to have 
formerly belonged to the Nizam of Haidarabad, Deccan. After 
the battle of Kharda (Deccan), in 1795, it was ceded to the 
Marathas, who subsequently made part of it over to Sindhia (Gwalior). 
The Jamner Sub-division came into British hands in 18 18-19. The 
crops are— staples, jodr (Sorghum vulgare) and bdjra (Penicillaria 
spicata); miscellaneous, rice, wheat, maize, pulses, coiton, hemp, 
tobacco, sugar-cane, and indigo. In 1879-80, nearly forty per cent, 
of the cultivated area was under jodr. The Sub-division contains 
2 criminal courts and i police station {thdnd) ; regular police, 49 men ; 
village watchmen {chaukiddrs), 201. 



JAMNER—JAMNIA. 1 3 1 

Jamner. — Chief town of the Jamner Sub-division of Khandesh 
District, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 20' 48' n., and long. 75° 45' e. 
Jamner Hes 60 miles east by south of Dhulia. Population (1872) 5309, 
namely, 4263 Hindus, 1259 Muhammadans, 99 Jains, and 84 'others.' 
Area of town site, 102 acres ; situated on the small river Kag. At one 
time surrounded with walls and protected by a fort, Jamner was a 
place of consequence. Its trade and manufactures have now fallen 
away. Outside the town is a temple to Rama, called Ram Mandir. 
Also outside the town are the lines for a detachment of the Poona 
Horse. Post-office, Government school. 

Jamni. — River of Bundelkhand, Central India, rising in lat. 24"^ 36' n., 
and long. 78° 50' e., in the Central Provinces. It flows northwards 
into Bundelkhand, whence it passes into Chanderi territory, and, after a 
course of about 70 miles, eventually joins the Betwa, in lat. 25° 11' n., 
and long. 78° 37' e. 

Jdmnia (also called Dabir).—Ps. guaranteed Thakurate or chiefship 
under the Deputy Bhll (Manpur) Agency of Central India. The 
chief bears the tide of Bhiimia of Jamnia. This chiefship, like those 
of Rajgarh, Garhi Bandpurha, Kothide, and Chikthiabor, is an 
important historical feature in the history of Malwa. The thdkurs 
are all of the Bhulala caste, said to be sprung from the inter- 
marriage of Bhil and Rajput. [For some general remarks on the 
Bhiimias, see Rajgarh.] Jamnia is the family seat from which Nadir 
Singh, a celebrated Bhiimia of Jamnia, made himself formidable to 
the surrounding country. The estate consists of 5 villages held from 
Sindhia under British guarantee. These villages are situated on the 
table-land of Malwa, and belonged formerly to the Qj\s2X\ox pargand of 
Dikthan. The estate also includes Mauza Kheri of the Hasilpur 
pargand in Malwa ; Dabhar, with its six pdrds or hamlets, in Nimar ; 
and the tract of country known as the 47 Bhll pdrds^ with Jimnia as 
their head-quarters. Mauza Kheri is held from Holkar under British 
guarantee ; Dabhar is held from Dhar 3 and the 47 W^\\ pdrds from the 
British Government, to whom the Bhiimia is responsible for the robberies 
that may take place. The pdrds are partly on the table-land of Malwa, 
and partly on the slopes of the Vindhya range. The total area of the 
estate is about 46,575 bighds, of which great part is cultivable waste. 
A uniform rate of Rs. 3 per plough is at present levied on all cultiva- 
tion. There are i tank and 59 wells in the estate. Population (1879) 
2388; (1881) 3205, namely, 1658 males and 1547 females. Hindus 
numbered 1793; Muhammadans, 198; Jain, i; and aboriginal tribes, 
1 2 13. Number of houses, 603. Two sawdrs and 13 sipdhis are 
employed as police. Land revenue (1881), ;£"i6oo. The Manpur- 
Dhar road passes through the estate for a distance of 7 miles. The 
Bhiimia of Jamnia, who has contributed to the cost of construction, 



132 JAMNOTRI—JAMPUR. 

levies toll on the traffic passing over it. The present head-quarters 
of the estate is the village of Kunjrod. 

Jamnotri.— Hot springs in Garhwal State, North- Western Provinces, 
near the source of the Jumna. Lat. 30° 59' n., long. 78° 35' e. The 
springs occur on the sides of a massive mountain block, known as 
Banderpiinch, with an elevation of 20,758 feet above sea-level. In the 
centre stands a lake in which the monkey-god Hanuman is said to 
have extinguished his flaming tail. The water rushes up through 
a granite rock, and deposits a chalybeate sediment. It has a 
temperature of 1947° F. Elevation of the springs, 10,849 ^^^^ above 
the sea. 

Jamod. — Town in Jalgaon taluk of Akola District, Berar. Lat. 21° 
o' 40" N., long. 76° 39' 30" E. Population (1872) 4241 ; (1881) 5258. 
In 1881, Hindus numbered 444^; Muhammadans, 773; Sikhs, 6; 
and Jains, 33. Area of town site, 144 acres. 

Jampui (or Jdmpiii Tlang). — One of the chief ranges in Hill 
Tipperah, Bengal ; runs directly north and south, upon long. 92° 19' e., 
between the rivers Deo and Lungai, from lat. 23^ 40' to 24° 10' n. 
Highest peaks— Betling Sib (formerly Sorphuel), 3200 feet above the 
sea; and Jampui, i860 feet. The upper valleys, between the Jampui 
and other northern ranges of Hill Tipperah, are for the most part flat 
and covered with rank vegetation ; those to the south are wild in 
character, and broken by numerous deep-cut ravines. Small hillocks 
connect the Jampui Hills with those of Sylhet on the north, and with the 
Lungtene range in Chittagong towards the south. 

Jampur.— Tlz/^i-f/ of Dera Ghazi Khan District, Punjab, lying between 
the Indus and the Sulaiman Mountains. Lat. 29"" 17' to 29° 47' 3°' ^'-j 
and long. 69° 53' 30" to 70° 50' 30" e. Area, 912 square miles, with 141 
towns and villages, and 10,001 houses. Population (1881) 69,159, 
namely, males 38,059, and females 31,100; average density, 76 
persons per square mile. Number of famihes, 13,501. Muhammadans 
numbered 61,215 ; Hindus, 7817 ; and Sikhs, 127. Of the 141 villages 
comprising the tahsil, 102 are returned as containing less than five 
hundred inhabitants; 26 from five hundred to a thousand; 9 from one 
to two thousand ; while only 4 have upwards of two thousand inhabit- 
ants. The urban population in eight municipal towns amounted to 
12,610, or 19-3 per cent, of the total tahsil population. Total revenue, 
£^S91' Of a total assessed area of 414,509 acres in 1878-79, as shown 
in the last quinquennial agricultural statistics published by the Punjab 
Government, 147,694 acres were under cultivation, of which 36,197 
acres were irrigated from Government works, and 4025 acres by 
private individuals. Of the uncultivated area, 23,144 acres were 
returned as grazing land, 105,136 acres as cultivable but not under 
cultivation, and 138,535 acres as uncultivable waste. The total 



JAMPUR—JAMTARA, 133 

average area under crops for the five years 1S77-7S was 128,051 
acres, the principal crops being^'^^zV, 58,816 acres; wheat, 28,082 
acres; rice, 8353 acres; hdjra^ 8242 acres; indigo, 4400 acres; and 
cotton, 3933 acres. The administrative staff consists of i tahsilddr, 
I munslf, and 3 honorary magistrates. These officers preside over 4 
civil and 4 criminal courts. Number of police circles, 3 ; strength of 
regular police, 73 men ; village watchmen {chaukiddrs), 56. 

Jdmpur. — Chief town and head-quarters of Jampur tahsil in Dera 
Ghazi Khan District, Punjab. Situated in lat. 29° 38' 34" n., and long. 
70° T^Z' 16" E., in the plain, 32 miles south of Dera Ghdzi Khan town, 
on the high-road to Rajanpur and Jacobabad. Population (1881) 
4697, namely, 1883 Hindus, 2791 Muhammadans, and 23 Sikhs. 
Founded, according to local tradition, by a Jat chief, about the 13th 
century. The town contains, besides the usual tahsili courts, a police 
station, dak bungalow, school, dispensary, sardi or native inn, dis- 
tillery, and municipal hall. The bdzdr is well paved and drained. 
Exports of indigo to Multan and Sukkur. Principal industry, wood- 
turning, the work being much admired. A third-class municipality, with 
an income in 1882-83 of ^428; expenditure, ^617. Average 
incidence of taxation, is. 9fd. per head, 

Jamri. — A small zaminddri or estate in Bhandara District, Central 
Provinces, lying north of the Great Eastern Road, near Sakoli. Lat. 
21° 11' 30" N., long. 80° 5' 30" E. Consists of 4 small villages, with an 
area of 15 square miles, of which only i square mile is cultivated. 
The zafjtinddr is a Gond, and obtains a moderate income from the sale 
of timber. Population (1881) 571. 

Jamnid. — Fort in Peshawar District, Punjab; situated in lat. 34° n., 
and long. 71° 24' e., at the mouth of the Khaibar (Khyber) Pass. It 
was occupied by Hari Singh, Ranjit Singh's commander, in 1836; but 
in April 1837, Dost Muhammad sent a body of Afghans to attack it. 
A battle ensued, in which the Sikhs gained a doubtful victory, with the 
loss of their general, Hari Singh. Elevation above sea-level, 1670 feet. 
During the military operations of 1878-79, Jamriid became a place of 
considerable importance, as the frontier outpost on British territory 
towards Afghanistan ; the fort has been greatly strengthened, and is 
now capable of accommodating a garrison of about 350 men. It is 
built in three tiers, the first and second being defended by strong 
bastions, on which guns can be mounted. The third and highest tier 
is at an elevation which gives an excellent command over the neigh- 
bouring country. The roof of this tier is used as a signalling station 
with Peshawar. 

Jamtara.— Sub-division of Santdl Parganas District, Bengal, com- 
prising the thdnd or police circle of Jamtara. Lat. 23° 48' 15" to 24° 
10' 30" N., and long. 86° 41' to 87° 20' 30" e. Area, 696 square miles ; 



134 . JAMU—JAMUNA. 

villages, 1791; houses, 22,355. Population (1881)' 146,263, namely, 
males 73,393, and females 72,870. Average number of persons per 
square mile, 210; villages per square mile, 2-57; persons per village, 
82; houses per square mile, 33; persons per house, 6-5. Hindus 
numbered 85,278, or 58-3 per cent. ; Muhammadans, 9432, or 6-5 per 
cent. ; Santdls, 48,849, or 33-4 per cent. ; Kols, 1364 ; other aboriginal 
tribes, 971; Christians, 60; and 'others,' 309. Jamtara contains 
one criminal, one subordinate judge's civil court, and one Santal 
civil and revenue court — all these functions being vested in the sub- 
divisional officer. The police force consists of 30 regular police, and 
733 village chaukiddrs. 

Jamu. — Province and town of Kashmir State, Punjab. — 5^^ 
Jammu. 

Jamiii.— Sub-division of Monghyr District, Bengal. Lat. 24° 22' to 
25° 16' 30" N., and long. 85° 38' 30" to 86° 38' 30'' e. Area, 
1593 square miles; towns and villages, 2441; houses, 86,859. 
Population (1872) 525,829; (1881) 551,972, of whom 491,839 were 
Hindus; 54,499 Muhammadans; 139 Christians; ' others,' consisting 
of Santals and Kols still following their aboriginal faiths, 5495- 
Number of males, 275,733, and females, 276,239. Proportion of 
males, 49*9 per cent. ; density of population, 346 per square mile ; villages 
per square mile, 1-53; persons per village, 226; houses per square 
mile, 57 ; inmates per house, 6-3. This Sub-division comprises the 4 
police circles of Shaikhpura, Sikandra, Jamiii, and Chakai. Number of 
courts (1883), 3; regular police force, 86 men; rural police, 1126 
men. 

Jamiii. — Head-quarters of Jamiii Sub-division, Monghyr District, 
Bengal. Lat. 24° 55' 30" n., long. 86° 15' 50" e. ; on the left bank of the 
river Keul, 4 miles south-west of the Jamiii station on the East Indian 
Railway, with which it is connected by a metalled road. Population 
(1881) under 5000. This town lies within the great Gangetic rice 
plain, but shares in the slope of the country from the Chakai and 
Hazaribagh plateau northwards; well drained, and healthy. It 
contains the usual public buildings, a jail, branch dispensary, Anglo- 
vernacular school, distillery, etc. Exports — mahud flowers and oil, 
buffalo gill, shell-lac, oil-seeds, grain, and gur ; imports — cotton, 
tobacco, piece-goods, and metal vessels. Trade carried on by rail and 
by pack-bullocks ; no metalled roads in the town. Jamiii is a town of 
recent growth, and has no historical interest ; to the south of it are the 
remains of an old fort. 

Jamund. — River of Northern India. — See Jumna. 

Jamuna {Jamoona ox Jandi). — The name given to the lower section 
of the Brahmaputra {g.v.) in Northern Bengal, from its entrance into the 
plains to its confluence with the Ganges. This channel is of compara- 



JAMUNA. 135 

tively recent formation, but now carries down by far the largest volume 
of water. When Major Rennell compiled his map of Bengal towards the 
close of the last century, the main stream of -the Brahmaputra flowed in 
a south-easterly direction across the District of Maimansingh, past the 
civil station of Nasirabdd, to join the Meghna just below Bhairab Bazar. 
Some thirty years later, at the time of Dr. Buchanan-Hamilton's survey, 
this channel had already become of secondary importance. At the 
present time, though it still bears the name of the Brahmaputra, it has 
dwindled to a mere watercourse, only navigable during the rainy season. 
The Jamuna, as had been anticipated by Dr. Buchanan-Hamilton, is now 
the main stream, and in fact the only one marked in common maps. It 
extends from near Ghoramara in Rangpur District to the river mart of 
Goalanda in Faridpur, situated at the junction of the Padma or main 
stream of the Ganges. Its course is almost due north and south, 
extending approximately from 26° to 24° n. lat. Along the left or east 
bank stretches the District of Maimansingh ; on the right or west bank 
lie Rangpur, Bogri, and Pabna, all in the Rajshahi Division. 

Although a modern creation, the Jamuna thus serves as an important 
administrative boundary. In that portion of its course which fringes 
Bogra District, it is locally known as the Dao-koba or Hatchet- 
cut, perhaps to distinguish it from another river of the same name in 
that District. It runs through a low-lying country, formed out of its 
own loose alluvial sands. At some points, its channel swells to a 
breadth in the rainy season of 4 or 5 miles, broken by frequent chars or 
sandbanks, which form, are washed away, and re-form year after year, 
according to the varying incidence of the current. The low lands 
on either bank supply the most favourable soil for jute cultivation 
in Bengal. The chief river mart on the Jamuna is Sirajganj in 
Pabna District, which collects the agricultural produce of all the 
surrounding country. In 1876-77, the total number of country 
boats registered at Sirajganj was 49,644- The Jamuna is navigable 
throughout its entire length by native craft of the largest burthen 
at all seasons of the year, and also by the river steamers that ply to 
Assam. 

Jamund..— A deltaic distributary of the Ganges, or rather the name 
given to a part of the waters of the Ichhamati during a section of its 
course. The Jamuna enters the Twenty-four Parganas at Baliani from 
Nadiya District ; and after a south-easterly route through the Twenty- 
four Parganas, winds amid the forests and jungles of the Sundarbans 
until it empties itself into the Raimangal, a short distance from where 
that estuary merges in the sea, in lat. 21° 47' N., and long. 89° 13 e. 
The Jamuna is a deep river, and navigable throughout the year by 
trading boats of the largest size. Where it enters the Twenty-four 
Parganas, the stream is about 150 yards wide, butjts breadth gradually 



136 JAMUNA—JANDIALA, 

increases in its progress southwards to from 300 or 400 yards. The 
canals which run from Calcutta eastward fall into this river at 
Husainabad. 

Jamund;. — A river of Assam, rising in lat. 26° 31' n., and long. 
93° 31' E., in the north of the Ndga Hills, and flowing first south and 
then west along the southern foot of the Rengma Hills, finally 
falls into the Kapili, a tributary of the Brahmaputra, in Nowgong 
District, at the village of Jamuna-mukh, in lat. 26° 5' n., and long. 
92° 47' E. Its tributaries in the hills are the Dikhru, Sargati, and 
Pathradesa, all small streams. In the lower part of its course it is 
navigable by boats of 4 tons burthen during the greater part of the 
year. Coal and limestone of good quality are found in certain portions 
of its bed. 

Jamund* (Jaboona). — A river of Northern Bengal, probably repre- 
senting one of the old channels of the Tista. It rises in Dinajpur 
District, not far from the boundary of Rangpur, and flowing due south 
along the border of Bogra, finally falls into the Atrai, itself a tributary 
of the Ganges, near the village of Bhawanipur in Rdjshahi District. In 
the lower part of its course it is navigated all the year round by 
country boats of considerable burthen, but higher up it only becomes 
navigable during the rainy season, from June to October. The chief 
river marts on the banks of the Jamund are Phiilbdri and Birampur 
in Dinajpur District, and Hilli in Bogra, just beyond the Dinajpur 
boundary. Hilli is one of the largest rice marts in Northern Bengal. 

Jamwari. — River in Oudh ; a small tributary of the Sarayan, rising 
in Bhurwara village, Kheri District, in lat. 27° 56' n., and long. 
80° 38' E. After flowing a tortuous course of 41 miles, it joins the 
Sarayan on its left bank, in Sultdnpur District, in lat. 27° 32' n., and 
long. 80° 47' E. 

Janaurd. — Town in Faizdbad (Fyzabad) District, Oudh ; adjoining 
Ajodhya. Said to have been originally founded by Rajd Janakji, and 
having fallen into decay, to have been re-founded by the Oudh 
Vikramaditya in the 2nd century a.d. Population (1881) 2021 
Hindus, 436 Musalmdns, and 3 'others;' total, 2460. 

Jandidld. — Town and municipality in Amritsar tdhstl and District, 
Punjab. Situated in lat. 31° 50' 45" n., and long. 75° 37' e., on the 
Grand Trunk Road, 12 miles south-east of Amritsar city, and a station 
on the Lahore and Delhi Railway. Founded by a colony of Jats, and 
named after Jand, the son of their leader. Population (1881) 6535, 
namely, Muhammadans, 3490; Hindus, 2380; Sikhs, 402; Jains, 
254; 'others,' 9. Number of houses, 1200. Municipal income 
in 1882-83, ;^48o, or is. 5|d. per head of the population. The 
town carries on a considerable trade, entirely with Amritsar, and is 
noted for its manufacture of brass and copper vessels. Police station, 



JANDIALA—JANJIRA, 137 

sardi, Government and mission schools, post-office, dispensary, and 
encamping-ground. The Sobraon and Kasur branch of the Barf Doab 
Canal runs a mile and a half east of the town. 

Jandidla. — Town in Phillaur tahsil^ Jalandhar (Jullundur) District, 
Punjab. Lat. 31° 9' 30" n., long. 75° 39' 30" e. Population (1881) 
6316, namely, 3013 Hindus, 978 Muhammadans, and 2325 Sikhs. 
Number of houses, 1191. The town is an agricultural centre, of purely 
local importance. 

Jangipur. — Sub-division of Murshiddbad District, Bengal. Lat. 24° 
19' to 24° 52' N., and long. 87° 51' 30" to 88° 24' 15" e. Area, 508 
square miles; villages, 986; houses, 54,448. Population (1872) 
267,907; (1881) 304,080, namely, males 145,009, and females 
159,071. Total increase of population in the nine years, 36,173, 
or i3'5o per cent. Persons per square mile, 598 ; villages per 
square mile, i'94; persons per village, 308; houses per square mile, 
114; persons per house, 5*6. Muhammadans numbered 160,844, or 
52-9 per cent, of the population; Hindus, 142,993, or 47-0 per cent.; 
Santals, 200; Jains, 29; and Christians, 14. This Sub-division com- 
prises the 5 police circles {thdnds) of Raghunathganj, Mirzapur, Diwan 
Sarai, Suti, and Shamsherganj. It contains one civil and one criminal 
court, a regular police force 117 strong, and a village watch of 850 
men. 

Jangipur (or Jahdngirpur). — Chief town of Jangipur Sub-division 
of ]\Iurshidabad District, Bengal; situated on the left bank of the 
Bhagirdthi, in lat. 24° 28' n., and long. 88° 6' 45" e. Population 
(1872) 11,361 ; (188 1) 10,187, namely, Hindus, 6378; Muhammadans, 
3790; 'others,' 19. Area of town site, 640 acres. Municipal revenue 
(1881-82), ;£"834; average incidence of taxation, is. 7jd. per head. 
The town is said to have been founded by the Emperor Jahangir. 
During the early years of British rule, it was an important centre of 
the silk trade, and the site of one of the Company's Commercial 
Residencies. The number of boats registered here annually is about 
10,000; the amount of toll, ;£8ooo, or about one-third of the total 
gross revenue derived from the Nadiya rivers. 

Janjira f^Habsdn),—^dX\\& State within the Political Agency of 
Kolaba (Colaba), in the Konkan, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 18° to 
18' 31' N., and long. 72° 53' to 73° 17' e. The State is bounded north 
by the Kundalika or Roha creek in the British District of Kolaba ; 
east by the Roha and Mahad Sub-divisions of the same District ; south 
by the Bankot creek in the District of Ratndgiri ; and west by the 
Arabian Sea. About the middle of the coast-line, 40 miles long, the 
Rajpuri Gulf divides Janjira into two main portions, northern and 
southern. Area, 325 square miles. Population (1881) 76,361 ; 
density of population, 235 per square mile; gross revenue in 1882-83, 



138 JANJIRA. 

^37,600, not including the accounts of the Nawab's private treasur}-, 
which shows an income of ;£^i 1,437. 

Physical Aspects. — The surface of the State of Janjiraor Habsan is 
covered with spurs and hill ranges, averaging about 1000 feet in height, 
and generally running parallel to the arms of the sea that penetrate east- 
wards into the interior. The sides of the hills are thickly wooded, except 
where cleared for cultivation. Inland from the coast, rise ranges of 
wooded hills. Near the mouths of the creeks, belts of palm groves 
of from one to two miles broad fringe the shore. Behind the palm 
groves lie salt marshes and mangrove bushes ; behind these again, the 
rice lands of the valleys. The wealthiest and largest villages nestle in 
the palm-belt along the coast. Gardeners, the richer fishermen, and 
palm-tappers inhabit them. Inland, the banks of the creeks are 
studded with hamlets, occupied by husbandmen who cultivate rice. 
On the hill-sides, in glens or on terraces, are the huts and scanty clear- 
ings of Kathkaris and other hillmen. The slopes of lower hills are 
generally rounded and passable by a pony. These slopes, except in 
the rains, are bare ; but at most times, and particularly at the time of 
high tide, the Rajpuri creek affords fine views of wooded hill and 
winding water. During the rains travel is nearly impossible. On the 
coast, the sand-bars at the mouth of every inlet but the Rajpuri creek 
prevent ingress. Further inland, the low rice lands become covered with 
deposited mud, the main streams are flooded too deeply to be forded, 
and overgrown forest tracts render difficult the passage from one hill 
rano-e to another. None of the streams are more than five or six miles 
in length. The larger watercourses flow westward. During the rains 
they are torrents, but dwindle to mere rills at other seasons. The 
chief creeks and backwaters are, beginning from the north, the Mandla- 
Borlai, the Nandgaon, the Marad, the Rajpuri, the Panchaitan or Dive- 
Borlai, and the Shriwardhan. Most of the creek entrances are rocky 
and dangerous. During the navigable season, September to June, they 
can be entered only by boats of under one-and-a-half tons burthen. 
Once over the bar, the creeks are mostly of uniform depth throughout 
their course. The mouth of the Rajpuri creek is 25 miles south of 
Bombay. The creek ends at the old town of Mhasla, 14 miles south- 
east of Janjira town. At springs the tide rises 12 feet in the creek. 
There is no bar. The bottom is muddy. Shoalest water at low tide, 
3J fathoms at the entrance of the creek, 4I inside the entrance in 
mid-channel. Steamers can enter, even during the rains, and lie in 
still water to the south of Janjird island. 

Population. — The population of the State of Janjira has increased 
from 71,966 in 1872 to 76,361 in 1881. Of the total in 1881, males 
numbered 37,782 ; females, 38,579. Number of villages, 226 ; occupied 
houses, 14,421 ; unoccupied, 1505. Classified according to religion, 



JANJIRA. 139 

6o,8ri, or 80*9 per cent, of the population, were Hindus; 13,912, or 
i8-2 per cent., Muhammadans ; 47 Christians; 27 Jains; 2 Parsi's ; 
590 Beni-Israel ; and 972 aboriginal tribes. The Beni-Israel, a race of 
Jewish descent, worship one God, and have no images in their houses. 
They practise many Jewish rites. The dress and manner of living of 
the Beni-Israel, who are mostly oil-pressers by trade, are partly Muham- 
madan and partly Hindu. They speak Marathi. Though fond of 
drink, they are steady, enterprising, and prosperous. The Sidis are the 
representatives of Habshi or Abyssinian slaves and soldiers of fortune. 
They are only found in the island of Janjira. The Sidis number over 
200. Many of them are related to the Nawdb or head of the State, 
and inherit State grants and allowances. The Konkanis are the 
largest and most important community of Janjira Muhammadans. 
The Daldis are a fishing race which supply boatmen for Bombay 
harbour. The crews of the Bombay dubdsh boats,— the ' bumboats ' 
of the harbour,— the steamships of the Peninsular and Oriental Com- 
pany, and the smaller coasting steamers, are to a great extent recruited 
from Janjira. In the rains, when bad weather prevails in the harbour, 
the Daldis and other natives of Habsan return to their homes. 
Shriwardhan (population, 7424) is the largest town in the State. 

Climate, Products, ^/r.— The climate of Janjira is moist and relaxing, 
but not unhealthy. The sea-breeze cools the coast and hill-tops. 
Along the coast, fever and dysentery prevail from October to January. 
The heat on the coast ranges from 76° F. in the cold weather, and in 
July and August, at the period of the heaviest rains, to 90° in the hot 
weather and the period at the close of the rains. Inland, where the 
sea-breeze does not penetrate, the thermometer ranges f or 8° higher. 
Average rainfall, 100 inches. 

Sea-fishing for pomphlet and other large fish is the occupation of the 
bulk of the people. The staple crops are cocoa-nuts, betel-nuts, rice, 
the coarser varieties of grain, and hemp. Timber and firewood are cut 
and exported. The manufactures are salt, saris, or robes for women, 
coarse cloth turbans, and coir rope. Paper is made in Janjira fort. 
Recently, small pearls were found in oysters fished up from the Rajpuri 
creek. The oyster is believed to be the Placuna placenta. Judging 
from the quantities of. shells thrown up along the banks of the Rajpuri 
creek, the beds must be considerable. 

Except the plots of rich alluvial rice land in the valleys, and some 
sandy tracts near the coast, the usual red stony soil of the Konkan 
prevails throughout Janjira. For irrigation purposes, water sufficiently 
fresh is found everywhere by digging a few yards into the easily worked 
earth. It is drawn from wells by means of the Persian wheel, and 
from streams by a balance-lift called uptL In the strip of light 
sand bordering? the sea-coast, cocoa-nut trees grow in great perfection. 



140 JANJIRA, 

Quarries of trap and laterite are occasionally worked. The State has 
for some years been a chief source of supply of firewood to Bombay 
city ; but its forests have been consequently over-cut, and the necessity 
of conserving them has engaged the attention of the Government 
of Bombay. 

There are 25 schools, 14 being Mardtha, and 11 Muhammadan. 
The number of pupils are 816 and 558 respectively. In the 3 girls' 
schools 141 attended — 57 Muhammadans and 84 Hindus. There is a 
dispensary. 

Comtnunications. — External traffic is carried on almost entirely by 
water. In March 1874, a regular tri-weekly steam communication 
was established between Bombay and Dasgdon, on the Sdvitri river, 
touching at Janjira and Shriwardhan. A State post is worked from 
Alibagh to Bankot. There are 1 2 ferries in the State. A ferry steamer 
plies between Bombay and Dharamtar. The only made roads are one 
from Murud to Borli, 14 miles in length, and another from Dighi to 
Shriwardhan, 19 miles. 

History. — The chief is a Sunni Muhammadan, by race a Sidi or 
Abyssinian, with the title of Nawdb. The last chief, Ibrdhim Khan 
Yakut Khan, died in 1879. The Nawab has no sanad authorizing 
adoption, and pays no tribute. As regards succession, the eldest 
son does not, as of right, succeed to the throne ; but that one 
among the sons who is decided by the supreme authority in the 
State to be fittest to rule. Till 1868, the State enjoyed singular 
independence, there being no PoHtical Agent, and no interference 
whatever in its internal affairs. About that year, the mal-administra- 
tion of the chief, especially in matters of police and criminal justice, 
became flagrant ; those branches of administration were in consequence 
taken out of his hands, and vested in a Political Agent. The Treaty, 
which regulates the dealings of the British Government with the 
Nawab, is that of 1870. The name Janjira is corrupted from the 
Arabic jazirah^ ' an island.' The origin of the ruling family is thus 
related : — About the year 1489 a.d., an Abyssinian in the service of 
one of the Nizam Shahi kings of Ahmednagar, disguised as a merchant, 
obtained permission from the chiefs of the island to land 300 boxes. 
Each of these boxes contained a soldier, and by this means the 
Abyssinians possessed themselves of Janjird island and the fort of 
Danda Rajapur. The island afterwards formed part of the dominions 
of the King of Bijapur. In the time of Sivaji, the government of the 
Southern Konkan was held by the Admiral of the Bijapur fleet, who 
was always an Abyssinian. In consequence of harsh treatment at the 
hands of his master, the Sidi Admiral offered his services, in 1660, 
to the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. The most noticeable point in the 
history of Janjira, is its successful resistance, alone of all the States of 



JANJIRA—JANSATH. 141 

Western India, to the determined attacks of the Marathas, who made 
its capture a point of honour. After repeated attacks by Sivaji, 
its conquest was again attempted in 1682 by his son Sambaji, 
who besieged the island, which he attempted to connect with the 
mainland by means of a mole. The project failed, and other attempted 
modes of attack were defeated with heavy loss. The State maintains a 
force of 700 men for garrison and police duties. The Nawab of Janjira 
is entitled to a salute of nine guns. The small State of Jafardbad in 
Kathiawdr is also governed by this family. 

Janjird. — Town and fort of Janjira State, in the Konkan, Bombay 
Presidency. Lat. 18° 18' n., long. 73° e. ; 44 miles south of Bombay. 
Population (1881) 1784. The fort of Janjira, on an island at the 
entrance of the Rajpuri creek, lies half a mile from the mainland on 
the east, and a mile from the mainland on the west. The walls of the 
fort rise abruptly from the water to a height of 50 feet. The walls 
are battlemented and loopholed. In the bastions and on the walls 
are ten guns. In the fort a yearly Muhammadan fair is held in 
November, attended by about 3000 visitors. On Nanwell headland, 
about two miles west of the fort, a lighthouse is being erected. A 
dioptric light of the fourth order will stand on a tower of about 150 
feet about sea-level. It will serve to light the dangerous sunken reef 
known as the Chor Kassa, situated about three-quarters of a mile from 
the headland. 

Jansath. — South-eastern tahsil of Muzaffarnagar District, North- 
western Provinces, lying between the Ganges and the Hindan, traversed 
by the Sind, Punjab, and Delhi Railway, and watered by the Ganges 
Canal. It comprises the four pargaiids of Jauli Jansath, Khatauli, 
Bhukarheri, and Bhuma Sambhalheri. Area, 453 square miles, of 
which 287 are cultivated. Population (1872) 161,927; (1881) 183,854, 
namely, males 98,677, and females 85,177. Increase of population in 
the nine years, 21,927, or 11 '9 per cent. Classified according to 
religion, there were in 1881 — Hindus, 120,509; Muhammadans, 51,944; 
Jains, 2316; and 'others,' 85. Of the 241 villages which comprise 
the iahs'd^ 121 have less than five hundred inhabitants; 75 from 
five hundred to a thousand; 27 from one to two thousand; 11 
from two to three thousand; and 7 from three to five thousand 
inhabitants. Total Government revenue, including cesses, ^23,531 ; 
rental paid by cultivators, ^65,131. The tahsil, which in civil matters 
is within the jurisdiction of the munsif of Muzaffarnagar, contains 3 
criminal courts, that of a deputy magistrate or tahsilddr^ and those of 2 
honorary magistrates. For police purposes, the tahsil is divided into 
the four police circles {ihdnds) of Jansath, Bhopa, Miranpur, and 
Khatauli. Strength of regular police, 49 officers and men ; village 
watchmen {chaukiddrs), 374. 



142 JANSATH—JAORA. 

Jansath. — Town in Muzaffarnagar District, North-Western Pro- 
vinces, and head-quarters of Jansath tahsil Lat. 29° 19' 15" n., long. 
77° 53' 20" E. Situated on a low part of the plain, 14 miles south-east 
of Muzaffarnagar town. Famous as the home of the Jansath Sayyids, 
who held all the chief offices of the Delhi Empire in the early part of 
the 1 8th century. Jansath was sacked and destroyed by a Rohilla 
force, under orders from the Wazir Kamar-ud-din, in 1737, and most 
of the Sayyids were slain or exiled ; but some of their descendants 
still inhabit the town. Population (1881) 6284, namely, Hindus, 
3354; Muhammadans, 2839; and Jains, 91. Area of town site, 70 
acres. A small municipal revenue for police and conservancy purposes 
is raised under the provisions of the Chaukidari Act. Police station, 
post-office, school. 

Jaoli.— Sub-division of Satara District, Bombay Presidency.— ^fd 
Javli. 

Jdora. — Native State under the Western Malwd Agency, Central 
India. The territory of the Jdora State consists of two principal 
tracts. The larger tract lies between lat. 23° 32' and 23° 55' n., and 
between long. 74° 52' and 75° 32' e. ; the smaller tract lies between 
lat. 24° 10' and 24° 20' n., and long. 75° 10' and 75-° 25' e. The 
area of the whole is 872 square miles. Population (1881) 108,434, 
namely, 57,245 males and 51,189 females; Hindus numbered 87,833, 
Muhammadans 13,318, Jains 2010, Parsis 12, Christians 3, and 
aboriginal tribes 5258. Revenue of the State (1881), ^79»930- 

The lands of this chiefship were originally assigned by Holkar to the 
Pathan adventurer Amir Khan, for support of troops to aid his schemes 
of aggrandizement in Northern India. Amir Khan's brother-in-law, 
Gafiir Khan, being in occupation when the battle of Mehidpur decided 
the fate of Malwa in 1818, the possession of Jaora was secured to him 
and his heirs by the British Government. The present Nawab of Jaora, 
who succeeded in 1865, is Muhammad Ismail Khan, by race a Pathan. 
His residence is at Jaora. Though nominally a feudatory of Holkar, 
and liable to the payment of a succession nazardnd of 2 lakhs 
(;£2 0,000), the Nawdb is directly under the protection and poUtical 
control of the British Government. He holds a sanad guaranteeing 
the succession according to Muhammadan law, in the event of failure 
of natural heirs. Jdora State contains the best poppy-growing lands 
in Malwd, and silver mines are said to have formerly been worked. 
The Nawdb keeps up a military force of 15 guns, with 69 gunners; 
cavalry, 121; regular infantry, 200; and irregular foot levies, 200: 
police, 497. His services during the Mutiny were rewarded by an 
increase to his salute of 13 guns, and by a reduction in his annual 
contribution to the Contingent, now fixed at ^16,181. The Raj- 
putana-Malwd State Railway passes through the State. 



JAORA—JAROD. 143 

Jd<ora. — Chief town of the State of Jaora, under the Western Mahva 
Agency of Central India, and a station of the Rajputana-Mahva State 
Raihvay. Lat. 23° 37' n., long. 75° 8' e. The town contains (1881) 
4400 houses, and a population of 19,902, namely, 10,336 males and 
9566 females; Hindus numbered 10,547, Muhammadans 8892, and 
' others ' 463. It was formerly the residence of a Thdkiir^ whose family 
still exists here in the enjoyment of a pension. The present town 
was laid out by Colonel Borthwick in regular streets, and boasts 
one of the most beautiful stone bridges in Central India, built by 
him. The houses and shops are substantial ; the town is surrounded 
by a stone wall not yet completed. A fair amount of trade is carried 
on, and the town is connected by railway with Ratlam (20 miles) on 
the south and Partabgarh (32 miles) on the north. It contains an 
opium-weighing depot, post and telegraph offices, school, and dispensary. 
Elevation, 1450 feet. The small river Piria, on which the town is 
situated, becomes a torrent in the rainy season. 

Jarcha {Jhdrcha). — Town in Sikandarabad tahsil, Bulandshahr 
District, situated 8 miles north of Sikandardbad, 7 miles east of Dadri, 
and 20 miles north-west of Bulandshahr town. The population (3776 
in 1 881) consists chiefly of Sayyids, styled Sabzwari, who claim 
descent from the Sayyids of Sabzwar in Turkistan, whence they came 
during the reign of the Tughlak dynasty. The correct name of 
the town is said to be Char Chah, or ' the four wells,' because four 
wells were sunk here by the founder of the town, Sayyid Zain-ul-abdin, 
who obtained a revenue-free grant of 3500 bighds from the Emperor 
Mubarak Shah, on condition of ousting the Mewatis. The four wells 
are still to be seen, and the descendants of the founder continued 
in enjoyment of the grant until 1857, when they took part in the 
plunder of Sikandarabad, and their holdings were confiscated. The 
village was then sold by auction. It realized ^17,800, and passed 
into the possession of a Hindu family. The town is famous for the 
number and excellence of its mango trees. Weekly market on 
Wednesdays ; police station, and school. For police and conservancy 
purposes, a small house-tax is levied under the provisions of Act xx. 
of 1856. The Ganges Canal runs about a mile north of the town. 

Jdrod. — Sub-division of Baroda (the Gdekwar's territory), Bombay 
Presidency. Area, 350 square miles. Bounded on the north by the 
Rewa Kantha Agency ; west by Baroda Sub-division ; south by Dabhoi 
Sub-division ; east by Halol District. Acres under cultivation, 28,894 ; 
waste, 23,725 acres; cultivable waste, 96,210. Population (1872) 
65,225. No later population statistics are available. The Sub-division 
consists of a well-wooded plain, intersected by the Viswamitri, Surya, 
and Jambva rivers. The soil is either black or gordt (yellow). Number 
of holdings (of from \\ to 15 J acres), 4300. Cotton, bdJ7-a^ and jodr 



144 JARWAL—JASHPUR. 

are the staple crops. Savali (population in 1881, 6275) is the head- 
quarters of the Sub-division. 

Jarwal. — Town in Bahrdich District, Oudh ; on the road from 
Bahramghat to Bahraich, 5J miles from the former and 29 from the 
latter town. Lat. 27° 10' 9" n., long. 81° 35' 33" e. A Muhammadan 
town, captured from the Bhars in 1340 a.d., by a Sayyid chief, whose 
descendants still reside here. Their influence has of late much 
decreased, and a considerable portion of their ancestral estates has 
passed into the possession of Rajput neighbours. Population (1869) 
1908; ( 188 1) 4187. Bi-weekly market for the sale of grain, cloth, and 
brass vessels. Manufactures — fireworks, dyes, saltpetre, scents, and 
felts, the latter being a speciality of Bahraich District. Two Hindu 
temples, 4 mosques, rest-house {sardi), Government school. 

Jasdan. — Native State of the Gohelwar Division of the Political 
Agency of Kathiawar, Province of Gujarat (Guzerat), Bombay Presi- 
dency. Area, 283 square miles. Population (1872) 30,134; (1881) 
29,037; number of villages, 62; estimated gross revenue, ;£"i4,5oo. 
Products, cotton and grain. Jasdan ranks as a third-class State 
among the many petty States of Kathidwar. Its ruler entered into 
engagements with the British Government in 1807. The chief 
of Jasdan pays to the British Government, the Gaekwar of Baroda, 
and the Nawab of Junagarh, an aggregate tribute of ^1066, 
and maintains a military force of 341 men. He holds no sa?iad of 
adoption, but the succession follows the rule of equal division of pro- 
perty between the brothers, with extra allowance {^ mohtdp'), to the 
eldest. The State has (1882) 6 schools, with 382 pupils. The 
police consists of 60 mounted and 348 foot, with 500 pdsaitas. 
Dispensary. 

Jasdan. — Chief town of Jasdan State, Kathiawar, Bombay Presi- 
dency; situated in lat. 22° 5' n., long. 71° 20' e., about 4 miles north- 
east of Adkot, and 6 miles north of Kotra Pitha, both of which 
are on the R^ijkot-Bhawnagar high-road. Jasdan is a town of great 
antiquity, and possibly derives its name from Swami Chashtana, one 
of the very earliest of the Kshatrapa dynasty. During the reign of 
the Ghoris of Junagarh a strong fort was built here, and the town 
was called Ghorgarh. A good road connects it with Vinchia, which it 
is proposed ultimately to connect with the railway at Botad. Popu- 
lation (1872) 3663; (1881) 3873. School and dispensary. 

Jashpur. — Petty State of Chutia Nagpur, Bengal. Lat. 22° 17' 5" 
to 23° 15' 30" N., long, ^i 32' 50" to 84° 26' 15" E. Area, 1963 
square miles. Population (1881) 90,240. Bounded on the north and 
west by the State of Sargiijd. ; on the south by Gangpur and Udaipur ; 
and on the east by Lohardaga District. 

Physical Aspects. — The State of Jashpur consists in almost equal 



JASHPUR. 145 

proportions of highland and lowland areas. On its eastern side, the 
table-land of the Uparghat (2200 feet above the sea) blends with and 
forms an integral part of the plateau of Chutia Nagpur ; towards the 
west, it springs abruptly from the Hetghat, with a wall buttressed at 
places by projecting masses of rock. The lowlands of Hetghat and 
of Jashpur proper lie to the south in successive steppes, broken by 
low hills, gneiss rocks, and isolated bluffs. A slight depression 
separates the Uparghat from the still loftier plateau of the Khuria 
(3000 to 3700 feet), which occupies the north-west corner of the State, 
forming the watershed between the lb and the Kanhar, a tributary of 
the Son (Soane). This plateau consists of trap rock topped with 
volcanic laterite, overlying the granite and gneiss which form the sur- 
face rocks at lower elevations. It has been extensively denuded by 
the waters of the lb, Kanhar, and Lowa, and their tributaries, which 
have hollowed out valleys generally lying about 1000 feet below the 
level of the plateau. The result is that the numerous sections which 
have been surrounded by the rivers, and thus cut off from the 
main plateau, stand out like islands rising above the surrounding 
valleys. The Pandrapat, which forms the western and highest part of 
the plateau, covers about 150 square miles. It is well wooded, and 
watered by streams running in wide valleys, bounded by gently sloping 
hills. The soil on the plateau is excellent, and the climate exceedingly 
healthy, with a height of about 3500 feet above sea-level. The volcanic 
laterite which forms the surface soil of the Khuria plateau also occurs 
on the Uparghat and part of the Hetghat, but the trap does not appear 
except on the Khuria plateau and its outlying sections. The principal 
heights in Jashpur are Ranijula (3527 feet), Kohiar (3393 feet), 
Bharamurio (3390 feet). The chief river is the lb, which flows through 
the State from north to south; but numerous rapids render it un- 
navigable. The small rivers to the north are feeders of the Kanhar. 
Iron and gold are found in Jashpur ; sal, sisu, ebony, and other 
valuable timber abound along the course of the lb. Jungle products 
— lac, tasar silk, and beeswax. 

History. — Jashpur, with the rest of the Sargiija group of States, was 
ceded to the British Government by the provisional engagement con- 
cluded with Madhuji Bhonsla (Apa Sahib) in 18 18. Although noticed 
in the second article of this agreement as a separate estate, Jashpur 
was at first treated in some measure as a fief of Sargiija, through which 
State it still pays tribute ; in every other respect it is dealt with as a 
distinct territory. The chief of Jashpur renders no feudal service to 
Sargiija; his annual income is about £^1200; the tribute to Govern- 
ment, ^77, I OS. 

Population. — The total population of Jashpur State in 1881 numbered 
90,240 persons, being 45,999 males and 42,241 females; density of 

VOL. VII. K 



146 JASHPUR—JASPURA. 

population, 46 per square mile. Classified according to religion, the 
population consists of 89,696 Hindus and 544 Muhammadans. The 
Census of 1881 does not give any ethical classification, but the great 
majority of the inhabitants are Dravidian and Kolarian aborigines, who 
in 1872 formed upwards of 82 percent, of the population of the State. 
The principal aboriginal tribes are the Uraons, Rautias, and Korwas. 
The residence of the Raja is at Jagdispur or Jashpurnagar. 

Crops. — Cereals, oil-seeds, fibres, and cotton. 

Jashpur. — Hill range in Chutia Nagpur, Bengal. The principal 
peaks are — Ranijula, 3527 feet in height, lat. 22° 59' 45" n., long. 83° 
38' E. ; Kohiar, 3393 feet; Bharamurio, 3390 feet; Chipli, 3300 feet; 
Laiongbir, 3293; Bhusmnga, 3285 feet; Talora, 3258 feet; Dulum, 
3248 feet; Garh, 3226; Dhasma, 3222 feet, etc. 

Jaso. — Petty State in Bundelkhand, under the Central India 
Agency, situated between lat. 24° 20' and 24° 34' n., and between 
long. 80° 28' and 80° 40' 30" e. The present (1883) chief, Diwan 
Gujraj Singh, is a Hindu Bundela. Area of State, 75 square miles, 
with 57 villages and 1775 houses. Population (1881) 8050, namely, 
males 4022, and females 4028. Hindus numbered 7142; Muham- 
madans, 121; Jains, 18; and aboriginal tribes still professing their 
primitive faiths, 769. Revenue (1875), ;£"i4oo. The chief keeps 
up a military force of 2 guns and about 50 horsemen. He holds 
a sanad, giving the right of adoption. The town of Jaso is in lat. 
24° 27' N., and long. 80° 35' e. 

JaSOl.^/^^zV estate and village in the District of Mallani, Jodhpur 
State, Rajputana. The estate comprises 72 villages, and an annual 
tribute of ^210 is paid to Jodhpur State. The high hill known 
as Nagar of Jasol is in this estate. It is the loftiest point of a small 
ridge which trends in a south-western direction for about three miles ; 
the ascent to it is about a mile and a quarter in length ; on the top are 
reservoirs for water. The village of Jasol lies near the left bank of the 
Luni river, in lat. 25° 8' n., and long. 72° 21' e., 60 miles south-west 
of Jodhpur city. The village, which is built at the northern base of 
a conical hill, contains a bungalow for the accommodation of the 
political superintendent when on tour, and for European gentlemen 
when travelling through the State. 

Jaspur. — Town in the Tarai District, North-Western Provinces. 
Lat. 29° 16' 45" N., long. 78° 52' 30" e. Population (1872)6746; 
(1881) 7055, namely, Hindus, 4225; Muhammadans, 2796; and Jains, 
34. Area of town site, 494 acres. A house-tax for police and con- 
servancy purposes is levied under the provisions of Act xx. of 1856. 

Jaspura. — Village in Bdnda District, North-Western Provinces ; 1 7 
miles north of Banda town. Population (1881) 1772. The neighbour- 
ing fort of Abhaipur was founded by a robber chieftain, Humayun, who 



JASROTA—JATH. 147 

gathered a body of followers during the i8th century, and took the 
title of Raja. He diverted the waters of the Ken into an artificial 
channel, which supplies a valuable means of irrigation at the present 
day. 

Jasrota. — Extinct principality and town in Kashmir State, Punjab, 
Northern India; situated in lat. 32° 29' n., and long. 75° 27' e., among 
the mountains of the southern Himalayan chain. The last Raja was 
dispossessed by Ranji't Singh. Thornton describes the Raja's residence 
as a handsome palace with four towers. Small bazar and inconsiderable 
trade. 

Jaswdn Dun. — Valley in Hoshiarpur District, Punjab, intervening 
between the Siwalik Hills and the outer Himalayan range. It corre- 
sponds to the Dehra Diin in the Gangetic Doab, and the Khiarda Dun 
in Nihan State. The So^n torrent traverses its whole length, and its 
sandy bed is one or two miles wide. Spurs from the neighbouring hills 
project into the central dale from either range, but there is a wide 
stretch of comparatively level and open ground, with a breadth of 
from 4 to 14 miles. Elevation of the town of Una, situated about the 
middle of the Diin, 1404 feet above the sea. This valley formed the 
principal part of the ancient Rajput principality of Jaswan, and gives 
its name to the tribe of Jaswal Rajputs, which is nearly allied to the 
royal Katoch house of Kangra. 

Jaswantnagar. — Town in Etawah District, North- Western Pro- 
vinces. Lat. 26° 52' 50" N., long. 78° 56' 30" E. Situated on the East 
Indian Railway, 10 miles north-west of Etawah town. Population (1872) 
5310; (1881) 4950, namely, Hindus, 3536; and Muhammadans, 1414. 
Named after Jaswant Rai, a Mainpuri Kayasth, who settled in the town in 
1 715. Handsome houses of the wealthier merchants. Fine tank, with 
temple and bathing ghats built by a rich inahdja7i. Place of worship 
of the Saraugis, who form a considerable element in the population. A 
small Hindu temple west of the town was occupied on ]\Iay 19, 1857, by 
mutineers of the 3rd Native Cavalry ; during a bold attempt to dislodge 
them, the Joint Magistrate was wounded in the face. Considerable 
trade in yarn, cattle, and country produce, as well as English piece- 
goods. Exports of indigo and ghi, manufacture of native cloth. Rail- 
way station, first-class police station, and good school. The Chaiikiddri 
Act (xx. of 1856) is in force in the town, and yielded an income of 
^274 in 1881-82. 

Jath. — Native State under the Political Agency of Satara, Satara Dis- 
trict, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 16° 50' to 17° 18' n., and long. 75° i' to 
75° 31' E. Area, 884 square miles. Population (1881) 49,486; density of 
population, 55-9 per square mile. Hindus numbered 46,427 ; Muham- 
madans, 2842; and 'others,' 217. Number of villages, no; occupied 
houses, 7935; unoccupied houses, 1286; estimated gross revenue 



148 JATH—JATOL 

(excluding alienations amounting to £\^o6), £i2,$oo. Since 1872 
the population has decreased by 14,514, or 23 per cent. The land 
is poor, especially in the west ; but in the centre of the State, and along 
the Bor river in the east, the soil is richer. Cultivation is neglected, 
and there has been little attempt at irrigation. Cattle-breeding is 
more remunerative, the weekly market at the town of Jath serving as a 
centre of exchange for the surrounding country. The staple products 
are bdjra dca^Jodr. Cotton, wheat, gram, and safflower are also grown. 
There are in the Jath State 17 schools, with 682 pupils; charitable 
dispensary. The police force consists of 64 men; there are 4 
criminal courts. A municipal fund is raised by a tax on the sale of 
cattle at the weekly market at Jath. The chief is a Hindu (Maratha) of 
the Kshattriya caste, and his titles are Deshmukh and Jdgirdar of Jath. 
He ranks as a first-class Sardar in the Deccan. He holds a sanad of 
adoption, and the succession follows the rule of primogeniture. Owing 
to mismanagement on the part of the chief, the State has been under 
attachment since April 1874, and the administration is still (1884) 
conducted by a British officer, known as the Political Agent, Satara. 
The State had been several times previously attached, but is now 
prosperous. It pays to the British Government ;^64o per annum, in 
lieu of the service of 50 horsemen, and a tribute (Sir Deshmiikhi) of 
^484. It also pays ^95 to the Panth Pratinidhi Jagirdar of Aundh. 
Jath is one of the feudatories of the old Satara Raj. — See Daflapur. 

Jath. — Chief town of Jath State in Satara District, Bombay 
Presidency. Lat. 17° 3' n., long. 75° 16' e. ; 92 miles south-east of 
Satara town, 95 miles north-east of Belgium, and 150 miles south-east 
by south of Poona. Population (1881) 5036. 

j^ti. — Tdluk of the Shahbandar Sub-division, Karachi (Kurrachee) 
District, Sind, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 23° 33' 30" to 24° 36' N.,and 
long. 68° o' 30" to 68° 48' 15" e. Area, 2145 square miles, with 4 
tapds, 95 villages, and 5357 houses. Population (1881) 27,055, namely, 
14,798 males and 12,257 females. Muhammadans numbered 24,212; 
Hindus, 2447 ; Sikhs, 309 ; and aboriginal tribes, 87. Revenue 
(1881-82), ^6270, of which ^5896 was derived from imperial and 
;^374 from local sources. Of the 1,314,020 acres in the tdluk in 1876, 
28,915 were under cuUivation, 33,503 cultivable, and the remainder 
uncultivable waste. The idluk contains 2 criminal courts, 5 police 
stations {thdnds), and 32 regular police. 

Jatinga. — River in the north of Cachar District, Assam ; which 
rises amid the Barail Hills, and flows south past the village of Barkhola 
into the Barc4k, a few miles below Silchar. The road to the sub-divi- 
sional station of Gunjong lies up the valley of this river. 

Jatoi. — Town and municipality in Alipur tahsil, Muzaffargarh 
District, Punjab. Lat. 29° 30' 45" N., long. 70° 53' e. ; distant from 



J A TO I— J A UNPUR, 1 49 

Alipur II miles north-west. Local tradition attributes its foimda'ion to 
Mi'r Bajar Khan, in the days of the Emperor Babar. The Indus 
washed away the original town at the close of the last century, but it 
was shortly afterwards rebuilt on the present site. Jatoi was for some 
time subordinate to Bahawalpur, but was annexed by Diwan Sawan 
jVIall. In the war against Mulraj, the Jatoi people threw off the Sikh 
rule, and rendered good service in the Multan (Mooltan) campaign. 
Population (1881) 2035, namely, Muhammadans, 1080; Hindus, 945; 
and Sikhs, 10. Number of houses, 366. Municipal revenue in 
1882-83, jC^Io. Police station, school-house, post-office. 

Jatoi. — Village in the Moro ^d/i^k of Naushahro Sub-division, 
Haidarabad (Hyderabad) District, Sind, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 
26° 30' 20" N., long. 68° 3' 10" E. Jatoi lies on the right bank of the 
Dadwah, 1 1 miles south-east of Moro, the head-quarters of the fd/uk. 
Population (1872) 892, mostly agriculturists : population not returned 
for 1 88 1. Export trade in grain, annual value, ^600. Founded in 
1780. 

Jatr^pur. — Trading village in Rangpur District, Bengal ; near the 
river Dharla. Lat. 25° 49' N., long. 89° 47' 15'' e. Exports, jute and 
mustard-seed. 

Jattd.. — Important Government salt-mine in Kohat District, Punjab, 
in the chain of hills known as the Kohat Salt Range. Lies on the 
north side of the Teri Toi river, 9 miles west of Malgin mine. The 
salt occurs as solid rock, and is quarried by blasting over an area of 
one mile by one mile and a half. Only bullocks and donkeys are 
ordinarily laden here, camels being occasionally prohibited in order 
to prevent overcrowding at this mine, the nearest of the five situated 
in the same range. The protective establishment comprises 23 men. 
The head-quarters of the salt-mines are at Jatta, Quantity extracted 
in 1881-82 (at Jatta mine), 139,289 maunds ; amount of duty, 
^3482. Annual average gross income for the eight years ending 1882, 

Jaulna. — Town in Haidarabad (Hyderabad), Nizam's territory, 
Deccan, Central India. — See Jalna. 

Jaum. — Village and fort in Indore State, Central India. Lat. 22° 
22' N., long. 75° 47' E. ; 14 miles south of Mau (Mhow),and 100 north- 
west of Asirgarh. Jaum is situated on the summit of a pass in the 
Vindhya range that is practicable for wheeled carriages ; 2328 feet above 
sea-level. 

Jaunpur. — District in the Lieutenant-Governorship of the North- 
western Provinces, lying between 25° 23' 45" and 26^ 12' n. lat., and 
between 82° 10' and 83° 7' 45" e. long. Jaunpur is the north-eastern 
District of the Allahdb^id Division. In shape it is an irregular 
triangle, with the southern boundary as its base, and the eastern 



I50 JAUNPUR. 

and western boundaries running up to an apex in the north. The 
adjacent Districts forming the boundaries are — on the north-west and 
north, the . Oudh Districts of Partabgarh and Sultanpur ; on the 
north-east, Azamgarh ; on the east, Ghazipur; and on the south and 
south-west, Benares, Mirzapur, and Allahabad. A small portion of 
the ^District is isolated from the remainder by an intrusive belt of 
Oudh territory in Partabgarh District ; while a portion of Partabgarh 
almost equal in area to this outlying tract is imbedded in the 
Machhlishahr tahsil of Jaunpur. Area, 1554 square miles; popula- 
tion (18S1) 1,209,663 persons. The administrative head-quarters are 
at the town of Jaunpur. 

Physical Aspects. — The District of Jaunpur forms part of the wide 
Gangetic plain, and its surface is composed of a thick alluvial 
deposit, brought down by the great rivers which flow from the 
Himalayan range. It differs, however, from the typical plain regions 
in the slight irregularity of its contour, which is w^orn down into 
undulating slopes by the action of minor streams. This apparent 
diversity of surface is increased by the occurrence of lofty mounds, 
often covered with groves, which mark the sites of ruined or deserted 
towns, the relics of a forgotten race, or of the demolished forts of the 
present Rajput inhabitants. The general slope of the country is from 
north-west to south-east, and probably does not exceed an average of 
6 inches per mile. The prevailing soils are dumat or loam, matiydr or 
clay, and balud or sand, in all of which vegetable mould, clay, and sand 
are found in varying proportions. Kardil^ a dark alluvial mould 
answering to the mdi' of Bundelkhand, is found in places marking the 
former sites oij'Iiils, or in old river-beds. Occasionally may be seen a 
patch of tlsar, rendered barren by the white saline efflorescence known 
as reh ; but with this exception the whole District is closely tilled, and 
no waste lands break the continuous prospect of cultivated fields. The 
northern and central portions are richly wooded with the thick foliage 
of the mango, or with isolated clumps of mahiid and tamarind trees. 

The District is divided into two unequal parts by the sinuous channel of 
the Gumti, a tributary of the Ganges, which flows past the city of Jaunpur, 
and cuts off one-third of the area to the north-east. Its total course 
within the District is about 90 miles, and it is nowhere fordable. At 
Jaunpur it is traversed by the famous Muhammadan bridge built by 
Mun'im Khan in 1569-73, consisting of 16 arches, with a total span of 
712 feet. Two miles lower down, it is again crossed by the modern 
railway bridge on the Oudh and Rohilkhand line, which has the same 
number of arches, but double the span of the older work. The channel 
of the Giimti is deep and well defined, while the hardness of the 
nodular limestone through which it has slowly eaten its w^ay effectually 
prevents those constant shiftings which give rise to endless riparian 



JAUNPUR. 151 

disputes in the wider valleys of the great arterial streams. The Giimti 
is liable to great and sudden floods. In September 187 1, the stream 
rose 23 J feet in fourteen days, and was 37 feet above its dry season 
level. The ordinary rise of the Gilmti is seldom over 15 feet. The other 
rivers of the District are the Sai, the Barna, the Pilli, and the Basohi. 
Lakes are numerous in the north and south, though rare in the central 
pargaiids ; the largest has a length of about eight miles. There is at 
present (1884) no canal in the District; but the northern and southern 
Jaunpur branches of the proposed Sarda canal will, if completed, irrigate 
its western half, and fall into the Giimti near Jaunpur town. 

The largest jungle tract is a small dhdk forest in Karakat tahsil^ with 
an area of about 2000 acres, although towards the end of the i8th 
century there were large forest tracts in Khutahan tahsil. These have 
entirely disappeared as population has increased and cultivation been 
extended. Of waste lands there are practically none, save the occasional 
patches of usar mentioned above. Kankar or nodular limestone, used 
for road metalling or manufactured into lime, is found in all the upland 
parts of the District. 

Owing to the density of the population and the absence of forests or 
waste lands, wild animals are scarce, and the waterfowl of the marshy 
lakes form the only attraction for the sportsman. But cobras and other 
snakes are common, while packs of wolves frequent the scanty ravines 
which border the Gumti and the Sai. 

History. — In the earliest times, Jaunpur was held by the Bhars, a 
tribe of non-Aryan aborigines, who occupied the whole northern slope 
of the central Ganges plain. Few traces of their long settlement in 
this District can now be recovered. Along the banks of the Barna, 
frequent mounds conceal the sites of large cities destroyed by fire ; but 
these were probably overthrown in the 9th century of our era, when the 
great Brahmanist revival finally triumphed over Buddhism, and the 
faith of Sakya Muni was trampled out with flame and sword throughout 
all Upper India. Vast temples also stood at one time by the side of 
the Giimti, and some portions of their architecture have survived the 
devastation of the earliest Musalman invaders ; yet nothing is known 
with certainty of their age or founders. The fort of Firoz, built about 
the year 1360, was almost entirely constructed from ruined temples of 
Buddhist or Hindu origin, and carved stones taken from the infidel 
buildings abound in the walls. Doubtless, in prehistoric times Jaunpur 
formed a portion of the Ajodhya principality ; and when it first makes 
an appearance in authentic history, it was subject to the rulers of 
Benares. With the rest of their dominions it fell under the yoke of 
the Musalman marauders after the victory gained by Shahab-ud-din 
over the Hindu champion Jai Chand, in 11 94 a.d. 

From this time the tract now forming the District of Jaunpur 



152 JAUNPUR, 

appears to have been ruled by a prince of the Kanauj dynasty, as 
a tributary of the Muhammadan suzerain. In 1360, Firoz Tughlak, 
on his return from an expedition to Bengal, encamped at Jaunpur, and, 
being struck with the advantages of its site, determined to build a city 
on the spot. He remained there for six months, and demolished one 
Hindu temple ; but the stout resistance of the populace compelled him 
to refrain from his attempt to level another, the votive offering of Jai 
Chand. At a later date, however, it was destroyed by Ibrdhim Sultan 
of Jaunpur, who employed the stones to construct the mosque known 
as the Atala Masjid. In 1388, Malik Sarwar Khwaja, a eunuch who 
had become Wazir at Delhi, was sent by Muhammad Tughlak to 
govern the eastern Province, which extended from Kanauj to Behar. 
The ambitious eunuch fixed his residence at Jaunpur; and in 1394, 
taking advantage of Timur's invasion, he made himself independent of 
the Delhi court, and assumed the title of Sultan-us-Shark, or Eastern 
Emperor. 

For nearly a century, the Sharki dynasty ruled at Jaunpur, and 
proved formidable rivals to the sovereigns of Delhi. They possessed 
the greater part of Hindustan, and were engaged in one long struggle 
with their former masters for the supremacy of the whole. The 
founder of the dynasty, who died in 1400, left his dominions to his 
adopted son Mubarak Khan. The new Sultan reigned only for a single 
year, and died in 1401, while resisting an attack of the Delhi forces at 
Kanauj. He was succeeded by his younger brother, Ibrahim, the 
builder of the Atala Masjid. Ibrdhfm's life was spent in a long contest 
for the recovery of Kanauj, which he was obliged to cede in the earlier 
years of his reign, and for the conquest of Kalpi, which he twice 
unsuccessfully attacked. He died in 1440. His son, Mahmiid, was 
more aggressive. In 1442 he took Kalpi, and ten years later marched 
upon Delhi, to which he laid siege. Bahlol Lodi, the real ruler of the 
Empire under the fainearit Emperor Ala-ud-dm, returned from the 
Punjab, raised the siege, and utterly defeated Mahmiid. The last of 
the dynasty was Sultan Hassan, who passed his life in a fierce and 
chequered struggle for supremacy with Bahlol, then actual Emperor at 
Delhi. At length, in 1478, Bahlol succeeded in defeating his rival in 
a series of decisive engagements. He took the city of Jaunpur, but 
permitted the conquered Hassan to reside there, and to complete the 
building of his great mosque, the Jama Masjid, which forms the chief 
ornament of the town at the present day. Many other architectural 
works in the District still bear witness to its former greatness under its 
independent Musalman rulers. In spite of such unwonted clemency, 
Hassan more than once rebelled, and died an insurgent in i495- 

Under the Lodi dynasty the history of Jaunpur contains nothing more 
than the stereotyped narrative of provincial intrigue, constant revolt, 



JAUNPUR. 153 

and bloody repression. When Ibrahfm, the last of that line, was 
defeated and killed at Pdnipat by Babar in 1526, Bahadur Khan, the 
governor of Jaunpur, asserted his independence ; and for a short time 
a local kingdom was once more established in the District. But after 
the fall of Agra and Delhi, Bdbar sent his son Humayiin eastward for 
the recovery of Jaunpur and Behar. Thenceforward the District 
formed a portion of the Mughal Empire, except during the brief inter- 
position of Sher Shah and his family. In 1575, Akbar removed the 
viceregal court for the eastern Provinces to his newly-founded city and 
fort of Allahabad; and Jaunpur was governed from that time by a 
Nizam. Nothing worthy of note occurred in connection with this 
District until 1722, when it was transferred, with Benares, Ghdzipur, 
and Chanar, from the viceroyalty of Allahabad and the direct sway of 
the Delhi Empire to the hands of the Nawab Wazir of Oudh. The 
latter appointed Balwant Singh to the government of these Districts, 
with the title of Raja of Benares. In 1750, when the Rohilla leader, 
Sayyid Ahmad Bangash, defeated the Wazir Saadat Khan, he nominated 
his own kinsman, Zama Khan, to be governor of the Benares Province. 
Zama Khan was finally expelled from Jaunpur by Raja Chait Singh of 
Benares. The Nawab Wazir, however, retained possession of the fort, 
which was not handed over to Chait Singh till the English gave it him 
in 1777. 

Our first connection with the District arose in 1765, when it 
passed for a short time into our hands after the battle of Baxar. In 
1775 it was made over to us permanently by the treaty of Lucknow. 
From that time nothing occurred which calls for notice up till the date 
of the Mutiny. On 5th June 1857, news of the Benares revolt reached 
Jaunpur. The Sepoys of the treasury guard at once mutinied, and shot 
their own officers, as well as the Joint Magistrate. They then marched 
off to Lucknow without molesting the other Europeans, who made 
good their escape to Benares. The District continued in a state of 
complete anarchy till the arrival of the Gurkh^ force from Azamgarh 
on 8th September. The civil officials then returned to Jaunpur, and 
the police stations were re-established ; but the north and west of the 
District remained in rebellion. In November, owing to the active 
levies made by Mehndi Hassan, who styled himself Nizam of Jaunpur, 
most of the surrounding country was lost again. But in February 1858, 
the rebels of the north and west were defeated and dispersed; and in 
:May, the last smouldering embers of disaff"ection were stifled by the 
repulse of the insurgent leader Jurhi Singh from Machhlishahr, at 
the hands of the people themselves. After that time, no more serious 
disturbance occurred than the gang robberies of a few desperate dacoit 
leaders. 

Population.— ]2,MT\-^m is one of the Districts where the spread of 



154 JAUNFUR. 

cultivation has almost reached its limit, and is the third most densely 
populated District in the Lieutenant-Governorship of the North-Western 
Provinces and Oudh. The Census of 1853 returned the population at 
1,143,749 persons; in 1865, the number had decreased to 1,015,427; 
in 1872, there was a slight rise to the total of 1,025,961 persons; and 
in 1881, to 1,209,663, or an increase of 65,914 in the 28 years since 
1853. The Census of 1881 was taken upon an area of 1554 square 
miles. It disclosed a total population of 1,209,663 persons, distributed 
among 3120 villages and 204,387 houses. These figures yield the 
following averages : — Persons per square mile, 778 ; villages per square 
mile, 2; houses per square mile, 131 "5; persons per village, 388; 
persons per house, 5-9. Classified according to sex, there were — 
males, 611,407 ; females, 598,256; proportion of males, 50*6 per cent. 
Classified according to age, there were, under 15 years — males 240,984, 
and females 222,965 ; total children, 463,949? or 38*3 per cent. : 15 
years and upwards — males 370,423, and females 375,291 ; total adults, 
745,714, or 617 percent. 

In religion, Jaunpur is still essentially Hindu, in spite of its long sub- 
jection to Muhammadan rulers, and the continued presence of a local 
Musalman court. The Census shows 1,095,986 Hindus, being at the 
rate of 90-6 per cent., as against 113,553 Muhammadans, who stand in 
the proportion of only 9*4 per cent. As regards the ethnical distinc- 
tions and caste differences of the people, Brahmans in 1881 numbered 
149,441; Rajputs, 115,133; Baniyas, 26,287 5 Ahirs, 184,019; Chamars, 
172,543; Kdyasths, 15,020; and Kurmis, 47,666. Among the 
Musalmans, Sunnis were returned at 99;849, and Shiahs at 13,704. 
With the exception of Lucknow, the Shiahs form a larger percentage of 
the Muhammadan population, namely 12 per cent, than in any other 
District in the Lieutenant-Governorship, owing to the long continuance 
of a Shiah court at Jaunpur under the Lodi dynasty, which was over- 
thrown by Babar at Pdnipat in 1526. Europeans numbered 53 ; Eura- 
sians, 36; and native Christians, 31. The sects of Christians repre- 
sented in Jaunpur are the Churches of England and Rome, Presbyterians 
and Baptists. The agricultural population of all ages amounted to 
916,617, or 7577 per cent, of the District total. 

Town and Rural Population. — There are only four towns the number 
of whose inhabitants exceeds 5000, namely, Jaunpur with 42,845 ; 
Machhlishahr, 9200; Badshahpur, 6423; and Shahganj, 6317. The 
aggregate urban population accordingly amounts to 64,785 persons, or 
less than 5-3 per cent, of the total. Indeed, as upwards of two-thirds of 
the villages contain less than five hundred inhabitants, it is clear that 
the great mass of the people are scattered about in small hamlets, as 
is usual in the eastern Districts of the North-West; whereas, in the 
western parts of the Province, a considerable proportion of the popula- 



JAUNPUR. 155 

tion is collected together in large towns. Villages containing between 
five hundred and a thousand inhabitants number 559 ; while 164 have 
between one and two thousand. Only 30 places have upwards of two 
thousand inhabitants. 

Material Co7idition of the People.— K trader's house of the better class 
generally contains about ^50 worth of furniture and utensils of all 
kinds, of which bedsteads, mattresses, quilts, carpets, and boxes represent 
about ;£"3o, and cooking vessels the remainder. A well-to-do cultivator 
owns a few strong boxes, bedsteads, and quilts, worth about £\o, 
besides cooking vessels worth £^ or £(i. An artisan in middling 
circumstances possesses one or two mattresses, bedsteads, and quilts, 
and some drinking vessels, worth altogether about £Z' A poor 
labourer has only a few earthen jars, one or two quilts, and perhaps a 
cot or two of grass cord stretched on a wooden frame, worth in all from 
\o'=>Ao £\. The poorer classes of cultivators, labourers, and mechanics 
are all in much the same condition : the coarsest and scantiest clothing 
and food, a few vessels necessary for cooking, a hut with rough mud 
walls, and a thatch to cover them being usually the extent of their 
possessions. The Kurmis and Kachhis are much better off than the 
other agricultural classes. They cultivate poppy, tobacco, and vegetables, 
make larger profits, are more steady and industrious ; and as they are 
thus able to pay higher rents, they are much sought after by landlords, 
and are very rarely disturbed in their holdings. According to occupa- 
tion, the male population is divided into six classes in the Census Report 
as follows: — (i) Professional, including Government officials and 
servants, 5148; (2) domestic servants, inn and lodging-house keepers, 
etc., 1877; (3) commercial, including merchants, traders, carriers, etc., 
7541 ; (4) agricultural and pastoral, including gardeners, 294,650 ; (5) 
manufacturing, including mechanics and artisans, 44,671 ; (6) indefinite 
and non-productive, comprising general labourers and male children, 
256,520. 

Agriculture. — The ordinary soil of Jaunpur is a mixture of vegetable 
mould, clay, and sand ; but in old river-beds and the basins of temporary 
lakes, a rich black alluvial deposit, answering to the vidr of Bundel- 
khand, may occasionally be found. The whole District is one wide 
expanse of cultivation, with scarcely an available acre untilled. The 
harvests are those common to the rest of Upper India. The kharif ox 
autumn crops include rice, Indian corn, cotton, bdjra, jodr, and vioth. 
They are sown in June, immediately after the first rain of the season, 
and reaped from September to November. The rahi or spring crops 
are sown in the autumn months, and reaped from March to April. 
They consist of wheat, barley, oats, peas, and other pulses. Irrigation 
is carried on from wells, tanks, ponds, and jhils. Although a certain 
rotation of crops is observed, yet (except for the cultivation of sugar- 



156 JAUNPUR. 

cane) the intentional leaving land fallow for an entire year is almost 
unknown. The mode of cultivation is very simple. Seeds are 
almost always sown broadcast in land ploughed by an iron spike* 
set between two pieces of wood, and serving both for share and 
coulter. A wooden board drawn by bullocks does duty for harrow 
and roller. The quantity of land taken up by the autumn crops 
varies with the earliness of the rains and other contingencies ; as a rule, 
about one-third of the cultivable area is sown for the kharif. Near the 
towns, almost all land is tilled for both harvests ; but in the low-lying 
rice lands, and in indigo or sugar-cane plantations, only one crop a 
year is grown. The best soils are selected for wheat, and barley ranks 
next in popular estimation. Sugar yields the greatest profit, but it 
requires much care and plentiful manuring ; while the land in which it 
is grown must always be left fallow for six months or a year. Indigo 
cultivation on a large scale dates only from the establishment of British 
rule, and twenty years ago an area of about 14,000 acres was sown with 
the plant. Since the disastrous seasons of 1870 and 1871, this area has 
been much curtailed, although there are still in the District seven large 
indigo concerns under European management, with many outlying 
factories. Poppy is cultivated, and opium produced under Govern- 
ment regulations, by Kurmis, who are bound to deliver all the opium 
produced to the officials of the Opium Department at Ghazipur, by 
whom they are paid at the rate of about 5s. a lb. for opium of 70° 
consistence. The condition of the peasantry is one of only moderate 
comfort. The Kurmis and Kachhis, however, who cultivate poppy, 
tobacco, and vegetables, make larger profits than others, and are 
steadier and more industrious. 

The tenures in the District belong to the three main classes of 
zaminddn, pattiddri, and bhaydchdrd. The adult male agricultural 
population in 1881 was returned at 292,643, namely, landholders, 
15,235; estate agents, 1809; cultivators, 237,939; ^^^ labourers, 
37,570. The female adult agriculturists numbered 138,971, namely, 
landholders, 987; cultivators, 101,066; and labourers, 36,918. Of a 
total area, according to the latest official statistics, of 1554 square miles, 
15 19 square miles were assessed for Government revenue. Of these, 
962 square miles were returned as under cultivation, 303 square miles 
as cultivable, and 254 square miles as uncultivable waste. Total 
Government assessment, including local rates and cesses levied on land, 
;£ 1 46, 96 2, or an average of 4s. 9d. per cultivated acre. Total rental 
paid by cultivators, including cesses, ;£^233,i36, or an average of 
7 s. 3|d. per cultivated acre. 

The rates of wages are low, and labour is easily obtained. In 1883, 
coolies were paid about 3d. per diem ; agricultural labourers, from 6s. 
to 7s. per month ; bricklayers, from 4jd. to 6d. per day. Field hands 



JAUNPUR. 157 

are usually paid in kind, an adult receiving 2 J lbs. of the coarser grains, 
with a slight increase at harvest or festivals, and a suit of clothes yearly. 
Parched gram and treacle for the mid-day meal are supplied by the 
employer. The average price of food-grains in 1882 was as follows : — 
Wheat, i9i sers per rupee, or 4s. 6d. per cwt. ; best rice, 8 sers per 
rupee, or 14s. per cwt. ; common rice, 16 J sers per rupee, or 6s. lod. 
per Qy^\..\jodr, 37 sers per rupee, or 3s. per cwt.; bdjra, 22 sers per 
rupee, or 5s. id. per cwt. 

Natural Calamities. — The Giimti is liable to sudden freshets during 
the rainy season, owing to the high banks which it has piled up at 
its entrance into the Ganges, and which act as dams to prevent the 
prompt outflow of its flooded waters. These inundations extend to its 
tributary the Sai. Much damage was thus effected in 1774; but the 
greatest recorded flood took place in September 187 1, when the river 
rose more than 23 feet in fourteen days, and swept away 4000 houses 
in the city, besides 9000 others in villages along its banks. On the 
other hand, Jaunpur has been comparatively free from drought. In 
1770, the District suffered like all its neighbours; but in 1783, and in 
1803, the scarcity did not rise to the point of famine. The disastrous 
season of 1837-38, of course, affected Jaunpur to some extent, yet its 
worst ravages were confined to the western Districts. The distress of 
1860-61 did not reach so far east as Jaunpur ; while the Bengal famine 
of 1874 scarcely extended to this District, though severely felt in the 
trans-Gogra region. 

The last recorded scarcity occurred in 1877 and 1878, owing to the 
failure of the rabi or spring crop from drought. To alleviate the 
distress, Government relief works were set on foot in February 1878, 
which up to November afl'orded work to 61,397 persons. Besides these, 
25,973 aged or helpless paupers received relief at a poorhouse which 
was opened in Jaunpur city. The result of the scarcity was the 
reducing of a large proportion of the people to a weak condition, but 
without encountering actual starvation. In short, Jaunpur, like its 
neighbour Azamgarh, has enjoyed a singular immunity from this terrible 
scourge, when compared with any other part of the plain country. The 
rainfall seldom or never fails entirely, and it is generally so spread over 
the year as to secure at least one harvest from total loss. 

Coynmunications, Trade, etc. — The District is almost entirely devoted 
to agriculture, and its trade is confined to raw materials and food-stuffs. 
A considerable manufacture of indigo is carried on at seven large 
factories, with numerous out-stations, under European management; 
but since 1870 and 1871, this industry has declined, and the out-turn 
fallen off. The principal fairs are held at Mariahu in September, and 
at Karchuli in March; they are attended by from 20,000 to 25,000 
pilgrims and traders. The Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway passes 



158 JAUNPUR. 

through the District, with a length of 45 miles, and stations at Jalalpur, 
Jaunpur civil station, Jaunpur city, Mihrawan, Kheta Sarai, Shahganj, 
and Bilwai. There are altogether 13?^ miles of metalled and 4i8| of un- 
metalled roads in the District. During the rains, the Giimti is navigable 
for the largest native craft, which are employed in bringing down grain 
from Oudh. The Sai is also navigable for boats of moderate burthen. 

Administratmi. — The District of Jaunpur formed part of the Benares 
Province under the Oudh Government ; and after the introduction of 
British rule it was at first included in that Division. In 1865 it was 
transferred to the Allahabad Division. The local staff usually con- 
sists of a Magistrate-Collector and a Joint or Assistant Magistrate, with 
the usual native subordinates. The whole amount of revenue (imperial, 
municipal, or local) raised in the District in 1876 was £\(i2,^^2. 
Of this sum, ^125,072, or nearly five-sixths, w^as contributed by the 
land-tax. By 1882-83, the gross District revenue had increased to 
^191,404, while the land-tax had slightly fallen to ;£i 24,527. In 
1882, the total strength of the regular police force was 575 officers and 
men, maintained at a cost of ^5864. These figures give i policeman 
to every 27 square miles of area and to every 2103 of the population; 
while the cost of maintenance was at the rate of £1, 15s. 5-Jd. per 
square mile, or about id. per head. The District jail contained a 
daily average of 224 prisoners in 1882, of whom 212 were males and 
12 females. The District contains 19 imperial and 4 local post-offices; 
and there is a telegraph office at each of the stations on the Oudh and 
Rohilkhand Railway. Education is making but little progress. In 
1875, there were in all 203 schools in Jaunpur, including 7 girls' 
schools, with a roll-call of 7570 scholars. The city of Jaunpur has a 
zild school for Oriental languages, besides a large religious institution 
for Arabic and Persian. In 1882-83, the Government-inspected 
schools (exclusive of private institutions) numbered 129, with 4976 
pupils. In 1881, the Census returned 6802 boys and 115 girls as 
under instruction, besides 24,954 males and 422 females able to 
read and write, but not under instruction. The District is divided 
into 5 tahsih and 1 7 police circles. There is only one municipality, 
Jaunpur city. In 1882-83, its total receipts amounted to ^^2985, and 
its expenditure to ;£242 8. The incidence of municipal taxation was at 
the rate of is. ofd. per head of the population within municipal limits. 

Sanitary Aspects.— The cUmate of Jaunpur is moister, the tempera- 
ture more equable, and the rain more evenly distributed throughout 
the year, than in most Districts of the North-Western Provinces. The 
average 'annual rainfall was 41 71 inches for the 30 years ending 1881. 
The rainfall in 1881 was 46-10 inches, or 4-39 above the average. The 
total number of deaths recorded in the year 1882 was 35,455» or 30-39 
per thousand of the population. The number of registered deaths from 



JAUXPUR TAHSIL AXD TOWN. 159 

fevers was 32,253, or 27*64 per thousand of the po})ulation. There are 
three charitable dispensaries in the District, at Jaunpur, Shahganj, and 
Machhh'shahr. During the year 1883 they afforded rehef to 20,582 
persons. 

Jaunpur. — Tahsil of Jaunpur District, North-Western Provinces, 
comprising the pargands of Havili Jaunpur, Bialsi, Rari, Zafarabad, 
Kariyat Dost, Khapraha, and tappa Saremu. The Giimti and the Sai 
flow through the tahsil, as also a number of small streamlets and 
drainage channels. The Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway crosses the 
tahsil^ which is also well supplied with road communications. 
Area, according to the latest official statement, 334 square miles, 
of which 327 square miles are assessed for Government revenue or 
quit-rent. Of the assessed area, 233*6 square miles are returned as 
cultivated, 67*2 square miles cultivable, and 26*2 square miles barren. 
Total amount of Government land revenue, ^30,056, or including 
local rates and cesses levied upon land, £,2>^,'^^Z- Amount of rent, 
including local cesses paid by the cultivators, ;£'56,329. Population 
(1872) 276,772; (1881)322,315, namely, males 161,992, and females 
160,323, showing a total increase in the nine years of 37,567, or 13 
per cent. Classified according to religion, there were in 1881 — Hindus, 
285,002; Muhammadans, 37,201; and 'others,' 112. Of the 822 
towns and villages comprising the tahsil^ 644 contained less than five 
hundred inhabitants, 30 from five hundred to a thousand, 46 from one 
to three thousand, and 2 with upwards of three thousand inhabitants. 

Jaunpur. — Town, municipality, and administrative head-quarters of 
Jaunpur District, North-Western Provinces; situated in lat. 25° 41' 31" 
N., and long 82° 43' 38" e., on the left or northern bank of the river 
Giimti, about 15 miles above its junction with the Sai. Population 
(1872) 35,003; (1881) 44,845, namely, 25,920 Hindus, 16,832 Mu- 
hammadans, 92 Christians, and i ' other.' The Census Report states 
that the actual town of Jaunpur had a population in 1872 of 23,327, 
and in 1881 of 27,030 on an area of 880 acres. But to keep within 
the definition of a town it was impossible to demarcate the suburban 
houses separated only by gardens, ruins, building sites, etc. 

Jaunpur is a very ancient city, the former capital of a con- 
siderable Muhammadan kingdom, which once extended from Budaun 
and Etawah to Behar. It abounds in splendid architectural monu- 
ments, most of which belong to the Pathan period, when the rulers 
of Jaunpur made themselves independent of Delhi, and founded an 
important local dynasty. {See Jaunpur District.) The fort of 
Firoz, an irregular quadrangular building, overlooking the north 
of the Giimti, consists of a stone wall, built round an artificial 
earthen mound. The materials were obtained from ruined Buddhist 
or Hindu temples, and 'carved stones taken from these sources occur 



T 6o J A UNSAR BA WAR. 

profusely in the walls. The towers and last remaining buildings in the 
fort were blown up after the Mutiny of 1857, and nothing now exists 
but the shell. The date of the fort may be placed about 1360. The 
hamains or baths of Ibrahim, which commemorate the name of the 
great Jaunpur Sultan, were constructed about 1420. The Atala Masjid 
or mosque, also built by Ibrahim, in 141 8, has now nothing left but a 
rich screen, flanked by ragged pinnacles. It occupies the site of a 
Hindu temple, attributed to Raja Jai Chand. The Dariba mosque, 
built by two of Ibrahim's governors, has a domed hall and two wings, 
masked by a low fagade of the peculiar Jaunpur type. A quarter of a 
mile from the city, some large piers, upholding a screen of great beauty, 
mark the site of another of Ibrahim's mosques, the Jinjiri Masjid. The 
Lai Darwaza, erected by Bibi Raji, the queen of Mahmiid, about 1450, 
is still in good preservation, with handsome cloisters and gates. The 
Jama Masjid or great mosque of Hassan, completed after his fall in 
1478, occupies the west side of a terrace, while domed gateways on the 
three other sides give access to a large quadrangle, 70 yards square, 
surrounded by a colonnade in two storeys. The splendid bridge over 
the Giimti, erected by Mun'im Khan, governor under the Mughals, in 
1569-73, measures 712 feet in length, and has four large central arches, 
with six of smaller span on each side. The cost has been estimated at 
^{^300,000. During the Mutiny of 1857, Jaunpur formed a centre of 
disaffection. {See Jaunpur District.) 

The town still possesses a considerable trade, and is celebrated 
for its manufacture of perfumes from the flowers of the rose, jasmine, 
and screw pine. The manufacture of papier-mache has been recently 
introduced ; but paper-making, which was formerly one of the 
principal industries of Jaunpur, is now almost totally extinguished in 
consequence of the competition of machine-made paper. The civil 
station is situated south of the Giimti; the only public buildings 
are the courts of the magistrate and judge, church, dak bungalow, jail, 
and police lines. The latter are the old cantonments used by the 
Native troops quartered at Jaunpur before the Mutiny. There are two 
railway stations on the Oudh and Rohilkhand Hne, at the city and 
at the civil station. Municipal revenue in 1882-83, £,'2(^^^\ from 
taxes, ^2221, or is. ofd. per head of population (42,845) within 
municipal limits. 

Jaunsar Bawar (or Kalsi). — Tahsil or Sub-division of Dehra Dun 
District, North- Western Provinces, consisting of a rugged triangular 
wedge of mountains, lying between the valleys of the Jumna and the 
Tons. Lat. 30° 31' to 31° i' n., and long. 77° 45' to 78° 7' e. The 
whole tract is so hilly that scarcely a single level spot of a hundred 
yards occurs. The mountains, which belong to the Himalayan range, 
are largely covered with forests of deodar. The highest peak attains an 



I A URA—JA WAD I. 1 6 1 

elevation of 9347 feet above sea-level. Area, 478 square miles, of 
which only 29 square miles were returned as cultivated in 1881. 
Population (1872) 40,046; (1881)45,117, namely, males 25,400, and 
females 19,717. Of the 495 villages comprising the tahsil, 494 
have less than five hundred inhabitants, and i from one to twc^ 
thousand. Agriculture remains in a backward state, but irrigation from 
the minor torrents fertilizes the few cultivable patches upon the rugged 
hill-sides. The population consists chiefly of Dhums, a tribe of low- 
caste aborigines, Hindus in creed, but scarcely raised above absolute 
barbarism. Polyandry prevails extensively ; education is almost un- 
known ; but crime is comparatively rare. A European detachment 
occupies the cantonment of Chakrata. The head - quarters of the 
tahsil are at Kalsi. Land revenue, ;^262i ; total Government 
revenue, ^2^301 7. In 1883, the ^^//j-// contained 2 civil and 2 revenue 
courts, with 2 police stations. 

Jaura. — State in Central India. — See Jaora. 

Javli. — Sub-division of Satara District, Bombay Presidency. Area, 
419 square miles; number of villages 252, with 10,242 houses. Popula- 
tion (1872) 63,842; (1881) 63,729, namely, 31,946 males and 31,873 
females. In 1881 Hindus numbered 61,451 ; Muhammadans, 1981 ; 
'others,' 297. The Sub-division contains 5 criminal courts; police 
stations {thdnds), 2; regular police, 69 men; village watchmen, 19. 
Land revenue, ^9438. 

Jawad. — Town in the Sub-division of Nimach of the Native State 
of Gwalior, Western Malwa Agency, Central India. Lat. 24° 36' n., 
long. 74° 54' E. ; 1400 feet above sea-level. Population (1881) 7692. 
Stormed in 1818 by the British, and given over to Daulat Rao Sindhia, 
to one of whose rebellious adherents it belonged. The town is sur- 
rounded by a stone wall, w^ith 52 bastions, and has good gateways. 
Distant 12 miles due north from Neemuch (Ximach). A fair amount 
of trade is carried on; there are 30 slwoffs' (bankers') shops. Well 
known for its red cloth. Post-ofRce. 

Jawadi. — A range of mountains in Tirupatur taluk, Salem District, 
IMadras Presidency, lying between 12° 15' and 12° 40' n. lat, and 
between 78° 40' and 79° 6' e. long., and extending over an area of 344 
square miles, with 143 villages. Population (1871) 9296 ; (1881) 17,549. 
The Jawadis or Javadis separate the Tirupatur taluk from the District of 
South Arcot. The eastern portion of the mountains is clothed with 
verdure to the sunmiit. The range sinks into the plain near Singaraj^ett. 
Average height above the sea, 3000 feet. The climate of the range 
and its valleys is unhealthy, and unsuited to Europeans. The 
plateau near Raddiiir, which is reached from Alangayam, is lovely — 
endless downs, park like grass lands, dotted with tanks. In the slope 
of the hill, which faces Bommaikuppam and Mattrapalli, is a stream 

VOL. VII. L 



1 62 JAWA HIR—JA WALAPUR. 

which has the property of covering with petrifactions everything which 
is placed in its waters, as leaves, sticks, etc. The approaches are 
difficult, and exclusively by bridle-paths. Some portions of the forest 
land, containing teak, sandal-wood, etc., have been conserved by 
Government, and the nomadic system of cultivation has of late been 
restricted, and in some tracts suppressed. The greater part of the hills 
is inhabited by MalaiHs, a hill tribe, who style themselves Vellalars and 
Pachai Vellalars, the latter being distinguished from the former by the 
fact that the females are not allowed to tattoo themselves or to tie 
their hair in the knot called koiidai. Both classes came originally 
from Kanchipuram. 

Jawahir. — Tract of country in Kumaun, North-Western Provinces. 
— See JuHAR. 

Jawdlamukhi. — Ancient town in Dehra tahsil, Kangra District, 
Punjab. Lat. 31° 52' 34" n., long. 76° 21' 59" e. Situated on the road 
from Kangra town to Nadaun, at the foot of a precipitous range of hills, 
forming the northern limit of the Beas (Bias) valley. Population 
(1881) 2424, namely, Hindus, 2217; Jains, 11 ; Muhammadans, 196; 
number of houses, 542. Once a considerable and opulent town, 
which still possesses solid ruins testifying to its former prosperity; 
now chiefly noticeable from the presence of a very holy shrine, surpassing 
in reputation even that of Kangra. The temple stands above certain 
jets of combustible gas, issuing from the ground, and kept constantly 
burning, as a manifestation of the goddess Devi. Seven centuries ago, 
the deity appeared to a Brahman in the south, and bid him repair to 
this place, where he would find a perpetual flame issuing from the earth. 
The Brahman obeyed, discovered the spot, and built a temple to the 
goddess. A conflicting and more ancient account, however, narrates 
that the flames proceed from the mouth of the Daitya king or demon, 
Jalandhara (see Jalandhar District), who was overwhelmed by Siva 
under a pile of mountains. The present temple certainly belongs to 
Devi. The devotion of centuries has enriched it with many costly 
offerings, amongst others a gilt roof, presented by Ranjit Singh in 18 15. 
About 50,000 pilgrims attend the great festival in September or 
October. Six hot mineral springs occur in the neighbourhood, 
impregnated with common salt and iodide of potassium. The town 
still retains some commercial importance as an entrepot for traffic 
between the hills and the plains. Principal export — opium from KuUu. 
Police station, post-office, school-house. Sardi erected by the Raja of 
Patiala, attached to the temple. Eight dhannsdlas or sanctuaries, with 
rest-houses for travellers. Municipal revenue (1882-83), ;£"i99, derived 
principally from octroi ; average incidence of taxation, is. 7fd. per 
head. 

Jawalapur. — Town in Saharanpur District, North-Western Pro- 



JAWHAR. 163 

vinces. Lies in lat. 29° 55' 33" n., and long. 78° 9' e., on the north 
bank of the Ganges Canal ; distant from Rurki (Roorkee) 14 miles 
north-east, and from Saharanpur town T^d miles east. Population (1881) 
15,196, namely, Hindus, 9574 ; Muhammadans, 5314 ; and Christians, 8. 
The town forms with Hardwar a municipal union. Many of the 
Hindu residents are Brahmans connected with the Hardwar temples, 
who have a perpetual feud with the Musalman Rajputs. Police station, 
post-office, school, dispensary. Municipal revenue of Hardwar Union 
(1881-82), £262-]; from taxes, ;£"i523, or is. id. per head of popu- 
lation (28,106) within municipal limits. 

Jawhdr.— Native State under the Political Agency of Thana, in 
the Konkan, Bombay Presidency; situated between 19° 40' and 
20° 4' N. lat., and between 73° 2' and 73° 23' e. long., within the 
geographical limits of Thana District. Jawhar State consists of two 
unequal patches of territory, the larger in the north-western part of 
Thana District, and the smaller in the north-eastern. The Bombay, 
Baroda, and Central India Railway just touches the western boundary of 
the smaller patch. Area, 534 square miles. Population (1881) 48,556, 
namely, 25,174 males and 23,382 females; density of population 
per square mile, 91 ; number of villages, 116; occupied houses, 8307 ; 
unoccupied, 1068. According to religion, the population is divided 
into 6869 Hindus, 501 Muhammadans, and 41,186 'others.' Since 
1872, the population has increased by 11,150. Average revenue, 
inclusive of transit dues, ;j^i 0,000. 

Most of the State is a plateau raised about 1000 feet above the Konkan 
plain. Eastward the Sahyadris can be crossed by pack-bullocks through 
the Chinchutara and Gonde passes to the north, and through the Dhond- 
mare and Shir passes to the south, of the high hill of Vatvad. The 
westerly route, about 35 miles from Jawhcir to the Dahanu Road station 
of the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway, crosses the 
Kasatwadi and Deng passes by a metalled road built by the British 
in 1872-74. Towards the south and west of the State, the country 
is in some places level, but the rest of the territory is elevated, 
and consists of the rocky and forest-covered tract that everywhere 
lies at the western foot of the Sahyadri range. Though its many 
fertile valleys contain numerous streams, their waters are not used for 
irrigation. The chief streams are the Deharji, the Surya, the Pinjali, 
and the Vagh. Except in the southern viahdl (sub-division) of Mal- 
vada, the water supply fails as the hot season advances. Between June 
and October the rainfall is heavy. After the close of the rainy season 
till the end of December, the air retains a considerable degree of 
moisture. In January and February the dryness and heat increase, 
followed from March to June by a tolerably warm season. During the 
greater part of the year, the climate is malarious and unhealthy. The 



1 64 J A WHAR—JA YAMANGALL 

prevailing diseases are fever and ague. Good building stone is found. 
Besides timber, the country yields rice to a limited extent, and the 
coarser grains abundantly. 

Up to 1294, the period of the first Muhammadan invasion of the 
Deccan, Jawhar was held by a Varli, not a Koli, chief. The first Koli 
chief, Paupera, obtained his footing in Jawhar by a device similar to that 
of Dido, when she asked for and received as much land as the hide 
of a bull would cover. The Koli chief cut his hide into strips, and 
thus enclosed the territory of the State. In the succeeding centuries 
Jawhar had to carry on a struggle, first with the Portuguese, and after- 
wards with the Marathas. The present (1884) chief, Malhar Rao, alias 
Patang Shah (adopted), is a Hindu of the Koli tribe. He has power to 
try his own subjects for capital offences without the express permission 
of the Political Agent. The succession follows the rule of primo- 
geniture : there is no sanad authorizing adoption. In the case of the 
present chief, the adoption was recognised by the paramount power on 
receipt of a special payment or nazardnd. Jaya Mukney, the founder 
of the State, established himself as a freebooter in the country about 
Jawhar nearly 550 years ago. He was succeeded by his son Nim 
Shah, on whom, about the year 1341, the Emperor of Delhi conferred 
the title of Raja. So important was this event in the history of Jawhar 
that the 5th of June 1343, the day on which the title was received, has 
been made the beginning of a new era, which is still used in public 
documents. The only place of interest in the State is the ruined fort 
of Bhopatgarh, about 10 miles south-east of Jawhar town. 

The chief decides first-class magisterial and sessions cases, and hears 
appeals. There is a State jail; number of prisoners (1881), 92; 
regular police, 21 men. There are six schools, one of them in Jawhc4r 
town, with an average monthly attendance of 79 pupils. A dispensary 
was opened in 1878, and was attended in 1881 by 1133 patients. 

JawMr. — Chief town of the Native State of Jawhar, in the Konkan, 
Bombay Presidency. Lat. 19° 56' n., and long. 73° 16' e. ; fifty miles 
north-east of Thana. The town contains 200 houses. It is healthy, and 
free from excessive heat; elevation above sea-level, 1000 feet. Public 
office for the chief, school-house, and dispensary. The water supply is 
scanty ; but the works in progress to enlarge the Surya reservoir and to 
embank a low piece of ground will materially improve it. 

Jayamangali. — River in Mysore State; tributary of the North 
Pinakini river, which runs through the north-east corner of Tiimkur 
District, Mysore State, and joins the North Pinakini in the adjoining 
Madras District of Bellary. The Jayamangali rises in the Devaray- 
durga Hills, and flows northward through the Kortagiri taluk. Its 
sandy bed affords facilities for irrigation by means of kapili wells, and 
talpargi or spring-head streams drawn from the channel. 



JEDDYA GOWDEN—JEHLAM. 165 

Jeddya Gowden. — Mountain in South Arcot District, Madras 
Presidency. Lat. 11° 40' to 11° 51' N., long. 78° 42' to 78° 53' e. 

Jehlam {/ahla?n, Jhehun). — River in the Punjab; the most westerly 
of the five streams from which the Province derives its name. It is 
also known as the Bihet or Bitasta, corruptions of its Sanskrit name 
Vifasta, which Alexander's historians Graecized into Hydaspes, but 
Ptolemy more correctly as Bidaspes. The Jehlam rises in Kashmir 
State, among the mountains forming the north-eastern boundary of the 
valley, and, after flowing in a south-westerly course, forms a junction 
with the streams which have their origin in the Pi'r Panjd.1 range. It 
then passes through the picturesque string of lakes in the neighbour- 
hood of Srinagar or Kashmir city, and flows thenceforth above the level 
of the lower valley, being confined by high banks like those of the Po. 
Before entering the Walar Lake, it receives the waters of a considerable 
tributary, the Sind, which rises in the northern mountains. The united 
stream then pours through the snow-clad Pir Panjal range by the 
narrow pass of Baramula, which forms an outlet for the entire basin of 
the Kashmir valley. A vast lake at one time probably filled the whole 
of this great central hollow in the Himalayan system ; but the outlet has 
been gradually worn down by the escaping flood, till only the lowest 
portion of the valley now remains covered with water. The distance 
from the source to the lower mouth of the Baramula Pass may be 
estimated at about 130 miles, of which 70 are navigable. The river 
has a breadth of 420 feet at Baramula. 

At Muzaffarabad, just before entering British territory, the Jehlam 
receives the Kishan Ganga, a river of at least equal length, which rises 
in Baltistan or Little Tibet, and drains an extensive valley among the 
Northern Himalayas. It next forms the boundary between the 
Kashmir State and the British Districts of Hazara and Rawal Pindi, 
flowing in a narrow rocky bed, shut in by mountains on either side. 
Numerous rapids here render navigation impossible, though large 
quantities of timber are floated down from Kashmir. A handsome 
suspension bridge at Kohala in Hazara conveys the Kashmir road 
across the river. Below Dangalli, 40 miles east of Rawal Pindi, the 
Jehlam becomes navigable. Passing into Jehlam District, it skirts the 
outlying spurs of the Salt Range, and finally debouches upon the plains 
a little above the town of Jehlam, about 250 miles from its source. 
Below Jehlam, inundation of the lowlands begins to be possible, and 
low sandy islands stud the wide bed of the stream. After a south- 
westerly course of more than 100 miles, during which the river divides 
the District of Jehlam from those of Gujrat and Shahpur, it enters the 
latter District entirely, and trends thenceforth more directly southward. 
The width in this portion of its course averages 800 yards in flood, 
dwindling down during the winter months to less than half that size. 



i66 JEHLAM. 

Sudden freshets occur after heavy rains, and cause frequent inundations 
over the lowlands, greatly increasing the productive power of the soil. 
The Jehlam next enters the District of Jhang, where it preserves the 
i ame general characteristics, but with a wider valley, bounded by the 
liigh uplands known as the bar. It finally joins the Chenab (Chinab) 
at Timmu, in lat. 31° 11' N., long. 72° 12' e., 10 miles to the south of 
Maghiana, after a total course of not less than 450 miles, of which 
about 200 lie within British territory. The current in the plains has 
an average rate of 4 miles per hour. The wedge of land between the 
Jehlam and the Chenab is known as the Jech Doab ; while the tract 
stretching westward to the Indus bears the name of the Sind Sdgar 
(Saugor) Doab. 

The principal towns upon the Jehlam are Kashmir or Srinagar 
(situated on one of its lacustrine expansions), Jehlam, Pind Dadan 
Khan, Miani, Bhera, and Shahpur. According to General Cunning- 
ham, the point where Alexander crossed the Hydaspes may be identified 
with Jalalpur in Jehlam District ; while nearly opposite, on the Gujrat 
bank, stands the modern battle-field of Chilianwala. Bridges of boats 
cross the river at Jehlam and Pind Dadan Khan, and at a point just 
below its junction with the Chenab. The permanent railway bridge 
of the Northern Punjab State Line also crosses at the town of Jehlam. 
For further particulars, see Hazara, Rawal Pindi, Jehlam, Gujrat, 
Shahpur, and Jhang Districts, and Kashmir State. 

Jehlam. — British District in the Lieutenant - Governorship of the 
Punjab (Panjab), lying between 32° 26' and 33° 15' n. lat, and between 
71° 51' and 73° 50' E. long. Jehlam is a District in the Rawal Pindi 
Division. It stands ninth in order of area and eighteenth in order of 
population among the thirty-two Districts of the Province, comprising 
3-67 per cent, of the total area, 3*14 per cent, of the total population, 
and 2-50 per cent, of the urban population of British territory. It 
is bounded on the north by Rawal Pindi District; on the east by 
the river Jehlam ; on the south by the river Jehlam and Shahpur Dis- 
trict ; and on the west by Bannu and Shahpur Districts. Area, 3910 
square miles; population (1881) 589,373 persons. The administrative 
head-quarters are at Jehlam town, which is also the chief centre of 
population and commerce in the District. 

Physical Aspects. — Jehlam forms the south-eastern portion of that 
rugged Himalayan spur known as the Salt Range, which extends 
between the Indus and Jehlam rivers into the borders of the Sind Sagar 
(Saugor) Do.4b. Although its surface is not so wild as the mountain 
region of Rawal Pindi, it yet presents a general appearance of great 
beauty and sublimity, relieved in places by smiling patches of cultivated 
valley. The backbone of the District is formed by the Salt Range, a 
double line of parallel hills, mainly composed of red sandstone and 



JEHLAM. 167 

carboniferous rocks, running in two long forks from east to west 
throughout its whole breadth. At their foot lies a small strip of level 
soil, stretching along the banks of the Jehlam, and thickly dotted with 
prosperous villages, some of which receive and detain the fertilizing 
waters from the lower slopes. Above this favoured tract, the Salt 
Range rises in bold and striking precipices, broken by gorges of dull 
russet sandstone and grey gypsum, which contrast finely with the 
brilliant redness of the superficial soil. The latter peculiarity marks 
the presence of salt, from which the range derives its name, and which 
is mined in enormous quantities, under Government supervision, at 
Kheura. Some of the gorges are clothed with green brushwood, and 
traversed by trickling streams, at first pure and fresh, but soon im- 
pregnated with the saline matter over which they flow, and thus 
rendered worse than useless for purposes of irrigation. 

Between the lines of hills lies a picturesque table-land, in which the 
beautiful little lake of Kallar Kahar nestles amongst the minor ridges 
—at one end a mimic dead sea, surrounded by bare and rocky hills, its 
banks encrusted with salt, and devoid of life or vegetation ; at the other, 
a glistening lake, crowned by wooded heights, and alive with myriads of 
wildfowl. North of the Salt Range, again, the country extends upward 
in an elevated plateau, diversified by countless ravines and fissures, 
until it loses itself in the tangled masses of the Rawal Pindi mountains. 
I'he drainage of the District is determined by a low central watershed, 
running north and south, at right angles to the Salt Range. The waters 
of the western portion find their way into the Sohan, and finally into 
the Indus ; those of the opposite slope collect into small torrents, and 
empty themselves into the Jehlam, which skirts the District for 100 
miles on its eastern and southern edge. This river is navigable for 
some distance above the town of Jehlam for the flat-bottomed craft of 
the country. 

The mineral wealth of the Salt Range is considerable. Not only are 
building stones and marbles of great beauty produced in abundance, 
but there is a large variety of stones that supply lime. There is also 
gypsum for plaster of Paris, and various red earths and ochres occur 
which have value as colouring agents. Coal, sulphur, and petroleum 
are found, and many metals, including copper, gold, lead, and iron. 
This last occurs in the form of rich hematite, and is in some places so 
abundant that the rocks containing it disturb the indications of the 
magnetic compass. Finally, the range furnishes the greater portion 
of the salt-supply of the Punjab. With the exception of salt, indeed, 
litde has yet been done to develope its mineral resources, the exceed- 
ing cost of carriage having been the great obstacle ; but now that 
railway communication between Miani and Lahore has lessened this 
difticulty, it is to be hoped that a region so fertile in mineral pro- 



i68 [EHLAM. 

ducts will not be allowed to lie fallow. The Administration Report for 
1878-79 (the latest return) shows salt mines at Kheura, Sardi, Makrach, 
Katha, and Jatana, of which the first two alone were worked during the 
year, and yielded 3,241,508 inaunds ; and coal mines, at Makrach, 
Pidh, Dandot, and Kundal. The coal is generally of inferior quality, 
and its use commercially for fuel has hitherto not proved successful. 
Recently, however (1884), the mineral has been extensively purchased 
by the railway authorities at Find Dadan Khan. The seams excavated 
are those at Makrach, where there is an outcrop on the surface, said to 
be of a good hard quality. Sulphuret of lead or galena is found in 
small nodules in two or three localities. It is chiefly found in clefts in 
the most inaccessible precipices of the hills. 

History. — The early annals of Jehlam present more points of interest 
than its records in modern times, since it can claim a mention both 
in the semi-mythical geography of the Alahdbhdrata and in the more 
veracious pages of Alexander's historians. Hindu tradition represents 
the Salt Range as the refuge of the Pandavas during the period of their 
exile; and every salient point in its scenery is connected with some 
legend of the national heroes. On the other hand, modern research 
has decided that the conflict between Alexander and Porus took place 
at some point within the present District; though the exact spot at 
which the Macedonian king effected the passage of the Jehlam (or 
Hydaspes) has been hotly disputed. General Cunningham is probably 
correct in supposing that the real site of the crossing was at Jalalpur, 
w^hich he identifies with the city of Bukephala ; and that the battle with 
Porus — a Greek corruption of the name Purusha — took place at Mong, 
on the Gujrat side, close to the field of Chilianwdla. But when the 
brief light cast upon the District by Arrian and by Curtius has been 
withdrawn, we have little 'information with reference to its condition, 
until the Musalman conquest brought back literature and history to 
Upper India. 

The Janjuahs and Jats, who, along with other tribes, now hold the 
Salt Range and the northern plateau respectively, appear to have 
been the earliest inhabitants. The former are doubtless pure Rdjputs, 
while the Jd,ts are perhaps their degenerate descendants. The 
Ghakkars seem to represent an early wave of conquest from the 
east, and they still inhabit a large tract in the east of the District ; 
while the Awans, who now cluster in the western plain, are apparently 
later invaders from the opposite quarter. The Ghakkars were the 
dominant race at the period of the first Muhammadan incursions ; and 
they long continued to retain their independence both in Jehlam itself 
and in the neighbouring District of Rawal Pindi, where the history of 
the tribe will be found more fully traced. During the flourishing period 
of the Mughal dynasty, the Ghakkar chieftains were among the most 



JEHLAM. 169 

prosperous and loyal vassals of the house of Babar. But after the 
collapse of the Delhi Empire, Jehlam fell, like its neighbours, under 
the sway of the Sikhs. In 1765, Gujar Singh defeated the last inde- 
pendent Ghakkar prince, and reduced the wild mountaineers of the Salt 
Range and the Murree (Marri) Hills to subjection. His son succeeded 
to his dominions, until 1810, when he fell before the irresistible power 
of Ranjit Singh. Under the Lahore Government, the dominant classes 
of Jehlam suffered much from fiscal exactions ; and the Janjiiah, 
Ghakkar, and Awan families gradually lost their landed estates, which 
passed into the hands of their Jdt dependants. The feudal powder 
declined and slowly died out, so that at the present time hardly any of 
the older chieftains survive, while their modern representatives hold 
no higher posts than that of village head-men. In 1849, Jehlam 
passed, with the rest of the Sikh territories, into the power of the 
British. Ranjit Singh, however, had so thoroughly subjugated the wild 
mountain tribes who inhabited the District, that little difficulty was 
experienced in reducing it to working order ; and the subsequent history 
of Jehlam has been purely fiscal and administrative. 

The country is still studded with interesting relics of antiquity, amongst 
which the most noticeable are the ruined temples of Katas, built about 
the 8th or 9th century of our era, and perhaps of Buddhist origin. 
Other religious ruins exist at Malot and Siva-Ganga ; while the ancient 
forts of Rohtas, Girjhak, and Kusak, standing on precipitous rocks in 
the Salt Range, are of deep interest for the military historian. Indeed, 
the position of Jehlam on the great north-western highway, by which 
so many conquerors have entered India, from the Greek to the Mughal, 
has necessarily made it a land of fortresses and guarded defiles, and 
has turned its people into hereditary warriors. 

Population. —T\\Q Census of 1855, which was the first enumeration 
of the inhabitants, disclosed a total population of 4?9)42o persons. 
In 1868, while the area remained practically identical, the number 
of inhabitants had increased to 500,988, showing a total gain, for 
the thirteen years, of 71,568 persons, or 16 -66 per cent. The last 
Census in 1881 disclosed a population of 589,373, showing a further 
increase since 1868 of 88,385, or 14-99 P^r cent. The results of the 
Census of 1881 may be briefly summarized as follows: — Area of 
District, 3910 square miles, containing 6 towns and 950 villages; 
total number of houses, 81,292, of which 72,013 were occupied and 
9279 unoccupied; number of families, 131,753. Total population, 
5^95373) namely, males 313,448, and females 275,925; proportion of 
males, 53-2 per cent. These figures yield the following averages : — 
Persons per square mile, 151; villages or townships per square mile, 
0-24; persons per village, 616; houses per square mile, 21; persons 
per occupied house, 8*19. The increase of density during the twenty- 



I70 JEHLAM. 

six years between 1855 and 1881 has amounted to 41 persons per 
square mile. Classified according to age, there were, under 15 years- 
males 127,159, and females iit,iti ; total children, 238,270, or 40-43 
per cent. : 15 years and upwards, males 186,289, and females 164,814; 
total adults, 351,103, or 59*57 per cent. According to religion, Jehlam 
is a stronghold of Islam, as many as 516,745 persons, or 87-68 per cent., 
being returned as Musalmans. The Hindus number only 60,949, or 
10-34 per cent. The Sikhs have left few traces of their supremacy in 
the composition of the people, as they now number only 11,188, or 1-89 
per cent. The remainder is made up of 58 Jains, 416 Christians, 16 
Parsis, and i unspecified. 

With reference to ethnical divisions, the chief Hindu tribes are the 
Brahmans, Khattris, and Aroras. The former caste numbers 10,010, 
sub-divided with the usual nicety into minor branches, none of which 
will eat or intermarry with another. The Khattris (35^941) are the 
traders and money-lenders of Jehlam, replacing the Baniyas through- 
out the Sind Sagar Doab. The Aroras (12,345) are a simple agricul- 
tural tribe. Amongst the clans and castes now almost exclusively 
Muhammadans, the Jats claim first notice, both by their numbers and 
their agricultural importance. They hold the whole central region to 
the north and south of the Salt Range, the hills themselves being the 
home of the Janjiiahs. The general reputation for industry which they 
possess elsewhere follows them here ; and they proved loyal during the 
events of 1857. Their total numbers in Jehlam District are returned 
at 88,371 in the Census Report of 1881. The Awans rank first in 
numerical order with a total of 92,856 persons, the tribe under this 
name being almost peculiar to this District and Rawal Pindi. They 
are essentially a tribe of the Salt Range, where they once held 
independent possessions of very considerable extent, and in the 
western and central portions of which they are still the dominant race. 
They are also found in considerable numbers in other Districts, where, 
however, they are commonly called Jats. A romantic interest is thrown 
around them by the conjecture that they represent the descendants of 
Alexander's army; though they themselves put forward a still more 
apocryphal genealogy from the son-in-law of the Prophet. The Rajputs, 
who are closely allied to the Jats, are returned at 53,279, the dominant 
clans being the Janjiiahs (9964), Marihas (15,199), and Bhattis (10,430). 
The Giijars (18,924), who farther south form a pastoral tribe with a bad 
reputation for cattle-lifting, are here a body of thriving and honest 
agriculturists, with a fine manly physique, and considerable landed 
possessions around the town of Jehlam. The Kashmiris are returned 
at 9672 ; large numbers of them arrive every winter in search of harvest 
work, and return home when the summer sets in. The other principal 
tribes are the Ghakkars (9920), the ancient rulers of the Cis-Indus Salt 



JEHLAM. 171 

Range tract. They make capital soldiers, and are described as the 
best light cavalry in Upper India, and as good but not first-class agri- 
culturists. Many also work as coolies on the railway. The Arains, 
15,470 in number, are admirable cultivators and market gardeners. 
The Khokars, though numerically unimportant (1745), possess great 
social distinction, and are ordinarily considered a Rajput tribe, under 
which heading or that of Jats most of them have returned themselves. 
Total Khokars, including Rajputs and Jats, 5964. One of their 
ancestors founded the town of Find Dadan Khan, which he called after 
his own name, and which has become the chief centre of the salt trade. 
The family lost most of their possessions in 1849, but has since been 
permitted to regain some part of its former property. The lower 
artisan and menial castes are nearly all Muhammadans by religion. 
The most important of these are — Chuhras, sweepers and scavengers, 
25,027; Tarkhans, carpenters, 14,824; Kumbhars, potters, 10,031; 
Lohars, blacksmiths, 9970 ; Nais, barbers, 10,569; and Muchis, tanners 
and leather workers, 11,222. These castes are all village servants, 
receiving the customary payment for their services in the shape of a 
share of the harvest, instead of in money. The Muhammadans of 
pure descent, as distinguished from the descendants of converted 
Hindus, are — Sayyids, 14,663; Mughals, 11,222; Shaikhs, 8412; and 
Pathans, 4618. Of the Christian population, numbering 406 in 188 1, 
368 were returned as Europeans or Eurasians, and 48 as natives. The 
American Presbyterian Mission has had a branch mission at Jehlam 
town since 1874, with a congregation numbering about 25 converts. 

Jehlam District contained in 1881, six towns containing a population 
exceeding five thousand — namely, Jehlam, 21,107; Pind Dadan 
Khan, 16,724; Lawa, 6245; Talagang, 6236 ; Chakwal, 5717; and 
Bhaun, 5080. The urban population accordingly amounted to 61,109, 
or 10-4 per cent, of the District total. Jehlam and Pind Dadan Khan 
are important trade centres for the surrounding neighbourhood. Of 
the 956 towns and villages in the District in 1881, the Census Report 
returned 321 as having less than two hundred inhabitants; 287 with 
from two to five hundred ; 189 from five hundred to a thousand ; 115 
from one to two thousand ; 30 from two to three thousand ; 8 from 
three to five thousand ; 4 from five to ten thousand ; i from fifteen to 
twenty thousand ; and i with upwards of twenty thousand inhabitants. 

As regards occupation, the male population exceeding 15 years of age 
is classified as follows by the Census : — (i) Professional class, including 
Government officials, civil and military, and the learned professions, 
9982; (2) domestic and menial class, 4712; (3) commercial class, 
including merchants, traders, carriers, etc., 8553 ; (4) agricultural and 
pastoral class, including gardeners, 99,879; (5) industrial and manu- 
facturing class, 41,873; (6) indefinite and non-productive class. 



172 JEHLAM, 

comprising general labourers, 15,140; (7) unspecified, 6150. The 
language in common use is Panjabi, which is returned as being spoken 
by 584,073 out of the 589,373 inhabitants of the District. 

The village houses are almost universally built of mud or sun-dried 
bricks, one storey high and flat-roofed. Where stones are abundant, 
they are often built up into the mud walls, in the rough. Recently a 
few of the leading head-men have built new houses of squared and 
dressed stone, and nearly all the new mosques in the wealthier villages 
are now so built. Most houses have a yard in front, which is commonly 
walled in, but sometimes only set round with a loose thorn hedge. 
This contains the feeding troughs for cattle. Inside, the houses are 
kept scrupulously clean. The walls are plastered with cow-dung and 
polished, or sometimes whitewashed. Generally the pots and pans are 
arranged upon shelves or recesses. Most houses contain a store-bin for 
grain. The furniture consists of the ordinary cooking utensils, a few 
beds, stools, spinning wheels, a handmill for grinding, and also pro- 
bably one or two baskets to hold clothes in. Some of the more 
advanced head-men have recently taken to the use of English glass and 
earthenware of a strong coarse kind. The prettiest things about the 
upper class of houses are the carved doorways, and the inlaid and 
painted ceilings of wood. Both are the work of common carpenters, 
but they are often really artistic and beautiful. The staple food of 
the people is wheat and bdjra, with maize, rice, vioth^ and barley as 
an occasional change. The richer classes vary their diet by the 
addition of some sweetmeats, or a pillau of rice and meat. Meat is 
eaten by all who can afford it, and milk is largely consumed at all 
times. 

Agriailiin-e. — Of a total area of 3910 square miles or 2,502,400 
acres, according to the latest quinquennial statistics published by the 
Punjab Government in 1878-79, 1333 square miles or 853,120 acres 
were returned as under cultivation in that year; 331 square miles 
or 211,840 acres as cultivable but not under tillage; and no less 
than 2246 square miles or 1,437,440 acres as uncultivable waste. 
In 1882-83, the total crop area (including lands yielding two 
harvests in the year) was 1644J square miles or 1,052,408 acres. 
The staple crops are wheat in the spring harvest, and bdjra in 
the autumn. The area under each, in 1871-72, was 325,129 acres 
of the former, and 180,425 of the latter. In 1882-83, wheat occupied 
259,581 acres, and bdjra 246,152 acres. The other agricultural pro- 
ducts are cereals and oil-seeds. Cotton was largely grown during 
the American war, but since the decline in prices the villagers have 
returned to their more familiar crops, only 17,295 acres of this staple 
being planted in 1871-72. Since then, the area under cotton has 
considerably increased, the area cultivated in 1882-83 being 30,993 



JEIILAM, 173 

acres. The common coarse vegetables of India are abundant, though 
fruits and European garden plants have found little favour as yet. 

There is no extensive system of irrigation in Jehlam, but 24,937 acres 
were watered by private enterprise in 1878-79. Wells are used in the 
fertile strip between the Salt Range and the river, and among the ravines. 
In many cases each well supplies only a very few acres ; but these are 
plentifully manured and tilled like a garden, so as to produce a perpetual 
succession of sub-tropical vegetables and fruit throughout the year. In 
the fissured table-land to the north of the Salt Range, irrigation is more 
commonly practised by damming up the ravines, so as to retain the 
water and at the same time procure a rich deposit of sediment. The 
construction of these dams often demands both capital and energy. 
The largest are relics of a time when the District was in the hands of 
great landowners; but the security of British rule has induced the 
people themselves to turn their attention once more to similar works, 
and many new ones have lately been undertaken, with most pro- 
fitable results. The agricultural stock of the District is approximately 
returned as follows: — Cows and bullocks, 229,653; horses, 5763; 
ponies, 711; donkeys, 22,815; sheep and goats, 275,845; camels, 
9399; ploughs, 41,731- The condition of the peasantry is on the 
whole prosperous. Debt is comparatively rare; and the chief cause of 
poverty, where it exists, is the excessive sub-division of the soil. In 
former years, although primogeniture was unknown, many of the leading 
families contrived to keep their estates undivided by the simple method 
of fighting amongst themselves until only a single representative was left. 

Under the restrictive regulations of British rule, constant distribu- 
tion of property amongst the surviving heirs is rapidly reducing the 
richer houses to the level of their neighbours. The ancient communal 
type of village tenure has been generally replaced by the system known 
as bhdydchdra, under which the rights and liabilities of each shareholder 
are determined, not by ancestral custom, but by the amount of land 
which he possesses. Some of the villages are much larger than in 
the average of Indian Districts, a single one containing as many (in an 
extreme case) as 90,000 acres; and their great size gives a social 
importance to their head-men which is unknown amongst the peasantry 
elsewhere. Out of a total of 979 estates at the recent revision of the 
land settlement in 1880-81, 858 were held under bhdydchdra, 74 under 
pattiddri^ and 47 under zaminddri tenure. 

The land is almost equally divided between tenants-at-will and 
those with rights of occupancy. The total male adult population is 
returned at 98,227, but the number of persons entirely dependent on 
the soil is 318,019, or 55-8 per cent, of the whole population of the 
District. Government assessment in 1881, including cesses and rates 
levied on the land, ^^83,545. Total estimated rental, including cesses 



174 JEHLAM. 

paid by the cultivators, ;^ 162,1 06. Rents, of course, vary with the 
nature of the crop for which the soil is suited. But they nearly all take 
the form of payments in kind which are fixed by custom, and are 
uniform over large areas. These rents are nearly always the same for 
all classes of tenants. Everywhere the shares allotted as fees for the 
village menials {kamins)^ such as carpenters, potters, barbers, black- 
smiths, etc., are first deducted. These fees vary from 10 to 12 per 
cent., except in Talagang tahsil^ where they amount to from 6 to 8 per 
cent. The remainder of the produce is divided as follows : — In Jehlam 
tahs'il, the landlord and tenant share and share alike, both in the 
grain and straw. In Find Dadan Khan and Chakwal tahsil^ the 
landlord generally takes half the grain, except in a few villages 
where his share is only two-fifths. In Talagang, the landlord's share 
varies from one-fourth to one-half, the common rate for unirrigated 
lands being one-third. The highest money rate is that for opium 
lands, which bring in from j[^2 to ^4 per acre. Other rents rule as 
follows: — Wheat, from 8s. to 12s. per acre, irrigated — from 6s. to 8s., 
unirrigated ; inferior grains, from 4s. to 8s., irrigated — from 2s. to 4s., 
unirrigated; cotton, from los. to £\ ; rice, from los. to £,\. Wages 
are chiefly paid in kind. In a good harvest, labourers earn as much as 
6d. per diem, or its equivalent in grain. Prices were returned as follows 
in January 187 1 : — Wheat, 16 sers per rupee, or 7s. per cwt. ; barley, 21 
sers per rupee, or 5s. 4d. per cwt. ; bdjra, 23 sers per rupee, or 4s. io|d. 
per cwt. In January 1883, prices ranged much lower, and were 
returned as follows : — Wheat, 27 sers per rupee, or 4s. 2d. per cwt.; 
flour, 24 sers per rupee, or 4s. 8d. per cwt. ; barley, 41 sers per rupee, 
or 28. 9d. per cwt.; gram, 29J sers per rupee, or 3s. gjd. per cwt.; 
Indian corn, 34 sers per rupee, or 3s. 4d. per cwt. ; jodr, 40 sers per 
rupee, or 2s. lod. per cwt. ; bdjra, 38 sers per rupee, or 3s. per cwt. ; rice 
(best), 5 J sers per rupee, or 20s. \\di. per cwt. ; cotton (cleaned), i\ sers 
per rupee, or 32s. 8d. per cwt. ; sugar (refined), 3 sers per rupee, or 
37s. 4d. per cwt. 

Commerce and Trade, etc. — No statistics are available for the general 
trade of the District, which is chiefly concentrated in the towns of 
Jehlam and Find Dddan Khan. The exports include— salt, for the 
south ; food-grains, principally wheat, sent for the most part to Multan, 
Sind, and Rawal Pindi ; silk and cotton goods, for the wilder country 
to the north and west; with brass and copper ware for the whole 
neighbourhood. Stone is exported by boat as far as Multc4n. The 
Tarrakawala quarries have been leased by the Punjab Northern State 
Railway, and the stone is being used in the construction of the Lahore 
Cathedral. Timber floated down the Jehlam river from the mountains is 
largely exported in country carts by railway and by water. Merchants 
travel about the District buying up hides, of which the best are sent 



JEHLAM. 175 

to Calcutta for export, and the inferior ones to Amritsar. The imports 
are EngHsh piece-goods and metal from Amritsar and Mulian, woollen 
fabrics from Kashmir, and Central Asiatic stuffs from Peshawar. A mis- 
cellaneous export and import trade is also carried on with Kashmir. 

Salt is procured in immense quantities from the mines in the 
central range, which are now worked under Government supervision, 
and managed by a duly qualified engineer. The net revenue from this 
source amounted in 1871-72 to the sum of ^362,193, and in 1882-83 
to ;^293,4oo. A quarter of a million of tons per annum can be 
turned out if necessary. Gypsum is also found in the same range ; 
and an inferior lignite exists in the ooHtic and tertiary beds, but the 
coal is of poor quality, and has not yet been mined to advantage. 
A further attempt is now being made to work the mineral at the 
Makrach beds, and it is being purchased largely for railway purposes by 
the Northern Punjab State Railway. 

The local manufactures and industries comprise boat-building, at 
Jehlam town and Pind Dadan Khan ; a rough glass manufacture 
by a colony of Ghakkars at or near Sultanpur; copper and brass 
manufactures ; silk and cotton weaving ; unglazed pottery of a re- 
markably strong and good quality, etc. Gold-washing is carried on in 
the beds of the numerous ndlds or streams which flow through the 
Salt Range. 

The principal means of communication is the Grand Trunk Road, from 
Lahore to Peshawar, which passes through the District from north to 
south, traversing a wild and tortuous country, and heavily taxing the 
skill of the engineers. It is the only metalled Hne in Jehlam, and is 
30 miles in length within the District; but there are 882 miles of 
unmetalled roads, forming a complete network of intercommunication. 
The Northern State Railway from Lahore to Peshawar runs across the 
south-eastern corner of the District, for a distance of 28 miles, having 
stations at Jehlam, Dina, Domeli, and Sohawa, while a short branch 
of 5 miles connects Miani with the Kheura salt mines. A railway 
bridge crosses the river at Jehlam, with a sub-way for animals and foot 
passengers. The river Jehlam is navigable for 127 miles along the 
eastern frontier. A line of telegraph runs by the side of the trunk 
road with an office at each station ; and there is also an imperial telegraph 
office at Jehlam cantonment. Imperial post-offices, with money order 
and savings bank branches, are stationed at eighteen towns and villages. 
Two great religious fairs, the one Hindu and the other Muhammadan, 
take place at Katas and at Choya Saidan Shah respectively, on the 9th 
of April and two following days. As many as 50,000 pilgrims are 
estimated to be present at each festival. 

Administration. — The ordinary administrative staff of Jehlam consists 
of I Deputy Commissioner, 2 Assistant and i extra-Assistant Commis- 



176 JEHLAM. 

sioners, 4 tahsilddrs, with their deputies, and 3 munsifs. The total 
revenue (in which the profits of the salt mines are not included) 
amounted in 1872-73 to ^70,299, of which ^59,766 was derived from 
the land-tax. In 1882-83, the gross revenue was returned at ;£"87,729, 
of which ;£^69,o53 was contributed by the land-tax. The other 
principal items are stamps and local rates. The incidence of the land 
revenue is unusually light. In 1882, the imperial police numbered 403 
officers and men; municipal police, 104; cantonment police, 8; and 
village watch, 439. The whole machinery, therefore, for the protection 
of person and property consisted in 1882 of 954 men, being an 
average of i constable to every 618 of the population and every 5 
square miles of area. The District jail at Jehlam contained an 
average daily population in 1872 of 275 prisoners, and in 1882 
of 253 prisoners. ' Education has made great strides of late years. 
In 1872-73, the roll of children under instruction showed a total of 
8784, or more than double the whole number of persons who could 
read and write in 1868. There were 18 girls' schools in the District, 
with a roll of 678 pupils, founded by the benevolent exertions of Bedi 
Khem Singh, a native gentleman who has greatly interested himself in 
female education. In 1882-83, ^^^ total number of schools under the 
control of the Education Department was 50, attended by a total of 
4285 pupils. Of these 8 were girls' schools, with an attendance of 258 
pupils. There are also 6 girls' schools conducted by the American 
Presbyterian Mission at Jehlam town. Besides these, there were 
returned 11 59 indigenous schools, with an attendance of 13,854. For 
fiscal and administrative purposes, the District is sub-divided into the 
4 tahsils of Jehlam, Find Dadan Khan, Chakwal, and Talagang ; and 
into 10 pargands, containing an aggregate of 939 estates, owned by 
49,866 registered proprietors or coparceners; average land revenue 
from each estate, ^74, 17s. 3|d. ; from each proprietor, £^\, 8s. 2jd. 
For police purposes, the District is divided into 1 5 police circles (t/umds), 
and 16 subordinate stations (chaiikis). Municipalities are established at 
Jehlam, Find Dadan Khan, Chakwal, and Talagang. Their united 
revenue for the year 1871-72 amounted to ^4080, being at the average 
rate of is. 2jd. per head of population. In 1882, the municipal revenue 
amounted to ^4606, the average incidence of taxation being is. 2jd. 
per head. 

Sanitary Aspects. — Jehlam is, on the whole, a healthy District, 
though the miners of the Salt Range are subject to several distressing 
complaints (including fever, ophthalmia, and pulmonary diseases), and 
are, generally speaking, a sickly-looking and feeble community. Goitre 
is not uncommon, and guinea- worm causes much trouble on the 
northern plateau. The chief endemic disease is fever, which settles 
principally in the plain country around Find Dadan Khan. The small- 



JEHLAM TAHSIL AND TOWN. 177 

pox mortality is also unusually high. The total number of deaths 
recorded in 1872 was 14,772, or 29 per thousand of the population, 
and in 1882, 19,628, or 33 per thousand. Of these deaths, the 
l)roportion due to fever was 19*36 per thousand in 1872, and 2570 
per thousand in 1882. No observations are available with reference 
to the temperature of the District. The average annual rainfall for 
a period of 20 years ending 1881, was 24"ii inches. The rainfall in 
1881 was only 17-10 inches, or 7*01 inches below the average. [For 
further information regarding Jehlam, see the Settlement Report of the 
District, by Mr. A. Brandreth, C.S. (1865); with the Revised Settlement 
Report, by Major Wace and Mr. R. G, Thomson, C.S. Also the Gazetteer 
of Jehlam District, published under the authority of the Punjab Govern- 
ment, 1883-84 ; Census Report of the Punjab for 1881, and the various 
Provincial and Departmental Administrative Reports irom 1880 to 1883.] 

Jehlam.^Eastern tahsil of Jehlam District, Punjab. Lat. 32° iS' 
to 33° 15' N., long. 73° 9' to 73° 50' E. Area, S85 square mile?-, 
with 422 towns and villages, and 20,373 houses. Population 
(i88t) 174,169, nam.ely, males 96,479, and females 77,690; average 
density, 197 persons per square mile. Classified according to religion, 
there were — Muhammadans, 152,916; Hindus, 17,465; Sikhs, 3424; 
'others,' 364. Number of families, 38,347. Total revenue of the 
tahsil, ;^ 1 8, 865. Of the total area of 559,773 acres assessed for 
Government land revenue, 179,148 acres were returned as under 
cultivation in 1878-79. Of the remainder, 102,500 acres w^ere grazing 
land, 55,200 acres cultivable, but not under tillage, and 222,895 acres 
uncultivable waste. The administrative staff, including the District 
head-quarters, consists of a Deputy Commissioner, with a Judicial 
Assistant, and an Assistant Commissioner, a tahsilddr, and a mnnsif. 
These officers preside over 5 civil and 4 criminal courts. Number 
of thdnds or police circles, 4; strength of regular police, 104 men, 
besides 128 village watchmen [chaukiddrs). 

Jehlam {Jhilam). — Town, municipality, cantonment, and administra- 
tive head-quarters of Jehlam District, Punjab. Lat. 32° 35' 26" n., long. 
73° 46' 36" E. Situated on the northern or right bank of the Jehlam 
river. The population, including the suburbs and cantonments, which 
in 1868 was returned at 7393, had increased by 1881 to 21,107, the 
increase being mainly due to the impetus afforded by the Punjab 
Northern State Railway, which, prior to the extension of the line to 
Peshawar, had for many years its terminus at Jehlam. Muhammadans 
numbered 11,369; Hindus, 7966; Sikhs, 1460; and 'others,' 312. Num- 
ber of houses, 2318. Municipal income (1882-83), ^1843, or 2s. 2jd. 
per head of the population (16,634, exclusive of the cantonment). 

The present town of Jehlam is of modern origin, the old town 
having been on the left or opposite bank of the river. Under Sikh 

VOL. VII. M 



17' 



JEJLRI—JERIG URKHADI. 



rule the place was quite unimportant, being mainly occupied by a 
settlement of imdlds, and at the time of annexation contained about 
500 houses. It was then chosen as the site of a cantonment, and 
as the head-quarters of the civil administration of the District. For 
some years it was the seat of the Commissioner of the Division ; but 
in 1850 the head-quarters of the Division were transferred to Rawal 
Pindi. Under British rule, Jehlam has steadily advanced in prosperity, 
and is the entrepot for most of the trade of the District. The salt 
traffic, however, which was the main source of this prosperity, has, since 
the completion of the Northern Punjab State Railway, been diverted to 
Lahore, but it has not materially affected the position of Jehlam as a 
place of commerce. 

The native town is small, and traversed by two main streets 
at right angles to each other. There are no buildings of note; 
some of the houses with a river frontage are fairly constructed, 
but the town is principally composed of low-built mud houses ; the 
streets are well paved and in most cases broad ; the drainage and 
sanitary arrangements are satisfactory, and there is an ample water 
supply. The town has a good reputation for boat-building. The civil 
lines and public offices lie about a mile to the north-east of the town. 
The public buildings comprise the ordinary offices and courts, police 
station, jail, treasury, charitable dispensary, municipal hall, two sardis 
(native inns), and a handsome church (in the cantonment) ; also a fine 
public garden, with band-stand, deer-paddock, and lawn-tennis courts. 
A railway bridge of the Punjab State Railway crosses the Jehlam river 
at the town. 

The cantonment is situated about a mile south-west of the town, 
in a desolate barren plain, almost entirely destitute of vegetation, 
owing to the hard and stony nature of the ground. The military 
strength of the garrison consisted in August 1883, of 50 regimental and 
staff officers, a regiment of Native cavalry 537 strong, and one of Native 
infantry 815 strong. Total population of cantonment (1881) 4473. 

Jejuri.— Town and municipality in the Purandhar Sub-division of 
Poona(Puna) District, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 18' 16' N.,long. 74° 12'E. 
Population (1881) 3245 ; municipal revenue (1882-83), chiefly derived 
from a tax on pilgrims of 3d. each, ^303 ; municipal expenditure, 
^292 ; incidence of municipal taxation per head, is. gd. A place of 
Hindu pilgrimage. 

Jellasore.— Town in Balasore District, Bengal.— 5^^ Jaleswar. 

Jenkal-betta {'Honey Rock Hill ').— Magnificent peak of the Western 
Ghats, Hassan District, Mysore State. The precipitous rock is covered 
with honeycombs. A station of the Great Trigonometrical Survey. 

Jerigurkhadi.— Native State, Khandesh Political Agency, Bombay 
Presidency. — See Dakg States. 



JERIMALA—JERR UCK. 1 79 

Jerimala. — Town in Kudlighi taluk of Bellary District, Madras Presi- 
dency. Lat. 14° 48' 40" N., long. 76° 33' E. Now of no importance, but in 
the last century the residence of a family oi^owtxinX pdlegdrs^ descended 
from Pennappa Nayak. The territory was reduced by Aurangzeb, who 
exacted increased tribute and military force. In 1 752 \k\^pdlegdroiOi\Vid\- 
(Iriig conquered all the country belonging to the pdlegdr of Jerimala, 
who was obliged to serve the former with 500 peons ^ and pay tribute 
through him. When Haidar Ali captured Chitaldriig in 1767, the 
Jerimala pdlegdr appealed to him, but was put to death by the pdlegdr 
of Chitaldriig. The whole District was resumed by Tipii in 1787. 
The members of the pdlegd/s family fled, but regained possession of the 
country in 1791. When Jerimala was ceded to the Nizam of Haidar- 
abad (Deccan) in 1799, the pdlegdr was allowed to rent this tract at its 
full value. In 1801 the country fell under the dominion of the British, 
a pension of ;^ 160 being granted to the members of the ruling family 
for their support. The pension is continued to their descendants. 

Jerruck (or Jkirak). — Deputy Collectorate and Sub-division of 
Karachi (Kurrachee) District, Sind, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 24° \ 
to 25° 26' 30" N., long. 67° 6' 15" to 68' 22' 30" e. Bounded on the 
north by the Sehwan Deputy Collectorate, part of Kohistan, and the 
Baran river; on the east and south by the Indus and its tributaries; 
on the west by the sea and Karachi tdluk. Area, 2997 square miles, 
or 1,918,155 acres, of which 96,847 are under cultivation, 121,850 
cultivable, and the remainder uncultivable waste. Population (1881) 
95,821. The Sub-division is divided into 3 tdluks — viz. Tatta, Mirpur 
Sakro, and Ghorabari — and sub-divided into 20 tapds. It contains 
4 towns and 142 villages, only 4 of which have a population exceeding 
800. 

The northern portion of the Sub-division consists of a hilly waste, dotted 
with occasional lakes or dhauds ; this may also be said of a portion of 
the eastern side, bordering directly on the Indus, where are the Makli 
hills and the range on which the town of Jerruck is built ; the southern 
portion stretches out in a flat alluvial plain, broken only by canals and 
branches of the Indus. Six of the older mouths of the river, — the 
Piti, Juna, Richhal, Hajamro, Kakaiwari, and Khedewari, — besides 
the Gharo creek, lie within this Sub-division. The Hajamro in 1845 
was so insignificant a stream as to preclude even small boats passing 
up; but from that time it began to increase in volume, and is now 
perhaps the largest mouth of the Indus. There is a beacon, 95 
feet high at the eastern side of the entrance, which can be seen 
from a distance of 25 miles. Two Government pilot-boats are stationed 
inside the bar. The canals kept clear at Government expense number 
49, with an aggregate length of 360 miles, and yield an annual net 
income of ^10,636. The largest of these are the Baghar, Kalri, and 



i8o JERRUCK. 

SiAN. The zaminddri canals number 132 1, but are all very small and 
short. Numerous torrents {nais) cause, after heavy rain, considerable 
loss of cattle, and occasional damage to the railway running from 
Kotri to Karachi ; while the floods which they produce by overfilling 
the dhands and canals are at times very serious. The largest of the 
dhands or lakes are the Kinjhar, Sonahri, and Halaji. The climate 
and public health vary greatly in different parts of the Sub-division, 
the town of Jerruck itself being particularly salubrious, while Tatta 
and the country round are notorious for the ague, fever, and dysentery 
that prevail. Cholera is a not unfrequent and a destructive visitor. 
The ravages of small-pox have been checked by vaccination. The 
average yearly rainfall is only 7 J inches. Sea-fogs prevail over the 
coast tract to such an extent that wheat cannot be cultivated. 

The geology, fauna, and flora of Jerruck do not differ materially from 
those of other parts of Karachi District. Geologically, the soil of the 
Sub-division is alluvial deposit, except in the east and north-west. 
The wild animals found are the wolf, jackal, fox, hog-deer {pharo), 
hare, hy?ena, lynx, and leopard. Ibex and ravine antelope are met with 
in the hilly portion. Among birds are many varieties of the wild duck, 
geese (among these the kulani)^ the flamingo, pelican, stork, crane, 
heron, curlew, and snipe; in the north, partridge, quail, and plover. 
Varieties of the Saxicolce or stone-chat w^arblers are numerous, and of 
these the Saxicola aiirita is the most beautiful bird, as regards plumage, 
to be seen in Sind. Snakes and scorpions are numerous. The dog of 
the Indus delta is large, and so ferocious as to make it dangerous 
for a stranger to approach. The bees of Hajamro are remarkable for 
the excellence of their honey, and for their curious habit of affixing 
their combs to maritime plants. Extraordinary numbers of field rats 
are found, which at times do incredible mischief to the crops. The 
rats construct granaries underground, and the cultivators, when grain 
is scarce, often dig up the stores. The one - humped camel is 
numerous ; the delta-bred camel is smaller and lighter in limb than his 
Arabian congener. The Karmati tribe breed a valuable description 
of camel. As elsewhere in Sind, the babid (Acacia arabica) is the principal 
forest tree. The forests cover a total area of 25,074 acres ; and yielded 
in 1873-74 a revenue, from grazing fees, sales of firewood, charcoal, 
etc., babul ])odiS for fodder, and cultivation of land within forest limits, 
of ;^i425. The forests were all planted between 1795 and 1828, by 
the Talpur Mirs. The fisheries are 20 in number, yielding an average 
annual revenue of ^305. The right of fishing is yearly sold by auction 
to the highest bidder. 

The population of the Sub-division in 1872 was 92,902 ; and in 
t88i, 95,821, namely, males 52,451, and females 43,370. Classified 
according to religion in 1881, there were — Muhammadans, 82,506; 



JERRUCK. .181 

Hindus, 11,788; Sikhs, 1428; aboriginal tribes, 40; Christians, 38; 
Jews, 10; and Parsi's, 11. In character, habits, dress, etc., the peo[)le 
of Jerruck do not differ from those of the rest of Karachi District. 

The administrative and revenue staff consists of a Deputy Collector 
and first-class Magistrate, assisted by 3 viiikJitidrkdrs^ with the powers 
of a second-class magistrate ; 2 kohvdls, who have certain magisterial 
powers, and supervise the jails ; and 20 tapaddrs^ or excise officers. 
The only jails are the two subordinate lock-ups at Tatta and Keti. 
There are ten cattle-pounds. The Sub-division contained (1884) 8 
criminal courts, 24 police stations {thdnds), and 170 regular police. 
The civil suits (1874) numbered 359, involving a total amount of 
^3698 ; only three of the whole were for land, value ^£^42. 

The revenue of the Sub-division in 1873-74 was ^21,077, being 
;£i8,489 imperial and ;^2588 local, derived as follows: — Imperial 
— land-tax, ^^14,815 ; abkdri or excise, ;£^i354; stamps, ;£734; postal 
department, ^91; law and justice, ^302; miscellaneous, ^1193. 
Local — cesses on land and sayer or customs, £,<^^'] \ percentage on 
alienated lands, ^48; pounds and ferries funds, ^£"916; fisheries, 
^657. The Topographical Survey was completed in 1870, and a 
temporary settlement has been introduced in the Tatta taluk. Land 
is held on provisional or temporary leases in the two other tdluks, the 
rate per acre ranging from 8s. for maJisidi (garden) land, 4s. iox charkhi^ 
3s. for sdilabi and mok (flooded lands), 2s. for bardni (rain-irrigated) 
lands. The water-rate is Jd. per acre. The alienated land occupies 
an area of 96,000 acres, 21,000 of which are cultivated, and is dis- 
tributed among c^^ Jdgirddrs. The seri grants number 13, covering 
250 acres ; the number of mdfiddrs is 17. 

There are 2 municipalities within the Sub-division, viz. Tatta and 
Keti, with an aggregate annual income (1882-83) of ^1786. The 
number of Government schools is 7, with 645 pupils. There are dis- 
pensaries at Jerruck, Tatta, and Keti. 

Two crops are reaped annually, the kharif and rahi. Three-fourths 
of the whole cultivated area are under rice, and the remainder is 
divided in the usual proportions among the ordinary crops. The only 
speciality is the saji (Crotalaria juncea), grow^n for its fibre, of which 
nets and fishing gear are made. Fishing is carried on in the Indus 
and in the dhands. The fish caught are pala, the larger and coarser 
river fish, and prawns. Rights of fishing are sold annually by auction 
to the highest bidder. 

The trade of Jerruck is chiefly in agricultural products, the principal 
mart being Keti, whence exports of the value of about ^280,000 are 
annually made. The rest of the Sub-division imports cotton cloth, 
metal work, spices, fruits, sugar, and grain ; and exports agricul- 
tural produce and skins. The manufactures, though once of some 



i82 JERRUCK VILLAGE— JESAR. 

reputation — notably the Tatta chintzes and glazed pottery — now are of 
very small importance. More than 40 fairs are held in the Sub- 
division ; 19 of the largest have an average attendance of 980, and last 
for a period of from one to fifteen days. 

The roads of the Sub-division aggregate nearly 360 miles in length, 
270 miles being trunk and postal lines. The great mihtary road 
from Karachi to Kotri runs, via Tatta, through the northern portion 
of Jerruck. There are here 20 dharmsdlds. The ferries number 36, 
yielding annually about ^^400. The Indus Valley or Sind Railway 
passes through the Sub-division for about 63 miles, with 6 stations, 
at Ran Pethani, Jangshahi, Janabad, Jhimpir, Meting, and Bolari. 
The telegraph line follows the railway route. There are 3 postal lines, 
with 5 non-disbursing and 3 branch offices. 

The chief objects of antiquarian interest in the Jerruck Sub-division 
are the ruins of Bhambore, a very ancient city of the 7th century ; the 
Mari, a building of the 14th century; the Kalan Kot (or great 
fort) ruins, built in the r5th century, it is supposed, upon the site 
of a still more ancient stronghold. The most interesting remains of 
old buildings are the many tombs, fast hastening to decay, on the 
l)lateau of the Makli range of hills near Tatta. These ruins are 
described as a vast cemetery extending over 6 square miles, con- 
taining not less than a million of tombs, and believed to have been 
a sacred burial-ground for twelve centuries ; among the largest tombs 
is the modest one of an Englishman, by name Edward Cooke, who 
died at Tatta in 1743, and who is supposed to have been a private 
merchant engaged in the silk trade. 

Jerruck {or /hi rak). — Village in the Jerruck Sub-division Karachi 
(Kurrachee) District, Sind, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 25° 3' 6" 
N., long. 6d>° 17' 44". Population (1881) under 2000. The trade, 
since the opening of the Sind Railway diverted traffic from this part 
of the Indus, has fallen off greatly. Formerly there existed an active 
traffic with the mountain tribes, who brought sheep to exchange 
for grain, especially rice. The only local manufacture of marked 
excellence is that of camel saddles, and of strong and durable stcsis (or 
striped cloths). Jerruck stands on an eminence commanding the Indus 
from both military and commercial points of view ; a position so 
advantageous that Sir Charles Napier regretted not having selected it 
for the European barracks instead of Haidarabad (Hyderabad, Sind). 
Jerruck has road communication with Kotri 24 miles, with Tatta 32 
miles, and with Meting, a station of the Sind Railway, 13 miles. 
Subordinate court, post-office, and police station ; 3 dharmsdlds or rest- 
houses ; Government school ; subordinate jail ; market ; and dispensary. 

Jesar. — Petty State of the Pandu Mehwas, in Rewa Kantha, Gujarat 
(Guzerat), Bombay Presidency. The area is i;^ square mile. There 



JESSOR. 183 

are 4 chiefs or /^z^zV. The revenue in 18S1 was estimated at £^0 ; 
a tribute of ^15 is paid to the Gaekwar of Baroda. 

Jessor. — District in the Lieutenant-Governorship of Bengal, lying be- 
tween 22° 48' and 23° 47' N. lat., and between 88° 42' and 89" 52' e. 
long. Jessor District forms the north-eastern portion of the Presidency 
Division. It is bounded on the north and west by Nadiya District ; 
on the south by the newly-formed District of Khulna ; and on the east 
by the District of Faridpur. Area (according to the Census of 188 1, 
and from which all percentages and calculations bearing on population 
have been calculated), 2276 square miles. A later return from the 
Surveyor-General's Department, dated May 1885, gives the present 
area at 2925 square miles. Population (1881) 1,577,249 persons. The 
administrative head-quarters are at Jessor town, locally called Kasba, 
on the Bhairab river. 

Physical Aspects. — Jessor forms the central portion of the delta 
between the Hiigli and the united Ganges and Brahmaputra. It is a vast 
alluvial plain intersected by rivers and watercourses, which at places in 
the southern portion of the District spread out into large marshes. It 
naturally divides into two parts — one bounded north and west by an 
imaginary line drawn from Kesabpur village south of Jessor town to 
Muhammadpur on the Madhumati ; and a second lying between that 
line and the southern boundary of the District. The first of these 
portions is fairly dry, and beyond the reach of the tides ; the second 
or central portion is swampy, and only passable on foot during the 
dry season. Formerly Jessor District comprised a third well-marked 
tract known as the Jessor Sundarbans, a tangled network of swamps 
and rivers, without tillage or population except in scattered reclama- 
tion tracts. This fluvial region is now included within the new 
District of Khulna {q.v.), and will be dealt with in a distinct article. 
Its recent separation must be borne in mind when comparing 
the present account of Jessor District with previous descriptions. 
The northern portion of the District is verdant, with extensive groves 
of date-palms ; villages are numerous and large ; and the people 
are prosperous. In the central portion the population is sparse, 
the only part of the tract suitable for dwellings being the high 
land along the banks of rivers. The principal rivers of Jessor 
are — the Madhumati (which forms the eastern boundary of the Dis- 
trict), with its tributaries the Nabaganga, Chiak, and Bhairab; the 
Kumar, the Kabadak, the Fatki, and the Harihar. As in all deltaic 
tracts, the banks of the rivers are higher than the adjacent country. 
These river banks are covered in Jessor with villages and clumps of 
date-palms, which form a very characteristic feature in the scenery of 
the District. Within the last century, the rivers in the interior of Jessor 
have ceased to be true deltaic rivers ; and whereas the northern portion 



1 84 JESSOJ^, 

of the District formerly lay under water for several months every year, it 
is now reached only by unusual inundations. The Madhumati and the 
Nabaganga are the only rivers which form considerable chars, or alluvial 
sandbanks. The tide reaches as far north as the latitude of Jessor town. 

History. — The name Jessor is a corruption of Yashohara, which 
means ' fame-depriving ; ' and the origin of this title is thus explained. 
At the court of Daiid Khan, the last Pathan king of Bengal, a certain 
Raja named Vikramaditya held a high post. When the king was 
defeated by Akbar, Vikramaditya obtained a grant in the Sundarbans ; 
and in that safe retreat held a large tract of country by force of arms, 
and established a new city, to which he took so much of the wealth and 
splendour of Gaur — part of it Daiid's property — that he was said to 
have deprived the old capital of its fame. Vikramaditya was succeeded 
in the principality of Jessor by his son Pratapaditya, the popular hero 
of the Sundarbans, who gained pre-eminence over the twelve lords 
then holding possession of the southern part of Bengal along the coast, 
but he was eventually defeated and captured by Man Singh. 

The Rajas of Jessor or Chanchra trace their origin to Bhabeswar Rai, 
a soldier in the army of Khan-i-Azam, an imperial general, who deprived 
Raja Pratapaditya of several fiscal divisions {pa7'gands), and conferred 
them on Bhabeswar. On the death of the latter in 1588, his son 
Mahtab Ram Rai (1588-16 19) succeeded him. During the war 
between Man Singh and Pratapaditya, which ended, as has been said, 
in the defeat and capture of the latter, Mahtab Ram Rai assisted Man 
Singh, and at the close he retained i\\Q pa?'gands made over to his pre- 
decessor. To him succeeded Kandarpa Rai (1619-49), who added 
considerably to the estates ; and he in turn w^as followed by Manohar 
Rai (1649-1705), who is regarded as the principal founder of the 
family. The estate, when he inherited it, was of moderate size, 
but he acquired one pargaiid after another until, at his death, the 
property was by far the largest in the neighbourhood. On the death 
of Manohar, the estate went to Krishna Ram (1705-29), who was 
followed by Sukh Deb Rai (1729-45). The latter divided the 
estate into a three-quarters share and a one-quarter share, the former 
being called the Yusafpur, and the latter the Sayyidpur estate. The 
latter was given by Sukh Deb to his brother Syam Sundar, who died 
without issue, leaving it vacant. It was afterwards conferred by the 
East India Company upon a landholder (who had been dispossessed 
by the Nawab of Bengal), in order that he might make a grant to 
the Company of certain lands near Calcutta. The possessor of the 
property in 18 14, Hajji Muhammad Moshin (who died the same year), 
made over the estate in trust for the Hiigli Imambara, which has 
ever since enjoyed its revenues. The Yusafpur estate was inherited in 
1764 by Srikant Rai, who, at the time of the Permanent Settlement, 



JESSOR. 185 

lo^t par^and after pargand until his family was left destitute and 
forced to fall back upon the bounty of the Government. To Srikant 
succeeded, in 1802, Banikant, who died in 1817. His son Baradakant, 
being a minor, the property was administered by the Court of Wards, 
who greatly increased its value. In 1823, the Government added to 
the estate the confiscated/«ri,''(7;/^z of Sahos, and since then has bestowed 
on the proprietor the title of Raja Bahadur in recognition of services 
rendered during the Mutiny. Raja Baradakant died in 1880, leaving 
three sons, the eldest of whom, Ganynada Kant, succeeded to the 
title and estates. 

British administration was completely established in the District in 
1 781, when the Governor-General ordered the opening of a court at 
Murali, near Jessor town. Previous to this, however, the revenue 
or financial administration {dhvdni) had been in the hands of the 
Enghsh, having been transferred to the East India Company with 
that of the rest of Bengal in 1765. The first Judge and Magistrate 
of the District was Mr. Henckell, who founded the market called after 
him, Henckellganj, and was the first to urge upon the Government the 
scheme of Sundarbans reclamation. (^See Sundarbans.) To Mr. 
Henckell succeeded, in 1789, Mr. Rocke, who transferred the civil 
station from Murali to Jessor, where it still remains. Among the list 
of Collectors of Jessor is found the name of Mr. R. Thackeray, father 
of the novelist, who acted in that capacity for a few months in 1805. 

The changes in jurisdiction in the District of Jessor have been very 
numerous. When first constituted, the magisterial jurisdiction ex- 
tended over the present Districts of Faridpur and Jessor, and also 
included that portion of the Twenty-four Parganas which lies to the 
east of the Ichhamati. After many transfers and rectifications of 
boundary, the District was in 1882 finally reduced to its present 
dimensions, the Sub-divisions of Khulna and Bagirhat in the south 
being erected into the new District of Khulna {q.v.). 

Population. — The population of the present area of the District of 
Jessor, as returned by the Census of 1872, was 1,451,507 persons. In 
1 88 1, the population was ascertained to be 1,577,249, showing an 
increase of 125,742, or 8-66 per cent, in the nine years since 1872. 
The average pressure of the population on the soil throughout the 
District is 693 persons to the square mile ; number of houses per 
square mile, 10174; persons per house, 6-96. The density of the 
population varies greatly in different parts of the District ; being high 
in the northern portions, and dwindling as we proceed southwards 
through the more recently inhabited tracts. Of the total population, 
779,805 are males and 797,444 females ; proportion of males, 49*9 per 
cent. Classified according to age, there are, under 15 years old — 
males 324.354, and females 297,628; total children, 621,982, or 39-4 



1 86 /ESSOR. 

per cent: 15 years and upwards — males 455,451, and females 
499,816; total adults, 955,267, or 6o-6 per cent. The excessive 
proportion of male children is explained by the fact, that the natives 
of India consider that a girl reaches womanhood at an earlier age 
than a boy arrives at manhood ; many girls are consequently returned 
as women. As regards religious distinctions, Hindus number 631,439, 
or 40-0 per cent, of the total population, while Muhammadans 
number 945,297, or 59*9 per cent., chiefly belonging to the lower 
classes. The number of Christians is 474, of whom 383 are native 
converts. There are 7 missionary stations in the District. The 
Brahma Samaj has a few adherents, returned at 39 in number. 

Of the higher castes of Hindus, Brahmans number 37,752; and 
Rajputs, 903. Among the intermediate classes is the most numerous 
caste in the District, namely, Kayasths (writers, etc.), who number 
62,611. Of the lower ranks of the Hindu community, the fishing and 
boating castes deserve special mention. The fisheries in the rivers 
and deeper swamps are very valuable, and the right to fish is a 
regular tenure paid for like the right to cultivate land. The number 
of Hindus of fishing and boating castes, such as Jaliyas, Kaibarttas, 
Mallahs, Pods, etc., in Jessor is 78,002, or 5 per cent, of the population ; 
and the number of Muhammadans who follow the same occupations is 
probably even greater. Jessor is noted for a colony of pure Kulin 
Brahmans, who live at Lakshmipasa, a village 10 miles east of Naral 
on the right bank of the Nabaganga, where that river joins the Bankana. 
These Kulins trace their origin to Ramananda Chakrabarttf, who, five 
generations ago, emigrated from Sarmangal near Kalia in Bakarganj, a 
great Kulin settlement. 

Towns, in the ordinary sense of the word, can scarcely be said to exist 
in the District. The only three places with a population of more than 
5000 are Jessor town (population, 8495), Kotchandpur (9231), and 
Kesabpur (6405), which are also the only municipalities in the District. 
There are, according to the Census of 188 1, 235 towns containing from 
1000 to 5000 inhabitants (of which 213 contain fewer than 2000); 761 
with between 500 and 1000 inhabitants; and 2988 with fewer than 500 
inhabitants. Kotchandpur is the largest, and Kesabpur the second 
largest, trading place in the District, with numerous sugar-refineries, and 
a large trade in earthen vessels and brass-work of local manufacture. 
Other towns, or large villages — Naldanga, the residence of the Rajas 
of that name ; Chaugachha, Magura, Jhanidah, Chandkhali, Khajura, 
and Binodpur, all considerable trading villages ; Muhammadpur, on 
the right bank of the Madhumati, founded in the end of the 17th 
century, and containing many interesting remains of antiquity ; Naral, 
the seat of the first family of landholders in the District ; Lakshmipasa, 
to which reference has already been made as the residence of a settle- 



/ESSOIN. 187 

ment of Kulin Brahmans, and which is also a trading place. Descrip- 
tions of most of these places will be found in their alphabetical order 
in this work, and a detailed account of them is given in the Statistical 
Accou7ii of Bengal^ vol. ii. pp. 201-239. 

Agriculture. — 'J'he staple crop in Jessor is rice, of which there are 
three harvests — dman^ dus, and horo. The times of sowing and reaping 
vary in different parts of the District. In the north, d7nan or winter 
rice is sown in April and May, and reaped in November or December ; 
in the Sundarbans it is sown in April and reaped in January. The 
land for this crop is ploughed four times before sowing, and, except 
in marsh lands, the young shoots are transplanted in July. For diis 
rice the ground is ploughed five or six times, the seed is sown on 
higher ground, there is no transplanting, and the land yields a second 
crop. Boro rice land is hardly ploughed at all ; the seed is scattered 
broadcast in the marshes as they dry up ; and the shoots are trans- 
planted when a month old, and sometimes again a month later. Among 
the other crops of the District are barley, Indian corn, peas, mustard, 
jute, tobacco, potatoes, sugar-cane, indigo, pdii, dates, etc. 

There are no accurate statistics regarding the extent of land under 
cultivation, or the out-turn of the crops. According to the estimates 
before the separation of Khulna District, and the rectification of the 
Jessor boundaries in 1882, more than a million acres were under rice, 
43,200 under oil-seeds, 10,600 under barley, 52,100 under pulses, and 
236,000 acres under other crops — making a total cultivated area of 
1,381,800 acres. These figures must, however, be considered as only 
approximately correct ; and, even as regards the old area, they were 
subject to changes owing to the increase and variations in the cultivated 
area since they were framed. 

The estimated area covered by date-palms for the manufacture of sugar 
is 17,500 acres. The trees do not commence bearing until they are 
six or seven years old, but afterwards they continue bearing for about 
thirty years. The juice is collected from November to February. A 
tree in good bearing will produce 5 cwt. of juice, from which 84 lbs. 
of molasses or gi'ir^ yielding about 30 lbs. of sugar, may be made ; an 
acre would yield about 3 tons of sugar, valued at from £^^0 to ^60. 

The area under indigo in Jessor has been estimated at 31,333 acres, 
and the total estimated produce for the season 1872-73 was 203 tons, 
valued at ^114,400. In 1856, the area under indigo was greater by 
upwards of 30,000 acres ; but a large number of factories were closed 
in consequence of the disturbances of 1859 to 1861, of which some 
account will be found in the article on Nadiya District. At present 
the number of European factories throughout the District is about 55, 
besides 50 worked in the interest of native proprietors under European 
There are two methods of cultivation — one 



1 88 JESSOR. 

by hired factory labour (the 7iiJ or khduidr system), and the other by 
husbandmen who contract to cultivate the plant for the factory. 
Under the former system, the factory provides the means of cultiva- 
tion, the total expense amounting to about i8s. an acre ; under the 
latter system, the grower receives an advance of 12s. to iSs. an acre, 
and is supplied with seed, but bears all the other expenses of cultiva- 
tion. There are two seasons for indigo sowing — namely, autumn 
(October) and spring (April) ; the latter crop is more precarious, but 
also more abundant than the former. 

Among the land tenures of the District, the 7}iukarrdn or permanent 
tenures in Naldi pargand deserve special notice. Rates of rent vary 
in Jessor according to the description and position of the land, from 
9d. an acre for rice land, to ^i, i6s. an acre for pdn land. The rate 
for ordinary rice land throughout the District is about 6s. an acre. 

Natural Calamities. — Blights occur occasionally, but rarely to any 
serious extent. The District is, as might be expected, subject to heavy 
floods, which have sometimes been immediately followed by disastrous 
cyclones. At the end of last century, inundations happened every two 
or three years ; but in consequence of the silting up of several of the 
rivers in the north, the waters which formerly overflowed that part of 
the District now find a wide channel in the Madhumati, and floods are 
comparatively rare. Among recent inundations, those of 1838, 1847, 
1856, and 1 87 1 are the most memorable, that first mentioned (1838) 
having been specially severe. Formerly, the keeping up of the numerous 
embankments was one of the Collector's most important duties ; now, 
owing to the changes in river-beds already referred to, embankments 
have become almost useless. Drought is not common in Jessor, and 
the famines with which the District has been visited have been perhaps 
more often due to floods. The only serious drought within the memory 
of the present generation was that of 1866. During the scarcity which 
followed, the maximum price of ordinary paddy was 15 lbs., and of 
rice 10 lbs., for a shilling. 

Commerce and Trade, etc. — The trade of Jessor is carried on chiefly 
by means of permanent markets, but there is also considerable traffic 
at the numerous fairs and religious gatherings held throughout the 
District. The chief exports are sugar — both dhulnd (half-refined) and 
pakd (white, granular) — indigo, rice, pulse ; and, from the Sundarbans, 
timber, honey, shells, etc. The principal imports are salt, English 
piece-goods, and hardware. The exports greatly exceed the imports in 
value. The certificate-tax of 1868 estimated the trading profit of the 
District at ^320,000. The principal manufactures of Jessor are date- 
sugar and indigo. Throughout the north and west of the District, 
the husbandmen depend more upon date cultivation than upon any 
other branch of agriculture ; and several towns and large villages are 



JESSGR. 189 

altogether supported by sugar manufacture. A very interesting and 
clear account of the cultivation of the date and the manufacture of 
sugar is given in Mr. Westland's Report on Jessor (to which this 
article is throughout much indebted), and quoted in the Statistical 
Account of Bengal, vol. ii. pp. 280-298. The area which would be 
occupied by all the date-trees in the District, if they were placed to- 
gether, has been estimated at 17,500 acres, and the produce of sugar 
per acre at nearly 3 tons, valued at from £^0 to £60. The same 
causes which have led to the decline of indigo cultivation in Nadiya 
District, have affected Jessor in a similar way. The area under this 
crop in 1870 was 84 square miles; in 1872-73, it had fallen to 49 
square miles. A well-known Bengali newspaper, the Amritd Bazar 
Patrikd^ was formerly published in this District at the village of Amrita 
Bazar, but has since been removed to Calcutta. 

The Means of Communication in Jessor consist of numerous rivers 
and waterways, with several lines of metalled road, and many tracks 
for bullock carts. The Bengal Central Railway now (1884) runs through 
the District. It describes a great curve to the northward, with Calcutta 
at the south-western end, the new District head-quarters of Khulna 
at its south-eastern extremity, and Jessor town at its northernmost point 
between. The total distance from Calcutta (Sialda terminus) to Khulna 
is 109 miles ; Jessor town being 74 miles from Calcutta and 35 from 
Khulna. The Bengal Central line starts, strictly speaking, from Dum- 
Dum junction, 6 miles north of Calcutta, on the Eastern Bengal Railway. 

Administration. — Reference has already been made to the numerous 
changes which have taken place in the jurisdiction of Jessor, and these 
must be borne in mind in comparing the revenue and expenditure at 
different periods. In 1787-88, the revenue amounted to ;^8o,728, 
and the expenditure on civil administration 10^6400. In 1868-69, 
the total revenue of the District was returned at ;^i 17,185, and the 
total civil expenditure at ;£^34,993, showing an increase in the eighty 
years of 45 per cent, in revenue, and of 500 per cent, in expenditure. 
In 1876-77, the total revenue had increased to ^177,473 ; but since 
the curtailment of the District in 1882, by the erection of the southern 
sub-divisions into the independent jurisdiction of the new Khulna 
District {q.v.), it has decreased to ^131,643. The land-tax supplies 
by far the greatest proportion of the revenue. It was very much the 
same in amount in 1881-82 as it was in 1790, when the area of the 
District was much larger than at present. Since 1882 it has decreased 
proportionately with the lessened area of the District. The revenue 
given above for the year 1787-88 (^80,728) was derived entirely from 
the land. 

Sub-division of property has gone on very rapidly under British rule. 
In 1790, the number of estates on the rent-roll of the then much larger 



I90 /ESSOR. 

District was 46, held by 57 proprietors or coparceners, who paid a 
total land revenue of i:io2,i78, equal to an average payment of 
^2221 from each estate and ^1792 from each individual proprietor 
or coparcener. In 1871, the number of estates was 2844, paying a 
total land revenue of ^104,5 19> equal to an average payment of £z(>, 
15s. from each estate. There are now (1883) 2828 estates paying a 
revenue of ^68,239, or an average of ^24, 2s. 6d. from each estate. 

Protection to person and property has increased not less rapidly. In 
1 78 1 there were only 2 magisterial and 2 civil courts in the District. 
In 1850 there were 4 magisterial and 19 civil courts, with 6 European 
officers stationed in the District. In 1 883 (after the separation of Khulna) 
the number of magisterial courts was 11, and of civil courts (including 
honorary magistrates) 1 7. For police purposes Jessor is divided into 1 1 
thd?ids or police circles, with 10 outpost stations. The regular District 
police consisted in 1882-83 of 376 men of all ranks, maintained at a 
cost of ;£6io9. In addition to these, there was a municipal force of 
45 men, costing ;^355, and a village watch of 2964 men, costing in 
money and lands an estimated sum of ^10,500. The total machinery, 
therefore, for the protection of person and property in Jessor consisted 
in that year of 3385 officers and men, or i man to every 0*67 square 
mile of the area, or to every 466 of the population. The total cost 
of maintaining this force was ;^i 9,064, equal to a charge of ;£'8, 
7s. 6d. per square mile, or 3d. per head of the population. Jessor had 
at one time a very unenviable notoriety for ddkditi or gang robbery, 
but this crime has now been almost stamped out. There is one jail 
in the District, with three subsidiary lock-ups ; average daily jail popu- 
lation in 1882, 293'6. 

Education has made rapid progress in Jessor of late years. In 
1856-57, there were 6 Government and aided schools, attended 
by 454 pupils. In 1860-61, the number of such schools was 9, 
with 555 pupils; and in 1870-71, the number of these schools had 
increased to 390, and of pupils to 12,349. In addition to these, 
there were 188 private schools, with an estimated attendance of 
3538 pupils. In 1882, there were, as reported by the Collector, 
3 Government English schools attended by 375 pupils, 287 attending 
the District high school at Jessor town ; 6 aided high English 
schools, with 789 pupils; and 11 aided middle English schools, with 
661 pupils; 18 middle vernacular aided schools, with 1074 pupils; 
10 circle schools, with 395 pupils ; 4 girls' aided schools, with 94 pupils ; 
138 ' stipendiary ' pdtsdlds, with 5520 pupils ; and 519 ' result system ' 
pdtsdlds, with 14,915 pupils. Total, 709 Government or aided 
schools, with 23,823 pupils. There are also a number of indigenous 
schools for which no returns are available ; and the Census Report of 
1881 showed 27,489 boys and 786 girls as under instruction, besides 



J ESS OR SUB-DIVISION Ai\D TOWN. 



19: 



55,742 adult males and 854 females able to read and write, but not 
under instruction. In the Education Returns, and as regards some 
other statistics given in the foregoing paragraphs, it must always be 
remembered that the present District has been diminished by the 
separation in 1882 of Khulna District {q.v.). In the population 
returns due allowance has been made for this reduction of area ; but in 
some of the other statistics, materials are not yet available for making 
the necessary corrections. 

Medical Aspects^ etc. — The climate of Jessor does not differ from 
that of the other Districts of Lower Bengal. April, May, and June 
are here, as elsewhere, very trying, the average mean temperature 
for these months being 83-6° F., which is very slightly above the 
monthly mean for July and August. The mean temperature in 
November is 72^; in December, 64-9°; and in February, 70-8°. 
Average annual rainfall, for a period of 25 years ending 1881, 68*4 
inches. Rainfall in 1882-83,65-6 inches. Malarious diseases are, as 
might be expected from the nature of the country, very prevalent, 
intermittent fever being common throughout the year. Cholera, which 
is endemic during the hot season, sometimes breaks out also in October 
and November. The total number of deaths registered in the District 
in 1883 was 52,448, at the rate of 27*04 per thousand of the population. 
The deaths due to fever alone numbered 44,667. There are 6 charit- 
able dispensaries in the District, which in 1882 afforded medical relief 
to 333 in-door and 15,128 out-door patients. [For further information 
regarding Jessor, see the Statistical Account of Beii^al., vol. ii. pp. 169- 
331 (London : Triibner & Co., 1875). Also Mr. J. Westland's District 
Report on Jessor ; the Bengal Census Report for 1881 ; and the Animal 
Provincial and Departmental Administration Reports from 1880 to 
1883.] 

Jessor. — Head-quarters Sub-division of Jessor District, Bengal. 
Lat. 22' 49' to 23° 27' N., long. 89° 1' 45" to 89° 28' 45" e. Area, 
889 square miles; villages, 1493; houses, 102,138. Population 
(1872) 590,283; (1881) 628,939, namely, males 317,539, and 
females 311,400. Total increase of population in nine years, 38,656, 
or 6-55 per cent. Classified according to religion, there were in 1881 
— Hindus, 211,006; Muhammadans, 417,527; Christians, 367; and 
'others,' 39. Number of persons per square mile, 707; villages j)er 
square mile, i-68; houses per square mile, 117; inmates per house, 
6-i6; proportion of males to total population, 50-5 per cent. In 1883, 
the Sub-division contained 12 magisterial and revenue courts; 6 police 
circles; a regular police force 2^t, strong, and a village watch of 
1244 men. 

Jessor (also called A'^j/^/).— Chief town of Jessor District, Bengal, and 
administrative head-quarters of the District; situated on the Bhairat 



J 92 /^ THWAR-JETPUR, 

river, in lat. 23° 10' 5" N., long. ?9° 15' 15" e. Population (1872) 
8152; (1881) 8495, namely, 4511 Hindus, 3822 Muhammadans, and 
162 'others.' Municipal income (1882), £12-16; incidence of taxation, 
2S. I id. per head of population within municipal limits. The town 
was till lately of no commercial importance, and no special manufacture 
is carried on. The bazar merely supplied the town and its vicinity. 
But the Central Bengal Railway, which now connects Jessor town with 
Calcutta on the south-west (74 miles) and Khulna on the south-east 
(35 miles), has already (1884) given a stimulus to Jessor as a local 
centre for country produce and imports : an impulse which is probably 
destined to increase still further in future years the commercial 
importance of the town. In addition to the usual public offices, jail, 
school-house, etc., Jessor has a small public library, church with 
parsonage attached, two cemeteries, and a charity hospital. A temple 
in the neighbourhood, founded in 181 3, contains an image of Raghu- 
nath, and is maintained by an endowment of ^^410 per annum. 
Besides the town proper, the villages of Purana, Kasba, Baghahar, 
Sankarpur, and Chanchra lie within the municipal limits. They are 
chiefly inhabited by people connected with the courts and public 
offices, or employed by the residents of the town. The residence of 
the Rajas of Jessor {see Jessor District) is at Chanchra, a mile south 
of the town. The palace was once surrounded by a rampart and fosse, 
of which only the remains are now traceable. Near the palace is a 
large tank, dug by one of the Rajas, and called the Chor-mara ('thief- 
beating') tank. It is said that the Raja's jail was close to the tank, 
hence its name. 

Jethwar. — A Division or Pranth of Kathiawar. — See Barda. 

Jetpur Bilkha. — Native State in Sorath Division of Kathiawar, 
Bombay Presidency, consisting of 2 towns and 142 villages, and 
18,295 occupied houses, with 17 separate tribute-payers or tdlnkdch's 
(Kathis of the Vala tribe). Area, 734 square miles. Population 
(1881) 92,553, namely, 48,201 males and 44,352 females. Of the 
whole population, 79,231 are Hindus, 10,198 Muhammadans, and 
3124 'others.' The State had in 1882, 25 schools with 1274 pupils. 
The police force consisted of 44 mounted, and 185 foot, and 985 
police /rt/t'/i" and pas a I'Ms. Estimated revenue in 1876, ;^8o,ooo; 
tribute of ^5026, 4s. to the British Government, ^516, qs. to the 
Gaekwar of Baroda, and £3^9, 12s. to the Nawab of Junagarh. 

Jetpur. — Fortified town in Sorath Division, Kathiawar, Bombay 
i'rcsidcncy. Lat. 21° 45' 30" N., long. 70° 48' 30" e. ; 40 miles south- 
west of Rdjkot, and 63 miles north-east of Porbandar. Jetpur is a 
nourishing town, and a great local market. It is a railway station 
on the Dhoraji branch of Bhawnagar-Gondal line. The station 
is one mile south-east of the town. There are roads to Rajkot, 



JE WAR—JTIABUA. 193 

Dboraji, Junagarh, and Manikwarri. Travellers' buiu^alow, iiharmsdui^ 
dispensary, post-ofifice, telegraph office, schools, and court-houses. Pro- 
ducts, grain and cotton. Population (t88i) 11,813, namely, 61 14 males 
and 5699 females; consisting of 6318 Hindus, 4512 Muhammadans, 
979 Jains, I Christian, and 3 'others.' 

Jewar. — Town in Khurjd. tahs'il, Bulandshahr District, North- 
Western Provinces. Lat. 28° 7' 45" n., long. 77° 36' 5" e. Lies 
among the ravines of the high bank which separates the uplands from 
the Jumna valley. The low-lying plain stretches for some miles from 
the town to the river's edge. Jewar is built on a well-drained site, 
and has good sanitary arrangements. Population (1872) 7399 ; (1881) 
6219, namely, Hindus, 4277; IMuhammadans, 1868; and Jains, 74. 
Area of town site, 93 acres. The market-place was rebuilt in 1881-82, 
and contains some good shops. In the 12th century, when the crusade 
against the jNIeos took place, Jadun Rajputs, invited from Bhartpur 
(Bhurtpore) by the Brahmans of Jewar, settled in the town, and 
expelled the Meos. The well-known Begam Samru held Jewar till her 
death in 1836, when it lapsed to Government. About 1500 Jagas act as 
a college of heralds for the neighbouring Rajput. families. Manufacture 
of cotton rugs and carpets. Hindu fair in the month of Bhadra. 
A^ernacular school, post-office, police station. A house-tax is levied 
to provide for conservancy, and for the watch and ward of the 
town. 

Jeypore — Native State and town in Rc4jputana. — ^6'^ Jaipur. 
Jeypore. — Zaminddri and town, Vizagapatam District, ]Madras 
Presidency. — See Jaipur. 

Jeysulmere. — Native State and town in Rajputana. — See Jaisalmir. 
Jhabua (/^/w^//). — Native State under the Bhopawar Agency, 
Central India. Area (including Ratanmal), 1336 square miles, of 
which only a small proportion is inhabited or cultivated. The State 
lies between lat. 22° 32' and 23° 18' n., and long. 74° 17' and 75° 6' e. 
It is bounded on the north by Kushalgarh, Rattam, and Sailana States ; 
east b> Dhar and Amjhira ; south by AJi Rajpur and Jobat ; and west 
by the Dohad and Jhalod Sub-divisions of the Ranch Mahals. 

Jhabua is said to derive its name from having been about 
two centuries and a half ago the residence of Jhabii Naik, a 
celebrated Bhil freebooter, who infested these hills and built a 
small fort here. The present chief is a Rahtor Rajput, and a lineal 
descendant of a younger branch of the ancient Rahtor chiefs of 
Jodhpur. One of his ancestors, Kishan Das, did good service to 
the Emperor of Delhi, Ala-ud-di'n, in restoring his authority in 
Bengal, and punishing the Bhil chiefs of Jhabua, who had murdered 
the family of a governor of Gujarat (Guzerat). The whole of the 
possessions of the conquered Bhil chiefs were granted to him as a 
VOL. vii. N 



194 JHABUA. 

reward, with high titles and royal insignia. Thus things continued 
until the invasion of the Marathas, when Holkar seized some of the 
finest Districts, and so crippled the State, that in 1 817 its revenue had 
become almost nominal. It is remarkable, however, that Holkar left 
to its rulers the right to collect in these Districts the chatdh or fourth 
l)art of the revenues which the Marathas exacted from the country 
that they conquered. There are about twenty families of rank in 
Jhabua State, who pay ^i'lSoo a year in tribute to Holkar, and ^2500 
to their own chief. In lieu of the tribute of ;£35oo5 which Holkar 
claimed from Jhabua, lands were assigned to him, through the media- 
tion of the British Government. The Raja, though then only 15 years 
of age, did good service during the Mutiny of 1857. The gross revenue 
of the State is (1882-83) ;^i4,7io, and the expenditure ^13, 979- 
The chief is entitled to a salute of eleven guns. 

The Jhabua possessions, formerly of considerable extent and value, 
are now comprised within very narrow Umits. What remains to the 
State may be described as a mountainous and woody tract, consisting 
chiefly of extensive ranges of hills, seldom abrupt or rising to any great 
height, and covered for the most part with thick jungle of small but 
valuable timber trees, chiefly teak and blackwood. These ranges, as a 
rule, run nearly north and south, at distances from each other varying 
from I to 5 or 6 miles. The intermediate valleys are watered by 
numerous rivulets, tributaries of the Narbada (Nerbudda), the Mahi, 
and the Anas. The last especially, taking its rise in the south, and 
running through the centre of the State, with its several branches and 
feeders, contributes greatly to the fertility of Jhabua. The cultivator 
in these valleys is able to raise a second or ' dry ' crop, an advantage 
unknown in many of the southern and eastern parts of the State. The 
soil is for the most part good, and repays with little culture the toil of 
the cultivator. The hills abound with minerals, especially iron and 
copper ores ; but these, for want of skill or industry, are comparatively 
valueless. 

The population in 1875 ^^s estimated to number 55,000, chiefly 
Bhi'ls and Bhilalas of the agricultural class, a hardy, industrious, but 
wild race. The Census of 1881 returns the population (exclusive of 
Ratanmal) at 92,938, namely, 47,943 males and 44,995 females, dwelling 
in 785 villages. According to religion the people are thus distributed : 
—Hindus, 40,094, or nearly 43 per cent.; Muhammadans, 2275; 
Jains, 2027; Sikhs, 10; aboriginal tribes, 48,531; and Christian, i. 
Two towns have between two and three thousand inhabitants. The 
products of the State are more than sufficient for the needs of the 
inhabitants. The surplus, chiefly gram and, in the southern and plain 
Districts, wheat, is exchanged for the numerous articles of necessity or 
luxury which the neighbouring Province of Gujarat afl"ords. The prin- 



JHABUA—JIIAJHAR. 195 

cipal rain crops are Indian corn, rice, knra^ ?/iug, itrid, hadli, and samli. 
The ' dry ' or second crops are gram and wheat. Small quantities of 
cotton and poppy are raised, but only in two or three places, and not 
sufficient for home consumption. In the Pitlawar and other Districts 
in the plains, sugar-cane is grown to a considerable extent. The gardens 
])roduce ginger, garlic, onions, and niost of the vegetables common to 
the rest of Malwa. In the greater part of this State, as in most hilly 
and Bhi'l Districts, — the soil not admitting of regular cultivation, but 
merely of patches in the more fertile parts, — instead of admeasurement 
or regular allotments of ground, the system has been adopted of taxing 
the cultivator according to the number of pairs of bullocks used by him 
in agriculture. The whole of the revenue duties and village govern- 
ment are in the hands of the hereditary Bhil pdtels or head-men. The 
State pays ;£"i47 towards the cost of the Malwa Bhil corps. 

There are dispensaries and schools in three towns, viz. Jhabua, 
Ranapur, and Kandla ; also a school at Rambhapur. Education, 
however, is neglected, and the schools are very inefficient. The 
Raja of Jhabua maintains a military force of 50 horse and 200 foot. 
There are three fair-weather roads : (i) from Indore via Dhar and Ali 
Rajpur to Gujarat, passing through Para Rajla and Kanas ; (2) from 
Rattam via Dohad to Gujarat, passing through Pitlawar and Thaundla ; 
(3) a branch road from Pitlawar via Thaundla, Jhabua, and Ranapur to 
Gujarat. Along all of these roads water is scarce during the hot season. 

Jhabua. — Chief town of the Jhabua State, under the Bhopawar 
Agency of Central India; situated in lat. 22° 45' n., and long. 74° 
38' E., on the route from Mau (Mhow) to Jhalod, 82 miles west of the 
former, and 36 south-west of the latter. The town is enclosed by a mud 
wall, with circular bastions of masonry, and stands on the margin of a 
small lake in a valley lying at the eastern base of a ridge of hills. On 
the north bank is the Raja's residence rising above the town, and some 
temples ; and on the opposite side is a fine grove of trees, whilst behind 
the palace and town rises a hill covered with low jungle. Jhabua 
consists of tortuous, uneven, and steep streets. By the lake is a 
memorial of the death of the present (1882) chief's father, killed 40 
years ago by lightning while seated on his elephant. The town is 
unhealthy. Dispensary, post-office, and school. 

Jhajhar.— Town in Bulandshahr District, North- Western Provinces. 
Lat. 28° 16' N., long. 77° 42' 15" E. Distant from Bulandshahr town 
15 miles south-west. Population (1881) 4151. Founded by Sayyid 
Muhammad Khan, a Baluch who accompanied Humayiin in his raid, 
and made the town a refuge for runaways and outcasts. His descend- 
ants in the ninth generation still own the soil. Before the Mutiny, 
Jhajhar supplied the light cavalry with many Baluch recruits. It is now 
a mean, poverty-stricken town, with a post-office, police station, village 



196 JHAJJAR TAHSIL AND TOWN. 

school. A house-tax is levied to provide for conservancy, and for ihe 
watch and ward of the town. 

Jhajjar.— Southern tahsil of Rohtak District, Punjab, consisting 
of a somewhat sandy plain, growing marshy as it approaches the 
Najafgarh jhil, and intersected by minor watercourses. Area, 469 
square miles, with 181 towns and villages, and 16,378 houses. 
Population (1881) 112,485, namely, males 60,135, and females 
52,350. Average density, 240 per square mile. Number of families, 
23.972. Hindus and Sikhs numbered 97,675 ; Muhammadans, 
24,703; Jains, 104; and Christians, 3. Total number of towns 
and villages, 181, of which 112 contained less than five hundred 
inhabitants; 43 from five hundred to a thousand; 20 from one to 
two thousand; and 6 upwards of two thousand. Of a total area 
of 289,249 acres in 1879, at the time of the revised setdement, 
213,268 acres were returned as under cultivation, of which 27,592 
acres were irrigated from wells, or by natural inundation. Of the 
remaining area, 8269 acres lay fallow ; 48,341 acres were cultivable, 
but not under tillage ; 17,387 acres were uncultivable w^aste ; and 10,991 
acres were held revenue free. The average annual area under the 
principal crops for the five years from 1877-78 to 1881-82, is returned 
as follows: — Bdjra, 84,872 acres; Jodr, 34,169 acres; inoth, 17,631 
acres ; barley, 17,514 acres ; gram, 1 1,733 acres ; and wheat, 7846 acres. 
Revenue of the tahsil (1883), ;2{^22,8i9. The administrative staff 
consists of I Assistant Commissioner, i fahsilddr, and i honorary 
magistrate. These officers preside over 2 civil and 3 criminal courts. 
Number of police circles (thdiids), 2 ; strength of regular police, 64 
men ; village watchmen {chaukiddrs), 187. The Riwari-Firozpur Railway 
passes through the outskirts of the tahsil. 

Jhajjar. — Town and municipality in Rohtak District, Punjab, 
and head - quarters of Jhajjar tahsil ; formerly the capital of a 
Native State, and afterwards the civil station of a British District, 
now removed to Rohtak. Lat. 28° 36' 33" n., long. 76° 14' 
10" E. Population (1868) 12,617; (1881) 11,650, namely, 6895 
Hindus, 4659 Muhammadans, i Sikh, 93 Jains, and 2 'others.' 
Situated on the plain, 35 miles west of Delhi, and 21 miles south 
of Rohtak town. The town was founded at the time of the first 
Muhammadan conquest of Delhi, in 11 93. It was almost ruined 
by the great famine of 1793, but has since regained its prosperity. 
In 1796, Nijabat Ali Khan became Nawab of Jhajjar. He was son 
of Murtaza Khan, a Pathan soldier of fortune under Shah Alam. 
'i ogether with his two brothers, he took service with Sindhia, from 
whom they obtained extensive grants, with the titles of Nawab of 
Jhajjar, Bahadurgarh, and Pataodi. After the British conquest, these 
grants were confirmed and enlarged. But when the Mutiny broke out. 



JIIAKAA UDA—JHALA WAR. i ^ 7 

Abdul Rahman Khan, the reigning Nawdb, threw off his allegiance, 
together with his cousin of Bahadurgarh. Both were captured and 
tried, and the Nawab of Jhajjar was condemned to death, his estates 
being confiscated by the British Government. A District of Jhajjar was 
organized out of the new territory, but in 1861 the head-quarters were 
removed to Rohtak, with which District Jhajjar was incor[jorated. 
Small and languishing trade in grain and country produce, the town 
lying remote from modern trade routes. Considerable manufacture of 
pottery. Tahsili, police station, post-office, dak bungalow, school-house, 
dispensary. Ruined tanks and tombs surround the town. ]\Iunicipal 
revenue in 1882-83, ^630, or is. id. per head of population. 

Jhaknauda. — Town in Jhabua State, Bhopawar Agency, Central 
India. Large town, situated 15 miles from Sardarpur, and 24 miles 
north-east of Jhabua town. The residence of a T/idkur, one of the 
principal Umraos ; his income is ^^^looo, and he pays an annual 
tribute of p/^311 to the Indore State. 

Jhalakati (or Alahdrdjganj). — Village and municipality in Bakar- 
ganj District, Bengal. Lat. 22° 38' 30" n., long. 90° 15' e. ; situated at 
the junction of the Jhalakati and Nalchiti rivers. Population (1881) 
1463. One of the largest timber markets in Eastern Bengal, especially 
for the sale of sundri wood. Extensive export trade in rice ; imports 
of salt. Municipal revenue (1881-82), ^^140; rate of taxation, 
iid. per head of population (3000) within municipal limits. Fair held 
here annually in November at the Diwdli festival, which is attended by 
about 8000 persons. 

Jhalawar. — Native State in Rajputana, under the political superin- 
tendence of the Haraoti and Tonk Agency, Rajputana, Central India. 
The State consists of three detached tracts. The largest one is 
bounded on the north by the State of Kotah ; on the east by Sindhia's 
territory and a detached District of the Tonk State ; on the south by 
the petty State of Rajgarh, outlying portions of the States of Sindhia 
and Holkar, a detached District of the Dewas State, and the State of 
Jaura (Jaora) ; and on the west by detached Districts belonging to 
Sindhia and Holkar. This portion of the State lies between lat. 23° 48' and 
24° 48' N., and between long. 75° 55' and 77° e., and contains the capital, 
Jhalra Patan. The second detached area is bounded on the north, 
east, and south by the Gwalior State, and on the west by Kotah. It 
lies between lat. 25° 5' and 25' 25' n., and between long. 76° 55' and 77° 
25' E. The chief town in this tract is Shahabad. The third detached 
tract, known as Kirpapur, situated to the north-west of the largest tract, 
is only a few square miles in extent, and is bounded on the north by 
Sindhia's territory, and on the east, south, and west by Mewcir (Udaipur). 
The area of the whole State is 2694 square miles ; number of villages, 
1455 ; towns, 2. Population (1881) 340,488. 



198 JHALAWAR. 

Physical Aspects.— The main portion of Jhalawar is situated on a 
raised plateau, gradually rising from 1000 feet above sea-level in the 
north to 1500 feet in the south. The northern, eastern, and part of the 
southern portions are very hilly, and intersected by many streams. 
The hills are for the most part covered with timber and grass, and 
sometimes enclose lakes, which have been formed by damming up the 
outlets of natural basins. The rest of this tract is a rich undulating 
plain, dotted with evergreen trees. The Shahabad tract is, on the west, 
an elevated table-land, well wooded ; and in the eastern part, some 500 
feet lower, very hilly and covered with thick jungle. Speaking generally, 
the soil is rich, of dark clayey mould, which produces valuable crops, 
such as opium, etc. Locally the soils are known and divided into 3 
classes — (i) kali, the rich black loam ; (2) indl, a loam of a lighter 
colour, but almost equally fertile ; (3) bdrh, the shaly soil, by far the 
poorest of the three. It is estimated that about one-quarter ot the 
cultivable area consists of kali, one-half of mdl, and one-quarter of bdrli 
soil. At places the presence of rock and kankar (calcareous limestone) 
close to the surface interferes with the productiveness of the kali and 
mdl soils. 

Of the many streams running through the territory, the following are 
the most important : — The Parwan enters the State at the south-east 
extremity, and winds for 50 miles up to the point where it enters 
Kotah ; half-way, it is joined by the Newaj, another good-sized stream. 
For 16 miles of its length, the Parwan forms the boundary line between 
Jhalawcir and Kotah State. There are two ferries on the Parwan ; one 
at Manohar Thana, the other at Bhachurni. A ferry at Bhurilia crosses 
the Newdj. The Kali Sind flows for a distance of about 30 miles 
through and along the border of the State. Its bed is rocky, the banks 
])recipitous, and in parts lined with trees. There is a ferry at Bhonrcisa 
and another at Khairasi. The Aii river, flowing from the south-western 
corner, traverses the State for a length of 60 miles, dividing Jhalawar 
from Holkar's territory and the Tonk Districts in the south, and from 
Kotah in the north. It joins the Kali Sind at the point where that 
stream enters Kotah. The bed of this river is less rocky than the Kali 
Sind, its banks are steep, and in parts where the foliage reaches the 
water's edge, the views are picturesque. Ferries cross the Aii at Suket 
and Bhilwdri. The Chhota Kali Sind, with a ferry at Gangrar, flows 
only for a short distance through the south-western portion of the 
State. 

The following extract from a brief memorandum by the Superinten- 
dent of the Survey, shows the geological formation of the country :— 
' Two of the main rock series of India are well exposed. Jhalra Patan, 
the capital, stands on Vindhyan strata, at the northern edge of the 
great spread of basaltic rocks known as the Deccan trap formation, this 



J HAL A WAR, 



199 



northern area of it being also often mentioned as the Malwd trap. 
These Vindhyans belong to the upper division in the Geological Survey 
classification of this great Indian rock system. The beds about Jhalra 
Patan are considered to belong to the Rewa or middle group of them, 
and consist of sandstones and shales, with a band of limestone. Over 
the greater part of this Vindhyan area the strata are quite undisturbed, 
and their habit is to weather into scarped plateaux or ridges, having one 
face steep and the other sloping. These are capped by tlie sandstone, 
the low ground being eroded out of the shales. There are many 
varieties of basaltic rocks, hard with columnar and ball structure or 
amorphous, also vesicular and amygdaloidal in every degree, and soft 
crumbling ash-like beds, both earthy and vesicular. The age of the 
Vindhyan formation is quite unknown, beyond the fact that it must be 
at least as old as the palaeozoic. The trap is certainly either upper 
cretaceous or lower tertiary.' Iron, and red and yellow clays used for 
dyeing cloth, are found in the Shahabad District. 

History. — The ruling family of Jhalawar belongs to the Jhala clan of 
Rajputs. Their ancestors were petty chiefs of Halwad in the District 
of Jhalawar, in Kathiawar. About 1709 a.d., one Bhao Singh, a younger 
son of the head of the clan, set out from home with his son and a small 
troop of followers, to try his fortune at Delhi. At Kotah, Bhao Singh 
left his son Madhu Singh with the Maharaja of Kotah, and went on 
himself to Delhi, where all trace of him ends. Madhu Singh rose 
into great favour with the Kotah chief, who married his eldest son 
to Madhu Singh's sister, and gave him a grant of the estate of Nandla, 
with the post of Faujdar, which included not only the command of the 
troops, but that of the castle, the residence of the sovereign. This 
procured him the respectful title of Mama, or maternal uncle, from the 
younger members of the prince's family, a title which habit has per- 
petuated with his successors. ^ladhu Singh was succeeded in the office 
of Faujdar by his son Madan Singh, and it then became hereditary in 
the family. Himmat Singh followed Madan Singh, and was in his turn 
succeeded by his famous nephew Zali'm Singh, who was at the time only 
eighteen years of age. Three years later, Zali'm Singh was the means of 
securing victory for the troops of Kotah over the army of Jaipur, but he 
afterwards fell into disfavour with the Ra'ja in consequence of some 
rivalry in love. Being dismissed from his office, he migrated to 
Udaipur (Oodeypore), where he did good service. But when the 
Kotah Raja was on his death-bed, he sent for Zali'm Singh, and com- 
mitted his son Umed Singh and the country to his charge. From 
this time, Zalim Singh was the real ruler of Kotah. He raised it to a 
state of high prosperity ; and under his administration, which lasted 
over forty-five years, the Kotah territory was respected by all parties— 
^luhammadan, Maratha, and Rajput (see Kotah). In 1838, it was 



200 JHALA WAR. 

resolved, with the consent of the chief of Kotah, to dismember the 
State, and to create the principality of Jhalawar as a separate provision 
for the descendants of Zalim Singh, so that the State of Jhalawar dates 
only from 1838. The Districts then severed from Kotah were considered 
to represent a revenue of 12 lakhs of rupees (^120,000), or one-third 
of the income of the State. The new State also became responsible 
for one-third of the debts of Kotah ; and by treaty acknowledged the 
supremacy of the British Government, agreeing to supply troops accord- 
ing to available means, and to pay an annual tribute of ^8ooc. 
Madan Singh received the title of Maharaja Rana, was granted a salute 
of 15 guns, and placed on the same footing as the other chiefs in 
Rajputana. He was succeeded by Prithi Singh, who, during the Mutiny 
of 1857-58, did good service by conveying to places of safety several 
Europeans who had taken refuge in his State. He was succeeded 
in 1876 by his adopted son, Bakht Singh, then in his eleventh year. 
On accession, in accordance with family custom, which enjoins that 
only the four names of Zalim Singh, Madhu Singh, Madan Singh, and 
Prithi Singh are to be assumed by the rulers of this house, he took the 
name of Zalim Singh. During his minority he was educated at the 
Mayo College in Ajmere, and the State was administered by a 
council under the superintendence of a British officer, whose head- 
quarters are still at Jhalra Patan. On 22nd February 1884, the 
Rana Zalim Singh was invested with governing powers, having 
attained his majority in November 1883. The chief of Jhalawar 
is entitled to a salute of 15 guns. A military force is maintained 
of 20 field and 75 other guns, 247 artillerymen, 425 cavalry, and 3266 
infantry. 

Agriculture. — In Jhalawar all the ordinary Indian grains are culti- 
vated. In the southern Districts opium is extensively grown for the 
Bombay market. Throughout the rest of the State, wheat, jowdr^ and 
opium are the chief crops, except in Shahabad, where the staple is bdjra 
(Holcus spicatus), and food-grasses locally known as rdli and kodon. 
Irrigation is principally carried on by means of w^ells, water generally 
lying near the surface. Near Jhalra Patan, however, is a large artificial 
lake, from which water is drawn by a channel two miles long. In 1882, 
it was estimated that about 434,74° acres, or less than one-third of the 
total area of the State, were cultivated. Of the untilled portion, more 
than one-third, but less than half, is cultivable; the remainder 
consisting of hilly and waste land. 

Revefuie.—T\\Q total revenue of the State in 1882-83 was ^152,523, 
of which sum pf 118,397 was derived from the land. Of this sum only 
^132,480 reached the treasury, the balance, /;2o,o43, being alienated 
in Jiigirs or feudal holdings, or in religious grants. The theory that 
the State is lord of the soil is carried out in Jhalawar. The cultivators. 



JHALAWAR. 20I 

except in the Chaumela District (compribing the pan^ands of Pach- 
pahcir, Awar, Dag, and Gangrar), are, as a rule, occupancy tenants, 
holding directly from the State. In the Chaumela District, the revenue 
is realized from village communities, the members of which are called 
ivattanddrs. But the bankers, who live in Jhalra Patan, are the 
chief media for the transfer of revenue from the cultivators to the 
Rand. The jdgirddrs furnish horses and men for the service of the 
State, and present themselves at head-quarters on the occurrence of 
fcjstivals. 

The police are distributed over four Districts and are under the charge 
of four superintendents. The numbers are 167 mounted and 141 7 foot ; 
and are included in the cavalry and infantry enumerated above. A 
central jail exists, in which the prisoners are employed in road-making 
and the manufacture of paper, rugs, and clothes. Kx\. extradition 
treaty was concluded with the State in 1868. Education is at present 
very backward, but is slowly progressing. There were in 1884 in 
the State 22 schools. In the Districts, the village priest teaches 
the young people (chiefly the sons of Brahmans and Baniyas) 
the method of keeping accounts and the rudiments of reading and 
writing Hindi. In the town of Jhalra Patan, and in the Chhaoni or 
cantonment, there are two schools in which Hindi, Urdu, and P^nglish 
are taught ; and one girls' school. The number of pupils receiving 
instruction in all the State schools (1883-84) was 1139, of whom 35 
were girls. A judicial system has been introduced. The lower 
courts are tahs'il courts with minor powers : above the ta/isil courts 
are the appellate courts, generally formed oi Zi pa?ichdyat. Final appeal 
lies to the Rana. Five dispensaries are maintained by the State, 
two at head-quarters, and three in the Districts; 162 in-door and 
15,855 out-door patients were treated in 1883-84. 

Population. — The population was estimated in 1875 at 226,000 per- 
sons ; by the Census of 1881, it w\is returned at 340,488, namely, 
183,039 males and 157,449 females, dwelling in 63,001 houses. 
Number of persons per square mile, 126-38 ; houses per square mile, 
2375; persons per house, 5-4- Of the total population, 319,612, 
or 93 per cent, were returned as Hindus ; 20,863 Muham- 
madans ; and 13 Christians. Among the Hindus, 18,498 were 
Brahmans; 9491 Rajputs, of the Jhala and Rahtor clans for the 
most part, and 291,623 other Hindu castes, the principal being 
Baniyas or Mahajans (13,470), Giijars (18,591), Minas (16,084), 
Bhils (16,459), Chamars (27,313), Dhakurs (11,263), Sondhias 
(36,026), Balais (17,787), Kachhis (1077), Jats (i409)» ^^^^ other 
Hindus (132,144). The different sects among the Muhamrnadans were 
returned as follows :— Shaikhs, 5593; Sayyids, 1104; Mughals, 553; 
Pathans, 6878 ; other Muhammadans, 6735. The Sondhias or Sondhis 



202 JHALA WAR. 

are found to the number of about thirty-six thousand in the Jhalawar 
State. The complexion of this race is fair, neither very dark nor very 
light (Sandhia = twiHght). They claim descent from a prince born with 
the face of a tiger, and consider themselves a distinct Rajput people. 
They are idle, predatory, and immoral. Their women have a reputation 
for horsemanship. 

Means of Communication. — There are in the State 5i| miles of 
metalled road and 89J miles of fair-weather road ; of the former, a 
length of 27^ miles is on the road running through the State from 
Kotah on the northern border, to Raipur in Holkar's territory on the 
southern ; the remaining length of 24 miles being in and around the 
cantonments and town of Jhalra Patau. All other roads are simply cart 
tracks, which in the rains become useless for wheeled traffic. The 
principal of these lead towards the high - road between Agra and 
Bombay, towards Agra and Indore, to the south-west towards Ujjain, 
to the west in the direction of Nimach (Neemuch). Along the south- 
east and south routes traffic is carried on with Bombay through Indore, 
opium being exported, and English cloths imported; grain from Bhopal 
is also imported by these routes. By the north-west route grain from 
Haraoti, and a small quantity of cloth from Agra, is imported. The 
chief towns in the State are Jhalra Patau, Shahabad, Kailwara, 
Chhipa Burod, Bukari Suket, Mandhar Thana, Pachpahar, Dag, and 
Gangrar. 

Climate. — The climate of Jhalawar resembles that of Central India, 
and is generally healthy. The hot weather is less severe than in 
Northern Rajputana, the thermometer during the day in the shade 
ranging from 85° to 88° F. The temperature during the rains is cool 
and pleasant, and in the cold weather frosts occasionally occur. No 
trustworthy register of the rainfall has been kept; but judging from 
the record kept at Agar (a station in Sindhia's territory, about 60 miles 
south of Jhalra Patan), the annual rainfall is probably between 30 and 
40 inches. In 1883, the rainfall was registered at four stations, viz. the 
cantonments 30-5, Jhalra Patan 33-6, Shahabad 33-5, and Aklera 387 
inches. 

Jhalawar. — Division or Pranth of Kathiawar, Gujarat (Guzerat), 
Bombay Presidency. Takes its name from the Jhala Rajputs, who own 
the principal estates. It includes the States of Dhrangadra, the chief 
of which is the recognised head of the Jhala clan, Wankaner, Limbdi, 
Wadhwan, and minor States. Area, about 4400 square miles. Popula- 
tion (1872) 427,329; (1881) 439,629, namely, 228,701 males and 
210,928 females, dwelling in 9 towns and 702 villages, and occupying 
94,548 houses. Average density of population, 102*4 per square mile. 
According to religion, Hindus numbered 371,510; Muhammadans, 
37,156; and 'others,' 30,963. 



JHALERA—JIJALRA PATAN. 203 

Jhalera.— Guaranteed Girasia, Thakurate, or chiefship, under the 
Bhopal Agency, Central India. The chief receives from Sindhia a 
pecuniary allowance, in lieu of rights over land, of nearly ;£i2o. This 
is paid through the Political Agent, to whom also the Thakur is 
subordinate in his administration. 

Jhalod. — Petty division of the Sub-division of Dahod, Panch 
Mahals District, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 22 25' 50" to 23' 35' n., 
and long. 74° 6' to 74° 23' 25" e. Jhalod is bounded on the north by 
Chelkari State, on the east by Kushalgad State, both in Central India, 
on the south by the southern portion of Dohad Sub-division, and on 
the west by Baria (Bariya) and Sunth of Rewa Kantha. The Anas 
river runs along its eastern face. Water is in most places close to the 
surface, and large areas are watered by lever-lifts from unbuilt wells. 
The important trade route from Gujarat (Guzer^t) to Malwa passes 
through the tract. Area, 267 square miles. Population (1872) 
36,785. The Census of 1881 does not show the population of Jhalod 
separately, but includes it wiih that of the Sub-division of which it 
forms a part. 

Jhalod.— Town in Jhalod, petty division of the Sub-division of 
Dahod, Panch Mahals District, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 23° 7' n., 
long. 74° 10' E. Population (1881) 5579, of whom 2659 were Hindus, 
io6'i Muhammadans, 69 Jains, and ' others,' 1790. Area of town site, 
94 acres. The inhabitants are mostly Bhils and Kolis. There is an 
export trade in grain, pottery, cotton cloth, and lac bracelets in 
imitation of the costly ivory Ratlam bracelets. There is a large pond 

near the town. . r\ ^\ 

Jhalotar-Ajgain.— /'^r^^^^' of Mohan tahsU, Unao District, Oudh ; 
situated between Mohan Auras on the north, and Harha on the south. 
Originally constituted a pargatid in the reign of Akbar. Area, 98 
square miles, of which 55 are cultivated; Government land revenue 
demand, ^8901 ; average incidence, 2s. io|d. per acre. The prevail- 
ing tenure is imperfect patiiddri, 46,650 out of the total of 62,657 
acres being thus held; of the balance, 12,096 acres are zamin- 
ddri, and 3910 MIuMdri. Population (1881) 58,185, namely, 30,53^ 
males and 27,649 females. The Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway 
intersects the pargand, with a station at Kusumbhi. Five market 
villages. . ^ 

Jhalra Patan (or Fdfan).-Ch\ef town of the Native State of 
Jhalawar, Rajputana. Jhalra Patan lies in lat. 24" 32' N., and long. 7^ 
12' E. ; situated at the foot of a low range of hills runmng from south- 
east to north-west. The drainage from these hills to the north-west of the 
town is collected into a good-sized lake by a large and very solid masonry 
dam, about two-thirds of a mile long, on which stand sundry temples 
and buildings. The town lies behind this dam, the general level ot 



204 JHALRA PAT AN. 

the ground being the same height as the water of the lake in the cold 
weather. Between the city walls and the foot of the hills stretch a 
number of gardens, watered by a small canal brought from the lake. 
Except on the lake side, the city is protected by a masonry wall with 
circular bastions and a ditch capable of being supplied by the lake. 
This ditch, however, ceases in the centre of the eastern face. From 
the west, running south of the city at a distance of 400 or 500 yards, 
flows the Chandrabagha river, which then bends to the north-east, and, 
passing through the hills, joins the Kali Sind after a course of about 
four miles through open country. On a hill 150 feet above the city is 
situated a small square fort of no importance. 

The old town was situated a little to the south of the present site, 
on the bank of the Chandrabagha. There is considerable diversity of 
opinion as to the derivation of the name. According to Tod, Jhalra 
Patan means the ' City of Bells,' as the old town, being a place 
of some sanctity, contained 108 temples with bells. It was also 
known from its position by the name of Chandioti-Nagri, which was 
destroyed, and its temple despoiled in the time of Aurangzeb. All 
that was left of the ancient place in 1796, was the temple of Sat Seheli, 
or 'Seven Damsels,' which still stands in the new town. Others con- 
nect the name of the town with the Jhala clan. Thornton considers 
the most plausible etymology to be jhalra^ ' a spring of water,' and 
pdtan^ a 'town.' 

The present city was founded in 1796 by Zalim Singh, who also 
established the Chhaoni, a permanent cantonment about 4 miles north 
from the city, with which it is connected by a metalled road. Zalim 
Singh, upon founding Jhalra Patan, placed a large stone tablet in the 
centre of the town, on which w\as engraved a promise that new settlers 
would be excused the payment of custom dues, and would be, for 
whatever crime convicted, fined no more than Rs. 1-4 (2s. 6d.). 
This edict was annulled in 1850. The Maharaja Rc4na's palace 
and all the courts and public offices are situated in the Chhaoni or 
cantonment. The palace is enclosed by a high masonry wall forming 
a square, with large circular bastions at each corner, and two semi- 
circular ones in the centre of each face or side of the square ; the 
length of each face being 735 feet. The principal entrance is in the 
centre of the eastern side, and the approach to it is along the main 
street of the bazar running due east and west. About a mile to the 
south-west is a sheet of water, below which, and watered by it, are 
several gardens, in the centre of one of which is a bungalow, with a 
canal round it filled with water from the lake. The Chhaoni is situated 
on a rising stretch of rocky ground, about 2 J miles from the strong 
fort of Gagraun, in Kotah territory. Its present great want is a proper 
water-supply for drinking and bathing purposes. The population is 



JHA L U—JIIAXG. 205 

larger than that of the town proper. The chief bankers Hve at Jhalra 
Patan. The mint and other State estabUshments are there also. It is 
the head-quarters of the Jhalra Patan pargand^ while the cantonment 
is the head-quarters of the Jhalawar court. Population (1881) of 
Patan, 11,469, namely, 6042 males and 5427 females. Hindus were 
returned as numbering 9378 and Muhammadans 2091. Of Chhaoni 
the population was 20,303, namely, 10,866 males and 9437 females. 
Hindus numbered 14,212 ; Muhammadans, 6080; and 'others,' 11. 

Jhalu. — Town in Ihjnaur talisil, Bijnor (Bijnaur) District, North- 
western Provinces. Situated in lat. 29° 20' 10" n., and long. 78° 15' 
30" E., on the Dhampur road, 6 miles east of Bijnaur town. Popula- 
tion (1872) 5979 ; (1881) 5547, namely, Hindus, 3102; and Muham- 
madans, 2445. Area of town site, 94 acres. An important market 
town, with a large trade in agricultural produce. For police and 
conservancy purposes, a house-tax is levied. 

Jhamka. — Petty State in South Kathiawar, Gujarat (Guzerat), 
Bombay Presidency. Jhamka consists of i village, Jhamka, with 2 
separate tribute-payers. It is 10 miles south of Kunkavar station 
on the Dhoraji branch line of the Bhaunagar-Gondal Railway, and 18 
miles north-west of Lakhapadar tJidnd. The revenue in 1881 was esti- 
mated at ^400 ; tribute of ;£"i8, los. is paid to the Gaekwar of 
]]aroda. Population (188 1) 785. 

Jhammar. — Petty State in Jhalawar Division of Kathiawar, Guzerat, 
Bombay Presidency. Jhammar consists of i village, Jhammar, with 

2 separate tribute-payers. It is 9 miles north-east of Wadhan city, and 

3 miles south-west of Lakhtar station on the Bombay, Baroda, and 
Central India Railway. The tdluhddrs are Jhala Rajputs and Bhayads 
of Wadhan. The revenue in 1881 was estimated at ^401 ; tribute 
of ;£46, 8s. is paid to the British Government. Population (1872) 
584; (1881) 717. 

Jhampodar. — Petty State in Jhalawar Division of Kathiawar, 
Gujarat (Guzerat), Bombay Presidency. Jhampodar consists of i village, 
Jhampodar, with 3 separate tribute-payers. It is 10 miles south of 
Lakhtar, and 10 miles east of Wadhan station on the Bombay, Baroda, 
and Central India Railway. The tdhikddrs are Jhala Rajputs, Bhayads 
of Wadhan. The revenue in 1881 was estimated at ^412; tribute 
of £\i, 1 6s. is paid to the British Government. Population (1872) 
449; (1881) 561. 

Jhang. — British District in the Lieutenant-Governorship of the 
Punjab, lying between 30° 35' and 32° 4' n. lat., and between 71° 39' 
and 73° 38' E. long. Jhang forms the northern District of the 
Multan (T^Iooltan) Division. It stands fourth in order of area, and 
twenty-sixth in order of population, among the thirty-two Districts 
of the Province, comprising 5-33 per cent, of the total area, 2-10 per 



2o6 /BANG, 

cent, of the total population, and 1*52 per cent, of the urban population 
of British territory. The District is bounded on the north by Shahpur 
and Gujranwala ; on the west by Dera Ismail Khan ; and on the south- 
east by Montgomery, Multan, and Muzaffargarh. Area, 5702 square 
miles; population (1881), 395,296 souls. The administrative head- 
quarters are at Maghiana, a suburb of the town of J hang. 

Physical Aspects. — The District of Jhang comprises an irregular 
triangle, artificially constituted for administrative purposes from portions 
of three separate tracts. Its eastern half embraces a large part of the 
high dorsal ridge in the Rechna Doab ; thence it stretches across the 
Chenab into the wedge of land between that stream and the Jehlam 
(Jhelum), whose waters unite a few miles below the town of Jhang; 
while westward again the boundary runs beyond the joint river, far into 
the heart of the Sind Sagar (Saugor) Doab. The Ravi also bounds 
the District for a few miles along its southern edge. So artificial a 
tract can hardly be said to possess any common natural features of its 
own. Starting from the eastern border, we come first upon the bar or 
wild upland plain of the Rechna Doab, broken here and there by sandy 
depressions, and inhabited only by pastoral nomads, who dwell in 
moveable hamlets of thatched huts. In the south, however, along the 
bank of the Ravi, and to the west, along the Chenab, before and after 
its junction with the Jehlam, strips of comparatively fertile lowland 
support a dense population. Some seven miles east of the Chenab, the 
country once more rises, and abruptly changes from a wooded cultivable 
plain to the lifeless wilderness characteristic of the higher lands 
between the river valleys of the western Punjab. Strips of cultivation 
along the convergent streams enclose this sterile wedge, which runs 
like an intrusive spur of Shahpur District down the centre of the Jech 
Doab. Beyond the Jehlam, another singularly fertile belt fringes the 
river, extending a few miles inland, till it reaches the bank of the Sind 
Sagar thai, rising like a wall above the rich alluvial lowland. Only 39 
per cent, of the whole area is included within regularly defined villages ; 
the remainder consists of wild and elevated plateaux, almost destitute 
of vegetation, or covered with clumps of coarse grass. An ancient 
watercourse, now dry, crosses the north-eastern angle, and bears the 
name of the Nannanwa Canal. 

There are no mines in the District, but there are several stone quarries 
in the hills near Chiniot, where mill-stones, pestles and mortars, 
shoemakers' blocks, kneading stones, oil-pans for lamps, etc., are made. 
The Kirana Hills are said to contain iron-ore, but it has never been 
worked. Fish are caught at Lalera, in the extreme south, to supply 
the market of Multan. Beasts of prey include the wolf, hyaena, wild 
cat, and lynx. Ravine-deer, wild hog, and hares occur in the less 
frec^uented parts of the lowlands ; geese are plentiful during the season, 



JHANG. 207 

but wild duck are scarce. A few wild asses are said to roam over 
the outskirts of the desert uplands. The sajji plant, which yields soda, 
grows abundantly in the high ground between the Chenab and the 
Jehlam, and in the southern part of the Rechna Doab. 

History. — The District of Jhang possesses unusual historical interest, 
from the presence within its borders of the ruins which crown the small 
rocky eminence of Sanglawala Tiba. This site has been identified 
by General Cunningham with the Sakala of the Brahmans, the Sagal 
of Buddhism, and the Sangala of Alexander's historians. The hill 
occupies a position on the Gujranwala border, surrounded on two sides 
by a large swamp, formerly a lake of considerable depth. In the 
Mahdbhdrata, Sakala appears as the capital of the Ivladras, whose 
memory still survives in the name of Madra-des, which the surround- 
ing country retains at the present day. Paths through the primeval 
forest then led up to the lake and hill where the Aryan colonists had 
placed their stronghold. In Buddhist legend, Sagal appears as the 
metropolis of King Kusa, against whom seven kings made war, to 
carry off his wife, Prabhavati ; but the king, mounting an elephant, 
met them without the city, and shouted with so loud a voice that 
his cry resounded over all the earth, and the seven kings fled away 
in terror. The Greek historians inform us how Alexander turned 
aside from his projected march towards the Ganges, to attack the 
people of Sangala, who held out against him in the rear. He found 
the city strong both by art and nature, defended by brick walls and 
covered on two approaches by the lake. The Macedonian forces 
attacked and took an outpost on the low ridge of Mundapapura, after 
which they laid siege to the city, undermined the walls, and carried 
the position by assault. Hwen Thsang, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim, 
who visited Sakala in 630 a.d., has given the topographical details 
which enable General Cunningham to effect the present identification 
with an unusual degree of certainty. The walls then lay in ruins, and 
a small inhabited town occupied the centre of the ancient city, whose 
relics surrounded it on every side. It still contained a Buddhist 
monastery of 100 monks, and two topes {stiipas), one of them erected 
by the famous Emperor Asoka. Sherkot, in the lowlands of the 
Chenab, has also been identified, though less certainly, with a town 
of the Malli, attacked and taken by Alexander, and described at 
a later period by Hwen Thsang as the capital of a considerable 
District. 

In modern times, the history of Jhang centres in the family of Sials, 
who ruled over a large tract between Shahpur and Multan, with litde 
dependence on the imperial court at Delhi, until they finally fell before 
the power of Ranjit Singh. The Sials of Jhang are Muhammadans of 
Rajput descent, whose ancestor, Rai Shankar of Daranagar, emigrated 



2o8 JHANG. 

early in the r 3th century from the Gangetic Doab to Jaunpur. His 
son, Sial, in 1243, left his adopted city for the Punjab, then overrun 
by the Mughal hordes. Such emigrations appear to have occurred 
frequently at the time, owing to the unsettled state of the lower Pro- 
vinces. During his wanderings in search of a home, Sial fell in with 
the famous Musalman saint Baba Farid-ud-dm Shakarganj of Pak- 
pattan, whose eloquence converted him to the faith of Islam. He 
afterwards sojourned for a while^ at Sialkot, where he built a fort ; but 
finally settled down and married at Sahiwal, in Shahpur District. It 
must be confessed, however, that his life and those of his descendants 
bear somewhat the character of eponymic myths. Manak, sixth in 
descent from Sial, founded the town of Mankera in 1380; and his 
great-grandson, Mai Khan, built Jhang Sial on the Chenab in 1462. 
Four years later, Mai Khan presented himself at Lahore, in obedience 
to a summons, and obtained the territory of Jhang as a hereditary 
possession, subject to a payment of tribute into the imperial treasury. 
His family continued to rule at Jhang, with the usual dynastic 
quarrels and massacres of Indian" annals, till the beginning of the 
present century. 

Meanwhile, the Sikh power had arisen in the north, and Karam 
Singh Dulii, a chief of the Bhangi confederacy, had conquered Chiniot 
in this District. In 1803, Ranjit Singh marched against that fort and 
captured it, after w^hich he turned towards Jhang, but was bought off 
by Ahmad Khan, the last of the Sial chieftains, on promise of a 
yearly tribute, amounting to £,'jooo and a mare. Three years later, 
however, the Maharaja again invaded Jhang with a large army, and 
captured the fort, after a desperate resistance. Ahmad Khan then 
fled to Multan, and the Maharaja farmed the territories of Jhang to 
Sardar Fateh Singh. Shortly afterwards, Ahmad Khan returned with 
a force given him by Muzaffar Khan, Nawab of Multan, and recovered 
a large part of his previous dominions, which Ranjit Singh suffered him 
to retain on payment of the former tribute, as he found himself too 
busy elsewhere to attack Jhang. After his successful attempt on 
Multan in 18 10, the Maharaja took Ahmad Khan a prisoner to Lahore, 
ns he suspected him of favouring his enemy, Muzaffar Khan. He 
afterwards bestowed on him a Jcigir, which descended to his son, 
Inayat Khan. On the death of the latter, his brother, Ismail Khan, 
endeavoured to obtain succession to the Jdgir, but failed through the 
opposition of Gulab Singh. In 1847, ^^er the establishment of the 
British Agency at Lahore, the District came under the charge of our 
Government; and in 1848, Ismail Khan rendered important services 
against the rebel chiefs, for which he received a small pension. 
During the Mutiny of 1857, the Sial leader again proved his loyalty 
by raising a force of cavalry and serving in person on the British side. 



JHANG. 209 

His pension was afterwards increased, and he obtained the title of 
Khan Bahadur, with a small y^fo^/V for life. 

Popidatio7i. — The Census of 1855 returned the total population of 
the District, as then constituted, at 251,769 persons; but by adding 
the population of various villages in Shahpur and Muzaffargarh, since 
transferred to Jhang, the total is raised to 299,054. In 1868, the 
next enumeration disclosed a total population, over an area correspond- 
ing to the present District, of 347,043, or an increase of 47,989 over 
1855. At the last Census in 1881, it was ascertained that the popu- 
lation had increased to 395,296, or by 96,242 since 1855, or by 
48,253 since t868. The results of the Census of i88t may be briefly 
summarized as follows: — Area, 5702 square miles, with 5 towns and 
756 villages; number of houses, 87,808, of which 67,024 were 
occupied and 20,784 unoccupied. Number of families, 85,064. Total 
population, 395,296, namely, males 214,382, and females 180,914. 
Average density of population, 69 per square mile; towns or villages 
per square mile, 0T3 ; persons per town or village, 520 ; houses per 
square mile, 15; persons per occupied house, 5*9. Classified ac- 
cording to age, there were, under 15 years of age — males 90,862, and 
fjmales 78,463; above 15 years — males 123,520, and females 102,451. 
As regards religious distinctions, the District forms a strong centre for 
the faith of Islam. The Muhammadans at the date of the Census 
numbered 326,910, or 8270 per cent. ; while the Hindus amounted 
to only 64,892, or 16*42 per cent. The Sikhs were returned at 3477 ; 
Christians, 11 ; Jains, 4; and Parsis, 2. In the ethnical classification, 
Rajputs occupy the first place numerically, with 89,641 persons, chiefly 
Sials and Bhattis. Jats come next with 48,242. Aroras, a Hindu trading 
caste, numbered 45,041; Khatris, 15,196; Julahas, 24,176; Biluchis, 
i55°93^ Sayyids, 5944; and Brahmans, 5319. 

Only 3 towns contained a population exceeding 5000 persons — 
namely, Maghiana, 12,574, and Jhang, 9055, the two places forming 
practically one town; and Chiniot, 10,731. The only other places 
worthy of the name of towns are Shorkot, 2283; and Ahmadpur, 
23SS. Of the 761 towns and villages (or rather in many cases 
collections of houses grouped together for Census purposes), 550 
were returned as containing less than five hundred inhabitants; 141 
from five hundred to a thousand; 52 from one to two thousand; 
1 2 from two to three thousand ; and 6 towns upwards of three 
thousand inhabitants. It is only in the Chiniot tahsil, and in the 
better cultivated tracts in other portions of the District, that all the 
inhabitants of the lands included in a village site occupy one compact 
hamlet or village, in the English sense of the word. They prefer dwell- 
ing in isolated homesteads, at their separate wells. In the south of the 
District there are many village areas which have no village site what- 

VOL. VII. o 



2IO JHANG. 

ever, each proprietor living at his well. The well of the lavilmrddr or 
head-man, and perhaps one other of the village proprietors, may have 
a small hamlet growing up round it, consisting of the huts of the 
proprietor and his tenants, and of a shopkeeper and a few village 
menials {kdmins) ; but there are hardly any strong, solidly-built villages, 
such as are seen in Districts farther east. As regards occupation, the 
Census returned the male population above 15 years of age under the 
following heads : — (i) professional class, 3646 ; (2) domestic and 
menial class, 2935 ; (3) commercial class, including merchants, traders, 
and carriers, 471 1; (4) agricultural and pastoral class, 59,343; (s) 
industrial and manufacturing class, including artisans, 34,251; (6) 
indefinite and non-productive class, 12,540; (7) occupation not speci- 
fied, 6094. Punjcabi and Jatki (Multani) are the languages spoken in 
the District. 

Agriculture. — The area under cultivation in 1873 amounted to 
241,325 acres, and in 1881-82 to 322,788 acres, or, roughly speaking, 
one-tenth of the entire area. The distinguishing feature of the District 
consists in the fact that no crops can anywhere be grown without 
irrigation. The best land is that which lies beyond the immediate 
action of the rivers, and between the alluvial lands and the high 
bank of the bar. In this tract all the principal staples of the District 
can be raised by means of well-irrigation. The land exposed to the 
inundations produces more uncertain crops, as a rich deposit sometimes 
covers the previously sterile plain, while at other times villages, wells, 
and cultivated fields are carried away by the destructive flood. Rain 
crops are practically unknown. Wheat, barley, gram, turnips, and 
peas form the staples of the spring harvest ; while Jodr, cotton, viash, 
china, til, and maize make up the chief items of the autumn crops. 
In 1881-82, wheat covered 172,760 acres; jodr, 38,561 acres; 
gram, 13,208 acres; barley, 6240 acres; cotton, 29,781 acres; and 
vegetables, 17,322. Agricultural knowledge remains in a backward 
state, rotation of crops being absolutely unknown, and perhaps un- 
needed. Manure is largely used, and fallows are made use of to 
reinvigorate exhausted land. 

Cattle-grazing forms the means of livelihood of a large section of 
population, and nearly one-half of the total assessed area of the 
District, or 1,520,383 acres, is returned as grazing land. Cattle theft 
forms a common crime in the District. Horse and camel breeding is 
a favourite pursuit. The horses of Jhang bear a high reputation, 
and the mares are esteemed among the best in the Punjab. 

The village system and the theory of joint responsibility for the 
land revenue may be regarded as entirely an innovation of 
British rule. By far the greater number of villages are held on 
the tenure known as bhaydcJuh-a chdhwdr, though they cannot be 



/HANG. 211 

entirely assimilated to any of the common Punjab types. The 
majority of tenants hold their land at will. Of the total area held 
by tenants, only one per cent, is cultivated by tenants paying cash 
rents, the general rate in kind being half produce. Money rents 
where they occur vary from 6s. to £4, los. per acre. Good 
irrigated wheat lands bring in £\, 8s., cotton lands from 12s. to 
£1, 7s. Prices of food-grains ruled as follows on the ist January 
1S83 : — Wheat, 20 sers per rupee, or 5s. yd. per cwt. ; flour, 17 sers per 
rupee, or 6s. yd. per cwt. ; barley, 40 se?-s per rupee, or 2s. lod. per 
cwt. ; gram, 29 sers per rupee, or 3s. lod. per cwt. ; maize, 45 sers per 
rupee, or 2s. 6d. per cwt. ; j'odr, 34 sers per rupee, or 3s. 4d. per cwt. ; 
bdjra, 29 sers per rupee, or 3s. lod, per cwt. 

Commerce and Trade, etc. — The commerce of the District is incon- 
siderable, and most of the trade is local. Grain is imported from the 
banks of the Ravi and from Wazirabad in Gujranwala. Country cloth 
is manufactured at Jhang and Maghiana, and bought up by the 
Povindah merchants of Afghanistan. The District contains as many 
as 8144 looms, and the annual value of the cloth woven amounts 
to about ;^ioo,ooo. The estimated value of the imports is returned 
at ^285,227, and that of the exports ^94,889. Manufactures of 
leather and of gold and silver lace also exist. The chief roads are 
those from Multan to Wazirabad, passing Sherkot, Jhang, Maghiana, 
and Chiniot in this District ; and from Chichawatni in Montgomery 
District on the Lahore and Multan line of railway to Chah Bhareri 
leading to Dera Ismail Khan. A mail cart runs between Chichawatni, 
Dera Ismail Khan, and Bannu. Total length of roads, 954 miles. 
The Lahore-Multan branch of the Sind, Punjab, and Delhi Railway 
passes near the south of the District, but nowhere intersects it. A 
bridge of boats has been constructed across the united waters of the 
Jehlam and Chenab, just below their junction. Both rivers are 
navigable all the year round by the largest native craft. They are 
crossed at various points by 28 ferries. Length of navigable rivers, 
166 miles within the District. 

Administration. — The total imperial revenue raised in the District 
in 1873 amounted to ^49»302, of which sum the land-tax contributed 
^42,115, or more than six-sevenths. In 1881-82, the imperial revenue 
had increased to ^54,136, of which ^44,449 \vas derived from the 
land. Stamps form the only other item of revenue of any importance. 
In addition to the imperial revenue, a Provincial and a local revenue 
are also raised, the estimated income from both being ^12,000. 
Leases for grazing and for collecting sajji form considerable 
items of pubhc income. The administrative staff usually comprises 
a Deputy Commissioner and two extra- Assistant Commissioners, 
besides the usual judicial, fiscal, and constabulary officers. In 



212 J HANG TAHSIL. 

1882, the regular police force consisted of a total of 396 officers and 
men,' or, with the municipal and ferry police, 475 \ ^eing at the rate 
of I policeman to every 12 square miles of area, and every 832 of the 
population. The total number of persons brought to trial for all 
offences committed in the District during the year 1882 amounted to 
2543, of whom 1493 were convicted. The District jail at Maghiana 
contained in 1881-82 a total population of 970 prisoners, with a daily 
averaf^e of 307 inmates. Education was carried on during 1882 by 
53 Government-inspected schools, attended by 2156 pupils. Inquiries 
by the Education Department ascertained the existence also of a total 
of 314 indigenous schools at which 2863 children were obtaining some 
form of education. For fiscal and administrative purposes, the District 
is divided into 3 tahsils and 25 police circles. The four municipal 
towns of Jhang-Maghiana, Chiniot, Shorkot, and Ahmadpur had a total 
revenue in 1881-82 of ;;^355i, or an average of is. lod. per head of 
the population (37,213) wnthin municipal hmits. 

Medical Aspects. — The District bears a good reputation for healthi- 
ness. Small-pox and fever are the most prevalent diseases. The total 
number of deaths recorded from all causes in 1881 amounted to 6470, 
or 18 per thousand of the population. Of these, 2033, or 10-91 per 
thousand, were assigned to fever alone. Government charitable dis- 
pensaries have been established at Maghiana, Jhang, Shorkot, Chiniot, 
Ahmadpur, and Kot Isa Shah, In 1881 they afforded reHef to 67,835 
persons, of whom 1359 were in-patients. The average annual rainfall 
for the 20 years ending 1881 is returned by the Meteorological Depart- 
ment at 1 1 -1 8 inches. The rainfall in the latter year was 8-40 inches, 
or 278 inches below the average. [For further information concerning 
Jhang, see the Gazetteer of the District, published by authority of the 
Punjab Government (1883-84). Also the Punjab Census Report for 
1 88 1, and the various annual Administrative and Departmental Pro- 
vincial Reports from 1880 to 1883.] 

Jhang. — Central tahsil of Jhang District, Punjab, comprising an 
irregular tract on either side of the river Chenab. Lat. 30° 35' to 
31° 36' N., and long. 71° 39' to 72° 39' e. Area, 2347 square miles. 
Population (1881) 171,713, namely, males 92,792, and females 78,921. 
Average density of population, 73 per square mile. Muhammadans 
numbered 137,121; Hindus, 32,168; Sikhs, 2417; and 'others,' 7. 
Of a total assessed area in 1878-79, according to the last quinquennial 
agricultural statistics published by the Punjab Government, 167,834 
acres were returned as under cultivation, of which more than one-half, 
or 89,038 acres, were irrigated, entirely by private enterprise. Of the 
remainder, 682,700 were returned as grazing lands, 322,186 acres as 
cultivable but not under cultivation, and 382,446 acres as uncultivable 
waste. The average annual area under the principal crops for the five 



JHAXG TOWN— J HANGAR. 213 

years from 1877-7S to 1881-82 is returned as follows: — Wheat, 70,109 
acres ; yWr, 1 6, 1 7 1 acres ; gram, 41 64 acres ; cotton, 13,172 acres ; and 
vegetables, 3576 acres. Revenue of the ialisil^ ^19,660. The sub- 
divisonal establishment, including the head-quarters staff, comprised in 
1883 a Deputy Commissioner, two Assistant Commissioners, a tahsUddr^ 
and a munsif. These officers preside over 5 civil and 4 criminal 
courts ; number of police circles (t/idfids), 6 ; strength of regular police, 
140 men; village watchmen {chaukiddrs), 227. 

Jhang. — Town and municipality in Jhang District, Punjab. Lat. 
31° 16' 16" N., long. 72° 21' 45" E. Population (1881) 9055, namely, 
4270 Hindus, 4636 jMuhammadans, 143 Sikhs, and 6 'others.' 
The sister town of Maghiana, containing the civil station for the 
District, lies 2 miles south of Jhang, and has a population of 12,574 
persons, giving a grand total for both of 21,629. They form together 
a single municipality, and may be regarded as practically one town ; 
situated about 3 miles to the east of the present bed of the Chenab, 
10 and 13 miles respectively north-west of its junction with the Jehlam. 
Jhang itself lies on the lowland, a little apart from the regular lines of 
trade ; and since the removal of the Government offices to Maghiana, 
it has yielded its commerce and importance to its younger rival. The 
town is traversed by a single main street, running east and west, lined 
on either side with masonry shops built on a uniform plan. All the 
streets and lanes are paved with brick, and well drained. Outside the 
town are the school buildings with a pretty fountain, the dispensary, 
and police buildings. The old town of Jhang was founded by Mai 
Khan, a Sial chieftain, in 1462, and was for long the capital of a 
Muhammadan State. It was situated south-west of the modern town, 
and has been long since swept away by encroachments of the river, 
although some traces of it are still discernible. The present town was 
founded at the beginning of the 1 7th century, in the reign of the Emperor 
Aurangzeb, by one Lai Nath, the ancestor of the present ' Nath Sahib ' 
of Jhang. On one side the approach to the town is almost barred 
by unsightly sandhills, but on the other it affords a tolerably picturesque 
appearance from numerous groves and gardens. (5(?^ Jhang District.) 
Principal inhabitants, Sials and Khatris. Manufacture of country cloth, 
bought up by the Povindah merchants of Afghanistan. Imports of grain 
from Wazirabad and Mianwali. Municipal revenue of Jhang-Maghiana 
in 1882-83, ^2475, or 2s. 3d. per head of population (21,872) within 
municipal limits. 

Jhangar. — Village in the Sehwan Deputy Collectorate, Karachi 
(Kurrachee) District, Sind, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 26° 19' 20" n., 
long. 67° 45' 50" E. Population under 2000. Jhangar, situated to the 
south of the Manchpar lake, is 12 miles south-west of Sehwan, with 
which it is connected by road. School, dharmsdla^ and cattle pound. 



2 1 4 JHANIDAH—JHANSL 

Jhanidah.— Sub division of Jessor District, Bengal. Lat. 23° 22' 
15" to 23° 47° N., long. %^° 57' 33" to 89° 24' 45" E. Area, 475 square 
miles; towns and villages, 824; houses, 44,668. Population (1872) 
286,461; in 1881, 326,835, of whom 115,897 were Hindus, 
210,895 Muhammadans, and 43 Christians. Males numbered 160,754, 
and females 166,081. Average number of inhabitants per square 
mile, 688; villages per square mile, 173 ; houses per square mile, 96 ; 
inmates per house, 7-3. This Sub-division contained in 1882-83, i 
magisterial and revenue court, i civil court, and i small cause court ; 
3 registration offices ; 3 police circles {ihdnds) ; a regular police force of 
64 men, with a village watch numbering 588. The formation of this 
Sub-division was due to the indigo riots in 1861. 

Jhanidah. — Town in Jhanidah Sub-division, Jessor District, Bengal. 
Lat. 23° 32' 50" N., and long. 89° 13' e. Situated on the river Naba- 
ganga, 28 miles north of Jessor town. Large bazar, and trade in sugar, 
rice, and pepper; communication chiefly carried on by means of the river, 
w^hich, however, is gradually silting up ; a road connects the tow^n with 
Chuadanga, a station on the Eastern Bengal Railway. A large tank 
near Jhanidah was formerly the scene of frequent robberies and out- 
rages. A bi-weekly market is held every Thursday and Sunday near 
the bazar, at which the idol of Kali, in the market, receives a handful 
of everything brought for sale. Population above 2000. 

Jhanjhana. — Agricultural town in Shamli tahsil, Muzaffarnagar 
District, North-Western Provinces. Lat. 29° 30' 55" n., long. 77° 15' 
45" E. Situated on the plain, between the Jumna river and canal, 30 miles 
west of Muzaffarnagar town. Population (1881) 5655, namely, Hindus, 
31 15; Muhammadans, 2452; and Jains, ZZ. Area of town site, 76 
acres. Occupies the site of an old brick fort ; canal distributary flows 
close to the tow^i. Water-holes exist in the immediate neighbourhood, 
and during the rains the whole country for many miles is flooded. 
Fever, small-pox, and cholera are common diseases. Police station, 
l)ost-office. A village police force and a few sweepers are maintained 
under the provisions of the Chaukidari Act (xx. of 1856). 

Jhanjharpur.— Village in Darbhangah District, Bengal. Lat. 26° 
i5'5o"n., long. 86^ 19' 11" e. ; 14 miles south-east of Madhubani. 
Famous for its brass utensils, particularly \\-\q pdnbattd or box for hold- 
ing betel-leaf, and the gangdJoU or water-pot. Two bdzdrs ; large grain 
market. Situated near the main road from Darbhangah to Purniah. 
Temple of Rakalmala. Jhanjharpur formerly belonged to a family of 
Rajputs. It is now the property of the Maharaja of Darbhangah, and 
the appointed residence of the Rani on the occasions of her confine- 
ment. Population (1872) 3940. Not returned separately as a town in 
the Census Report of 1881. 

Jhansi. — A Division under a Commissioner in the North-Western 



J H ANSI DISTRICT. 2 r 5 

Provinces, comprising the three Districts of Jhansi, Jalaun, and Lalit- 
PUR, each of which see separately. Situated between 24° 11' and 26° 
26' N. lat, and between 78^ 14' and 79° 55' e. long. The Division con- 
tains a large portion of the tract known as Bundelkhand. Area, 4983*6 
square miles. Population in 1872, 934,934; in 1881, 1,000,457, being 
an increase of 65,523, or 6*i per cent, in the nine years. Number of 
towns (1881), 12, and of villages, 2140; houses, 155,319. Of the 
total population of 1,000,457, males numbered 518,828, or 51*8 per 
cent., and females 481,629, or 48*2 per cent. Average density of 
population, 2007 per square mile ; towns and villages per square mile, 
•43 ; persons per town or village, 465 ; houses per square mile, 31*1 ; 
persons per house, 6*4. Nearly the entire population, namely 942,397, 
or 94-2 per cent., were Hindus. Muhammadans numbered only 44,792 ; 
Jains, 12,447; Sikhs, 100; Christians, 714; and Parsis, 7. Among 
high-caste Hindus, Brahmans numbered 111,034; Rajputs, 72,131; 
and Kayasths, 17,819. The most numerous caste in the Division are 
the despised Chamars, 134,398, the other important castes according to 
numerical superiority being — Kachhis, 82,612 ; Lodhis, 63,493 ; Ahirs, 
61,470; Koris, 44,280; Kurmis, 37,651 ; Baniyas, 29,231; Gadarids, 
25,725 ; Telis, 24,286 ; and Nais, 22,892. 

Total adult male cultivators and agricultural labourers, 211,730, culti- 
vating an average of 6J acres each. The total population, however, 
dependent on the soil was 607,354, or 60*70 per cent, of the Divisional 
population. The total adult male and female agriculturists numbered 
340,279, of whom 32,011 were returned as landholders, 951 as estate 
agents, 299,006 as cultivators, and 78,31 1 as agricultural labourers. Total 
cultivated area, 2148*8 square miles; of these, 1997*2 square miles are 
assessed for Government revenue, which in 1881 amounted (including 
local rates and cesses paid on the land) to ;^i78,6i2, or an average 
of 2s. 9d. per cultivated acre. Total rental paid by the cultivators, 
;^354,428, or an average of 5s. ijd. per cultivated acre. The three 
principal towns are Mau, population (1881) 15,981; Kalpi, 14,306; 
and Lalitpur, 10,684. Total number of civil and revenue courts, 31 ; 
criminal courts, 32. Number of police circles {f/idnds), 79 ; strength of 
regular police, 813 men; village watchnien {chaukiddrs), 1430. Gross 
revenue (1882-83), ^200,349. 

Jhansi. — British District in the Lieutenant-Governorship of the 
North-Western Provinces, lying between 25° 3' 45" and 25° 48' 45" n. 
lat., and between 78° 22' 15" and 79° 27' 30" e. long. Jhansi forms 
the central District in the Division of the same name. It is 
bounded on the north by the Gwalior and Samthar States, and by 
Jalaun District ; on the east by the river Dhasan, which separates it 
from Hamirpur District ; on the south by the District of Lalitpur and 
the Orchha State ; and on the west by the Datiya, Gwalior, and Khania- 



2 1 6 J H ANSI DISTRICT. 

dhana States. The District is much intersected by the surrounding 
Native States. On the north, the States of Gwahor, Datiya, and 
Samthar ; and towards the south and east, the Orchha State, and the 
Hasht-bhdya jdgirs of Tori Fatehpur, Bijna, Pahari - Banka, and 
Dhurwai, encroach on Jhansi, or are interlaced with it. Single villages 
or groups of two or three villages belonging to one or other of these 
States are scattered like islands throughout the District. In like manner, 
several small patches of British territory are isolated from the rest of the 
District, and completely surrounded by native territory. This inter- 
mixture of alien villages has been productive of great administrative 
difficulties, especially in years of famine. Area, 1567 square miles; 
population (1881) 333,227 souls. The administrative head-quarters 
are at the village of Jhansi Naoabad, close to the native town of 
Jhansi, now belonging to Gwalior ; but the most populous town in the 
District is Mau (Mhow). 

Physical Aspects. — Jhansi forms a portion of the hill country of 
Bundelkhand, sloping down southward from the outliers of the Vindhyan 
range to the tributaries of the Jumna (Jamuna) on the north. The 
south of the District is composed of long and narrow ridged hills 
which run parallel with one another from north-east to south-west. 
Through the intervening valleys the rivers flow down impetuously over 
ledges of granite or quartz. The rocky crests lie bare and exposed, 
but the shoulders are covered with low underbrush, and the bases 
with considerable trees. The principal chain in the District is that on 
which the fort of Karar is situated. It rises in Garotha pargaftd^ and 
runs parallel with the Betwa river, till it is finally lost in the clusters 
of hills in the neighbourhood of Barwa Sagar. Northward of the hilly 
region stretches an intermediate strip of broken country, dotted with 
isolated heights, and deeply excavated near the banks of the larger rivers 
by short watercourses which drain the surrounding table-land. Here the 
rocky granite chains gradually lose themselves in clusters of smaller 
hills, amongst which are situated a series of magnificent artificial lakes, 
partially surrounded by the overhanging heights, and enclosed on their 
open sides by embankments of solid masonry. Some of them belong 
to the same age as those in the District of Hamirpur, having been 
constructed about 900 years since by the Chandel Rajas of Mahoba ; 
but others date back no further than the 17th or i8th century, and are 
the work of Bundela princes. The principal of these lakes are the 
Barwa Sagar, situated twelve miles east of Jhansi ; the Arjar lake, about 
eight miles east of Barwa Sagar ; and the Kachneya lake, about eight 
miles east of Arjar on the road to Mau. 

The northern pordon of Jhansi consists of the level plain of Bundel- 
khand, distinguished for its deep black soil, known as 7?idr, and admir- 
ably adapted for the cultivation of cotton. The District is intersected 



JHANSI DISTRICT. 2 1 7 

or bounded by three principal rivers — the Pahuj, the Betwa, and the 
Dhasan, all of which are liable to be flooded in the rainy season ; and 
on these occasions Jhansi is almost completely cut off from communi- 
cation with the outer world. There are many minor streams, most of 
which are feeders of the Dhasan. Government forest lands occupy 
about 23,000 acres. The principal forest tract, and the only one in 
which teak and timber trees of any size are found, is the Babina jungle, 
lying along the banks of the Betwa in the southern portion of pargand 
Jhansi. There are four other patches of scrub jungle along the eastern 
boundary of the District, near the Dhasan, the principal trees, or rather 
bushes, being the khair (Acacia catechu), reiingd (Acacia leucophloa), 
and dhdk (Butea frondosa). In addition to the forest tracts, there are 
nine grass preserves, or rwids^ the produce of which is annually put up 
to auction by the Forest Department. The wild animals common to the 
District include the tiger, leopard, many varieties of deer, the hyena, 
'.volf, lynx, and wild dog. Among birds are the bustard, partridge, 
grouse, quail, plover, and the usual species of wild goose, duck, and 
teal. 

History. — The Parihars, a Rajput tribe, are pointed out by tradition 
as the earhest Aryan immigrants into Jhansi, where they still possess 
24 villages. But nothing is known with certainty as to the history of 
this District before the period of Chandel rule, about the nth century 
of our era. {See Hamirpur.) To this epoch must be referred the 
artificial reservoirs and architectural remains of the hilly region. After 
the overthrow of the Mahoba dynasty, the Chandels were succeeded in 
this portion of their dominions by their servants the Khangars, who built 
the fort of Karar, now lying just outside the British border, on an 
intrusive spur of the Orchha State. About the 14th century, the 
Khangars in their turn fell before the first fierce irruption of the Bun- 
delas, a spurious Rajput tribe, who poured down upon the plains from 
the southern mountains, and placed their earliest capital at Mau (Mhow). 
Thence they attacked and conquered the fortress of Karar, and 
gradually spread themselves over the whole region which now bears 
their nam.e. The great Bundela leader, Rudra Pratap, from whom 
most of the distinguished families in Bundelkhand trace their descent, 
founded the city of Orchha, which thenceforth became the capital of 
his race. Under his descendants, the District long practically main- 
tained its independence of the Musalmans, though the Orchha Rajas 
from time to time made formal payments of tribute to the court of 
Delhi. 

In the early part of the 17th century, the Orchha State was governed 
by Bir Singh Deo, who built the fort of Jhansi. He incurred the 
heavy displeasure of Akbar, by the murder of Abul Fazl, the Emperor's 
favourite minister and historian, at the instigation of Prince Salim, 



2 1 8 JHANSI DISTRICT. 

afterwards known as the Emperor Jahangir. A force was accordingly 
sent against him in 1602, the country ^was ravaged and devastated, but 
Bir Singh himself contrived to escape. On the accession of his patron, 
Salim, in 1605, he was naturally pardoned, and rose into great favour. 
But when, on the death of that Emperor in 1627, Shah Jahan mounted 
the throne, Bir Singh revolted. His rebellion was unsuccessful ; and 
although he was permitted to keep possession of his dominions, he 
never regained all his former power and independence. During the 
troubled times which succeeded, Orchha was sometimes in the hands 
of the Musalmans, and sometimes fell under the power of the Bundela 
chieftains, Champat Rai and his son Chhatar Sal. When, in 1707, the 
last-named national leader obtained from Bahadur Shah a confirmation 
in the possessions which he had conquered, the present District of 
Jhansi was included in the grant. But even after this nominal paci- 
fication, the Muhammadan subahddrs continued to make irruptions into 
the Bundela country; and in 1732, Chhatar Sd.1 found it expedient to 
call in the aid of the Marathas, who were then invading the Central 
Provinces under their first Peshwa, Baji Rao. The Marathas, never 
slow to insinuate themselves where opportunity offered, came to his 
assistance with their accustomed promptitude, and were rewarded on 
the Raja's death, in 1734, by a bequest of one-third of his dominions. 
The territory so granted included portions of the modern Division of 
Jhansi, but not the existing District itself. In 1742, however, the 
Marathas found a pretext for attacking the Orchha State, and annexing 
that amongst other territories. Their general founded the city of 
Jhansi, and peopled it with the inhabitants of Orchha. 

The District remained under the power of the Peshwas for some 
thirty years, but after that period the Maratha viceroys made themselves 
independent in all but name. Seo Rao Bhao was suba/iddr, or governor, 
when the British first began to interest themselves in the affairs of 
Bundelkhand. By saiiad^ dated February 8, 1804, British protection 
was promised him ; and this arrangement was confirmed by treaty in 
October 1806. Seo Rao Bhao died in 18 14, and was succeeded by 
his grandson, Ramchand Rao. In June 181 7, the Peshwa ceded to 
the East India Company his rights over Bundelkhand ; and in November 
of the same year, the Government acknowledged the hereditary title of 
Ramchand Rao and his descendants to all their existing possessions. 
In 1832, the title of siibahddr was changed for that of Raja. Ramchand 
Rao proved a weak and inefficient administrator, his revenues fell con- 
siderably in amount, and his territories were overrun and plundered by 
the native tribes beyond the Pahiij. Much injury was inflicted upon 
the cultivators, who have scarcely yet recovered from their losses at this 
period. Ramchand Rao died without issue in 1835. Four claimants 
npi)earcd for his territories, and the British Government recognised his 



J H ANSI DISTRICT. 2 1 9 

great-uncle, Ragbundth Rao, the second son of Seo Rao Bhao, as heir 
t'o the principality. Under his administration, the revenue fell again to 
one-fourth of the sum which it had produced even during the manage- 
ment of his predecessor. His extravagance and debauchery compelled 
him to mortgage part of his territories to the Gwalior and Orchha States. 
He died heavily in debt, and without legitimate issue, in 1836. 

Four claimants again presented themselves for the vacant succession, 
and a commission was appointed by the British Government to investi- 
aate their claims. Meanwhile, the Political Agent in Bundelkhand 
assumed the administration," in the interests of civil order. The 
decision of the commission was given in favour of Gangadhar Rao, 
brother of the last Raja, and sole surviving male descendant of Seo 
Rao Bhao. As the new prince was of weak intellect, it was determined 
to carry on the administration by British agency, and to allow the Raja 
a fixed pension, on the understanding that the administration should 
be restored to him as soon as the principality was relieved from the 
state of disorder into which it had fallen. A Superintendent was 
appointed, under whom the revenue immediately rose to double its 
previous amount. In 1842, the management was restored to Ganga- 
dhar Rao, whose administration, judged by a native standard, proved 
satisfactory. The assessments, however, were high, and although not^ 
unfairly collected, pressed heavily on the people. The Raja hmi-' 
self granted some partial remissions in years of scarcity, and was 
personally popular. Gangadhar Rao died childless in 1853, and his 
territories lapsed to the British Government. The Jhansi State, with 
Jalaun and Chanderi Districts, were then formed into a Superinten- 
dency, while a pension was granted to the Rani or widow of the late 
Raja. The Rani, however, considered herself aggrieved, both because 
she was not allowed to adopt an heir, and because the slaughter of 
cattle was permitted in the Jhansi territory. Reports were spread 
which excited the rehgious prejudices of the Hindus. 

The events of 1857 accordingly found Jhansi ripe for rebellion. In 
^lay, it was known that the troops were disaffected ; and on the 5th 
of June, a few men of the 12th Native Infantry seized the fort contain- 
ing the treasure and magazine. Many European officers were shot the 
same day. The remainder, who had taken refuge in a fort, capitulated 
a few days after, and were massacred with their families to the number 
of 66 persons, in spite of a promise of protection sworn on the Kuran 
and Ganges water. The Rani then attempted to seize the supreme 
authority ; but the usual anarchic quarrels arose between the rebels, 
during which the Orchha leaders laid siege to Jhansi, and plundered 
the country mercilessly. Numbers of the cultivators were hopelessly 
impoverished at this time, and it will be long before the damage then 
inflicted can be repaired. On the 5th of April 1858, the fort and town 



220 JHANSI DISTRICT. 

were recovered by Sir Hugh Rose, who marched on to Kalpi without ! 
being able to leave a garrison at Jhansi. After his departure, the | 
rebellion broke out afresh, only the Giirsarai chieftain in the north 
remaining faithful to the British cause. On the nth August, a flying 
column under Colonel Liddell cleared out the rebels from Mau 
(Mhow); and, after a series of sharp contests with various guerilla 
leaders, the work of re-organization was fairly set on foot in November. 
The Rani herself had previously fled with Tantia Topi, and finally fell 
in battle at the foot of the rock fortress of Gwalior. Since that time, 
Jhansi has remained a British District, and famines and floods alone 
have disturbed the course of the civil administration. 

Jhansi forms an unfortunate example of an Indian District which 
has suffered alike from the calamities of nature, and from the results 
of native misrule. Its uncertain rainfall, with the sudden floods and 
protracted droughts to which it is subject, will be referred to here- 
after in the proper sections of this article. The pressure of high 
assessments under its Maratha rulers and Rajas reduced the petty 
landholders and the peasantry to a very low standard of living. 
Occasional outbursts of furious misgovernment by half-insane debauchees 
intensified the general misery. Jhansi was one of our most recently- 
acquired Districts in the North-Western Provinces, and when it lapsed 
to the British in 1853, it was in an impoverished state. The whole 
agricultural population was in debt to the village money-lenders. 
Under the native system, such debts went on from father to son ; but 
the creditor could seldom sell up or utterly ruin the debtor, as the 
latter process would drive the ruined man off the land, and so deprive 
the Raja of a rent-paying unit. The introduction of British rule brought 
with it the law of sale for debt, and the disorders of 1857-58 still 
further increased the wretchedness of the people. Famines and floods 
have also contributed to their misery, and the British Government had at 
length to face the fact that Jhansi was a bankrupt District. After a series 
of attempted palliatives, the Jhansi Encumbered Estates Act was passed 
in 1882. This Act practically amounts to a rural Insolvency Law for 
the District. It accepts the fact that a large number of the landholders 
cannot pay their debts, and it provides a procedure for an inquiry into 
the character of their Habilities, for a reduction of the same in cases 
where exorbitant interest has been taken, and for the ultimate discharge 
of the debtor. This procedure is worked by a special judge appointed 
for the purpose. Besides the equitable reduction of his debts, it pro- 
vides a system of Government loans at low interest to the insolvent 
debtor, and eventually for the purchase of the encumbered estate by 
Government if no other course will suffice to meet the case of the 
insolvent. The Act has not yet been in force for a sufficient length 
of time to render it safe to offer an opinion here as to its ultimate 



J H ANSI DISTRICT. 2 2 1 

consequences. Meanwhile, as will be hereafter mentioned, the 
Government assessment on the land has been fixed at a low rate. 

ropidation, — No District in the plains of the North- Western Pro- 
vinces, with the exception of Lalitpur, is so sparsely inhabited as 
Jhansi ; and the population, though considerably increased since the 
introduction of British rule, has declined slightly under the pressure of 
famine in late years. The total number of inhabitants in 1865 was 
returned at 357,442; in 1872, it had fallen to 317,826, showing a 
decrease in eight years of 39,616 persons, or it '08 per cent. In i88t, 
the population had slightly increased to 333,227, although it was still 
24,215 below the figures for 1855. The area in 1881 w^as computed at 
1567 square miles : the number of towns and villages was returned as 
625, and the number of houses at 54,404- These figures yield the 
following averages : — Persons per square mile, 212 ; villages per square 
mile, 0-39; houses per square mile, 347; persons per village, 531; 
persons per house, 6-i. The sparseness of the population must be set 
down to the numerous misfortunes which have befallen Jhansi in recent 
times. Excessive taxation, depredations by the mutineers in 1857-58, 
the growth oikdns grass, famine, floods, and epidemics caused thousands 
to emigrate, besides the direct loss of life. But even under these 
unfavourable conditions, the population has increased since the days 
of native rule. The estimates formed in 1832 gave a population of 
286,000 for 2922 square miles, then included in Jhansi. The jurisdic- 
tion has been reduced to 1567 square miles, and the population in 1881 
had increased even in this smaller area to 333,227 persons. Classified 
according to sex, there were, in 1 881— males 172,884, and females 
160,343; percentage of riiales to total population, 51-9. Classified 
according to age, there were, under 15 years — males 63,409, and 
females 54,259; total children, 117,668, or 35-21 percent. : 15 years 
and upwards — males 109,475, and females 106,084; total adults, 
215,559, or 6479 percent. 

As regards religious distinctions, the District is essentially Hindu, 
and the practice of killing cattle for food is one of the grievances com- 
plained of under British rule. Hinduism is professed by 316,429 persons, 
or 94-96 per cent, of the inhabitants. There are 13,758 Musalmans, or 
4-1 per cent., who hold only 4 villages, and possess no social or political 
importance. Jains number 2288; Sikhs, 70; and Parsis, 7. The 
Brahma Samaj has formed no settlement in the District. There is 
a Christian population of 675, consisting almost entirely of troops 
in the cantonment of Mau, besides the European civil officers at 
the head-quarters station. Europeans number 621; Eurasians, 20; 
and Native Christians, 34. 

With regard to distinctions of caste among the Hindus, there 
are 35,073 Brahmans, the most numerous class in the District except 



222 JHANSI DISTRICT. 

the Chamars; and they hold 102 villages, being a greater number than 
any other body, except the Ahirs. The Rajputs number 16,591, and 
hold 66 villages. Their most numerous clan is that of the Bundelas, 
the old dominant race, who, however, like many others included in the 
above total, are not held to be of pure Rajput blood. The Kayasths, 
or writer caste, number 6580. The Baniyas, or trading classes, number 
10,763. But the mass of the Hindu population is composed of Siidras 
and those classified as ' other castes ' in the Census Report, who amount 
in the aggregate to 247,422 persons, or four-fifths of the total Hindu 
inhabitants. Amongst them, the Chamars are the largest body, being 
returned at 44,390 persons ; but they hold only one village. Next 
come the Kachhis, who number 30,149, and hold seven villages. The 
Koris are reckoned at 20,191, but hold no villages, being chiefly 
employed as weavers in the larger towns. The Ahirs, who number 
23,853, are the most important of the lower castes, owning as many as 
107 villages. Other leading tribes are the Lodhis, with 25,066 persons 
and 68 villages; and the Kurmis, with 13,087 persons and 44 villages. 
Aboriginal tribes number 1809, but in the religious classification of the 
Census they are returned as Hindus. 

Jhansi District contains five towns with a population exceeding five 
thousand in 1881, namely, Mau (Mhow), 15,981 ; Ranipur, 6846 ; 
GuRSARAi, 6528 ; Barwa Sagar, 6315 j and Bhander, 5665. Jhansi, 
the head-quarters station, although a military cantonment and a muni- 
cipality, contains a population of only 2473. Total urban population, 
43,748, or 13-2 per cent, of the District population. Of the 625 
towns and villages comprising the District in 1881, 196 contained 
less than two hundred inhabitants ; 193 from two to five hundred ; 166 
from five hundred to a thousand ; 57 from one to two thousand ; 4 from 
two to three thousand ; 4 from three to five thousand ; 4 from five to 
ten thousand; and i upwards of fifteen thousand inhabitants. As 
regards occupation, the Census classified the male population under the 
following six main headings : — Class (i) Professional, including all mili- 
tary and civil servants of Government, and the learned professions, 
5429 : (2) domestic servants, inn and lodging-house keepers, etc., 1009; 
(3) commercial, including merchants, traders, carriers, etc., 2898; (4) 
agricultural and pastoral, including gardeners, 73,462 ; (5) industrial, 
including all manufacturers and artisans, 29,258 ; (6) indefinite and non- 
productive, comprising general labourers, male children, etc., 60,828. 

Agriculture. — Jhansi, in the nature of its soil, the character of its 
people, the poor means of irrigation, and the want of good communica- 
tions, is perhaps worse off than any other District in the North- Western 
Provinces, except its still more unfortunate neighbour, Lalitpur. In 
the best seasons, its produce is only just sufiicient to feed its scanty and 
scattered population, and droughts or floods expose it to the greatest 



JHANSI DISTRICT. 223 

hardships. Out of a total area of 1,002,734 acres, only 428,348 acres 
were under cultivation in 1866, and 450,560 acres in 1S81, the assessed 
cultivated area being 41 1,584 acres. The year is divided into the usual 
rain and cold-weather seasons. The principal kharif or rain crops are— 
;Wr (millet), which in 1881 occupied 93,975 ^'^cres ; cotton, grown on 
34,074 acres ; and bdjra (another millet), on 10,893 acres. There were 
also 21,400 acres under ///, an oil-seed, and 21,300 acres under a kind 
of pulse known as kodo. The total area of the rain crops was 232,054 
acres, of which 26,080 acres were devoted to fibres, dye-stuffs, and oil- 
seeds. The rabi or cold-weather crops covered an area of 182,058 acres, 
of which 3228 acres were cultivated with oil-seeds. The chief rabi pro- 
ducts were— wheat, 113,779 acres; gram, 45,348 acres; and barley, 1374 
acres. There were also 8882 acres employed in raising the dl dye, pro- 
cured from the root of the Morinda citrifolia, a rain crop, which is only 
dug up every third year. It is commercially the most important product, 
and is grown on the best land. The town of Mauranipur has long 
been famous for the manufacture of a red cloth called kharud, which is 
dyed from this root. The colour imparted by dl is fixed by alum, and 
is permanent. In Jhansi, as in other parts of Bundelkhand, the dl is 
really what enables the cultivators in certain villages to pay their rent ; 
and in many years food w^ould be scarce but for the importation of 
grain in return for the exports of the dye. The destructive kdns 
grass formerly proved as great a pest here as elsewhere in Bundelkhand, 
but it has now been almost eradicated. Although the ordinary food 
production of Jhansi is barely adequate to the necessities of the people, 
the District has occasional years of exceptionally favourable rainfall, in 
which a considerable exportation of grain takes place. 

Irrigation is little practised. There are, indeed, some channels in 
connection with the artificial lakes before mentioned, but these are in a 
ruinous state, and water very little land in comparison with their original 
capacities. I^Iost of them leak, and they require thorough renovation 
before they can be employed to any good purpose. Improvements, 
however, have been commenced, and will doubtless succeed in greatly 
benefiting the District. A scheme for restoring some of the most useful 
tanks, and for enlarging others, has been sanctioned, and work com- 
menced. The construction of the Betwa Canal has also been commenced 
as a part of the Bundelkhand irrigation scheme. The larger half of the 
land is held by proprietors or tenants having occupancy rights. The 
landowners themselves cultivate 40-87 per cent, of the tilled land ; 
tenants paying by lump sum not liable to enhancement, 16-5 per cent.; 
tenants liable to enhancement, 10-9 per cent. : and tenants-at-will, 32-6 
per cent. The native governments acknowledged no proprietary rights ; 
and there have been great difficulties accordingly in settling what 
persons should be regarded as tenants and landowners respectively. 



224 J H ANSI DISTRICT. 

The male adult agriculturists in i88r, including agricultural labourers, 
numbered 70,630, cultivating an average of 6J acres each. The total 
population, however, dependent on the soil was 201,488, or 60-47 per 
cent. The total male and female adult agriculturists numbered 122,084, 
of whom 18,439 were landholders, 224 estate agents, 67,769 cultivators, 
and 35,652 agricultural labourers. A holding of 50 acres would be con- 
sidered as an unusually large farm for a single family; one of 25 acres 
as a very comfortable one, and one of 10 acres as small. A holding of 
5 acres does not yield more than Rs. 3, or 6s. a month to the cultivator. 
As a rule, the cultivators, whether they have occupancy rights or are 
mere tenants-at-will, are very poor, living from hand to mouth, and 
unable to meet the loss of a single season's crop, especially in the 
tract between the Betwa and the Dhasan, which is specially liable 
to droughts and blights. The people are in a state of hereditary 
indebtedness to the village banker, the result of the frequent calamities 
of nature which afflict the District, together with the excessive rates of 
assessment imposed by the native Rajas, and carried out by their 
British successors until the true state of the District was forced upon 
the knowledge of the Government. Total cultivated area, 704 
square miles, of which 643 "i square miles are assessed for Govern- 
ment revenue, which in 1881 amounted (including local rates and 
cesses paid on the land) to ;£"52, 410, or an average of 2s. 6jd. per 
cultivated acre. Total rental paid by the cultivator, ^113,583, or 
an average of 5s. o^-d. per cultivated acre. The rates of rent vary 
from 2s. I id. for the worst soils, to 9s. 4d. for the best. Wages 
have approximately doubled of late years. The present rates are as 
follows: — First-class carpenters, 9d. to is. in towns, 7-Jd. in villages ; 
second-class ditto, 3d. to 6d. ; blacksmiths, 3d. to 7id. ; first-class 
masons, 4|d. to 6d. ; first-class coolies, 3|d. ; second-class, 3d. ; boys, 
i7|d. Prices ruled as follows on the ist January 1883 : — Wheat, 



20J sers the rupee, or 5s. 4jd. per cwt. ; gram, 31 J sers the rupee, or 
3s. 6|d. per cwt.; bcijra^ 27 sers the rupee, or 4s. 2d. per q.\\\.. \ jodr^ 
31^ sers the rupee, or 3s. 6fd. per cwt. 

Natural Calamities. — Jhansi is specially exposed to blights, droughts, 
floods, hailstorms, epidemics, and their natural consequence, famine. 
Even in favourable years, the consumption of the District is esti- 
mated to exceed its production by one-fifth. This estimate represents 
the fact that the food produce of Jhansi in ordinary seasons scarcely 
exceeds the food demand, while it is considered that scarcity may 
be feared every five years on an average. The famines of 1783, 1833, 
1837, and 1847 were particularly severe. The famine of 1868-69 was 
also felt very heavily in Jhansi. The autumn of 1868 had been a period 
of drought, during which the whole kharif oxo^ was destroyed; and it 
was succeeded by torrents of rain in the subsequent year, by which the 



JHANSI DISTRICT. 225 

rahi was reduced to half its usual quantity. In July 1869. the bridges 
and roads were broken down by floods, and the whole country rendered 
impassable. Through the failure of the crops and the cutting off of 
communications, an absolute lack of food occurred. So long as the 
roads remained open, grain was imported in considerable quantities, 
under Government direction, from Cawnpur and Sagar; but after July 
1869, the roads became useless, owing to the floods, and epidemics 
burst out among the starving people. Small-pox and sun-stroke carried 
off thousands of the enfeebled poor, while cholera and fever appeared 
with the rainy season. The number of deaths recorded rose from 3180 
in t868, to 20,331 in the succeeding year. 

Relief measures were early adopted, and poorhouses were opened at 
Jhansi in September 1858, at Mau and Ranipur in December, and at 
Barwa Sagar in February 1869. Thirteen famine works were also 
undertaken, in the shape of roads, bridges, and irrigation embankments. 
The daily average of persons relieved for thirteen months was 4494, of 
whom 2284 obtained gratuitous aid at poorhouses, and 2210 were 
employed on relief works. The total cost amounted to ;^t5.o32. 
The famine began to abate towards the end of 1869, but the District 
long continued to bear marks of distress. From 10 to 20 per cent, of 
land was thrown out of cultivation, partly owing to the loss of 150,000 
head of cattle — one-half the total stock — and partly to the spread of 
kdns grass, induced by the floods. Again in 1879, the failure of the 
rabi crops induced a partial famine, chiefly confined Xo pargana IMoth. 
Relief works were opened, on which from one to two thousand persons 
were employed. A seasonable rainfall, however, soon relieved the 
distress. Famine rates are reached when the better grains sell at 10, 
and the poorer at 12, sers the rupee, or iis. 2jd. and 9s. 4d. per cwt. 
respectively. The means of communication are insufficient, especially 
in that portion of the District which lies between the Betwa and 
the Dhasan, where absolute failure of supplies may be expected in 
years of drought or flood. The intermixture of villages belonging 
to Native States renders the organization of relief a task of great 
difficulty. 

Commerce and Trade. — As the District is not able to supply its own 
wants in the matter of food-stuffs, it imports instead of exporting grain. 
In return, it gives the dl dye and cotton. There are no manufactures, 
except a little dyed cloth. A large transport trade, however, is con- 
ducted via Mau, between Central India and the Doab. The District 
has no railway station within or adjoining its limits. The chief road is 
that from Jhansi through Kalpi to Cawnpur, having a length within the 
District of 41 miles, well bridged and metalled. The other roads are 
not good, and are liable to be cut off in times of flood. Total length 
of District roads, 701 miles. The District contains no printing press, 

VOL. VII. P 



226 JHANSI DISTRICT. 

but there are two lithographic presses in the native city of Jhansi, just 
outside the borders, where work is executed in Urdu and Hindi. 

AdmiJiistratwn. — ln i860, the revenue of Jhansi amounted to 
;^95,99o, of which ^77,146, or more than three - fourths, was con- 
tributed by the land-tax. The expenditure at the same date reached 
the sum of ^49,551, or little more than one-half the revenue. In 1870, 
the total receipts had been reduced to ^87,987, of which sum only 
;^56,o85 was contributed by the land-tax. The decrease, however, is 
partly due to the cession of ihxQQ pargands to Gwalior in 1861. At 
the same time, the expenditure in 187 1 had increased to ^59,112. 
The District revenue, however, continued steadily to decrease, and in 
1881 amounted to only ^60,669, the land-tax having been reduced to 
^^44,076. The expenditure in 1881 was ^18,741, the decrease 
being largely due to the abolition of the inland customs staff. The 
present assessments of land revenue are intentionally very light, in 
order that the country may have time to recover itself. The land-tax 
as shown in this paragraph, is little more than one-half (^44,076 in 
1881) of what it was shortly after the District passed under British rule 
(p^77»u6 in 1860). 

The District is administered on the non-regulation system, under 
which civil, criminal, and fiscal functions vest in the same officer. Its 
affairs are managed by a Deputy Commissioner, two Assistant Commis- 
sioners, three extra-Assistant Commissioners, and four tahsilddrs. The 
Commissioner for the Jhansi Division is also stationed at Jhansi 
Naoabad. There are 10 magisterial and 10 civil courts. The regular 
police numbered, in 1882, 577 men, maintained at a cost of ;£7287, 
of which sum ;£6i2 was paid from local sources. The village watch- 
men or <f/z(2z//(7V<:?Vi- numbered 723 men, at an annual cost of ^£"2602. 
The whole machinery, therefore, for the protection of person and 
property consisted of 1300 men, or i in every 252 inhabitants and 
every 1*30 square miles, at a cost of ^^9889, or 7d. per inhabitant. 
The total number of persons convicted of any offence was 881 in 1871, 
and 1870 in 1882, or i in every 180 of the population. Ihe immense 
majority of convictions are for theft and housebreaking. There is one 
jail in the District, at the head-quarters station, besides a lock-up at 
Mau, the daily average number of prisoners in which was 234 in 1870, 
and 172 in 1882. 

Education unfortunately shares in the general backwardness of 
Jhansi. Instead of progressing, it has steadily retrograded during 
the years i860 to 1870. In the first-named year there were 173 
schools in the District, with 3764 pupils, maintained at a cost of 
;£957; in 1870, while the expenditure, chiefly borne by the State, 
had increased t0;^i247, the number of schools had declined to no, 
and the jnipils numbered only 2235; in 1882, the State-inspected 



J H ANSI TAHSIL. 227 

schools numbered only 63, and the pupils 1988. There are, however, 
a number of indigenous uninspected private schools ; and the Census 
Report of 1 88 1 returned 3015 boys and 56 girls as under instruction, 
besides 10,876 males and 140 females able to read and write, but 
not under instruction. The District is divided into 4 fiscal divisions 
{pargamis), containing 623 estates; average land revenue paid by each 
estate in 1882, ^70, is. 7d. The District contains 2 municipali- 
ties, Mau with Ranipur, and Jhansi Naoabad. In 1875-76, their 
joint income amounted to ^1785, and their expenditure to ^1845. 
Municipal revenue in 1882-83, ;,^i6i8 ; expenditure, pf 21 17 ; incidence 
of municipal taxation, is. o|d. per head of their population (25,300). 
The head-quarters station has a population of only 2473, ^"^^ i^ i^ 
inconveniently close to the foreign city of Jhdnsi, in Gwalior State, 
which contains 26,772 inhabitants. Negotiations have several times 
been commenced for such exchanges of territory with the neighbouring 
native principalities as would render this straggling District more com- 
pact and more easily administered, but hitherto they have met with little 
success. 

Medical Aspects.— The climate of Jhansi, like that of Bundelkhand 
generally, is hot and very dry, owing to the want of trees or shade, and 
the radiation from bare rocks or arid wastes ; but it is not considered 
unhealthy. The average mean annual temperature at the civil station 
is about 80° F. In 1881, the general mean temperature was 79*8% 
ranging from a maximum of 116-3° i" ^^^7 ^^^ Ji-i^ie, to a minimum of 
42-3' in January. The mean monthly temperature in 1881 was as 
follows: — January 65-5°, February 72*6°, March 75-6°, April 90*3°, 
May 96-6°, June 91*3°, July 82-3°, August 80-4°, September 83-2°, 
October 827°, November 71-8°, and December 65°. The annual 
rainfall for a period of twenty years ending 1881 was 35*24 inches. 
In the latter year the rainfall was 53*85 inches, or 18 -61 inches above 
the average. The population are habitually under-fed, and they con- 
sequently succumb readily to slight diseases. The total number of 
deaths recorded in 18S2 was 12,852, or 38-36 per thousand of the 
whole population ; and of these, 6542 were assigned to fevers. There 
are two charitable dispensaries, namely at the civil station and at Mau- 
Ranipur. During the year 1883 they afforded medical relief to 401 
in-door and 5425 out-door patients. [For further information regarding 
Jhansi, see the Settlenwit Report of the District, compiled by Captain 
Gordon, Mr. Daniell, C.S., Colonel Davidson, and Mr. Jenkinson, C.S., 
published in 187 1. Also the Gazetteer of the North- Wester7i Provinces, 
by Mr. E. T. Atkinson, vol. i. pp. 236-302 (Allahabad, 1874); the 
Cens2is Report of the North- Wester 71 Provinces ; and the various annual 
Provincial a7id Departmental Reports ixQm 1880 to 1883.] 

Jhansi. — Western /^//5/7 of Jhansi District, North-Western Pro- 



228 JHANSI NAOABAD—JHARIA. 

vinces, consisting of a narrow hilly strip of land along the west bank 
of the river Betwa, much cut up by intrusive or isolated portions of 
adjacent Native States. Area, 379 square miles, of which 186 were 
cultivated in 1S72. Population in 1872, 72,861; m 1881, 80,971, 
namely, males 43,223, and females 37,748. In 1881, Hindus numbered 
76,104 ; Muhammadans, 3544 ; Jains, 575 \ and ' others,' 748. Number 
of towns and villages, 166. Land revenue {1882), ^8583 ; total Govern- 
ment revenue, including local rates and cesses, ^10,697; rental paid 
by cultivators, ^21,752. The tahsil contains i civil and i criminal 
court, with 11 police circles {thdnds\ a regular police force of 94 
officers and men, besides 123 village watchmen {chaitkiddrs). 

Jhansi Naoabad. — Village and administrative head-quarters of 
Jhansi District, North-Western Provinces. Lat. 25° 27' 30" n., long, 
78° 37' E. The village lies at the extreme western limit of the District, 
close under the walls of Jhansi city, which is now included within the 
Native State of Gwalior. The fort, also belonging to Gwalior, over- 
looks and commands the civil station and military cantonment. The 
population of the village and civil station, which in 1872 was only 536, 
had increased by 1881 to 2473. Jhansi Naoabad stands in the midst 
of a wild and rocky country, and is cut off from communication with 
other British posts during seasons of flood on the Betwa. In the 
summer months the heat is intense-, the thermometer often standing at 
108° F. in the shade up to 6 p.m. Previous to the cession oi pargands 
Pachor, Karera, and part of Jhansi to GwaHor in 1861, the head- 
quarters occupied a central position ; but they now stand quite at one 
side of the present District. Lines exist in the cantonment for Euro- 
pean and native troops. The civil station is a straggling village, con- 
sisting of the residences of the officials, together with court-houses, 
tahsili, police station, dispensary, schools, and post-office. Municipal 
revenue in 1882-83, ;£io6 ; from taxes, ^72, or 7d. per head of 
population. 

Jharcha. — Town in Sikandarabd.d tahsil, Bulandshahr District, 
North-Western Provinces. — See Jarcha. 

Jharid..— Coal-field in Manbhum District, Bengal, situated in the 
parga?id of the same name, a few miles s. and s.e. of Parasnath Hill, 
Bengal. The following notice is extracted from a paper by Mr. F. 
Hughes, published in vol. v. of the Memoirs of the Geological Survey 
of Jndia: — The field commences at a distance of about 170 miles 
from Calcutta, nearly south of the village of Gobindpur on the 
Grand Trunk Road, and extends east and west for about 18 miles, 
its greatest breadth, in a line north and south, being about 10 miles. 
The general truth, that geological structure mainly determines the 
physical appearance of a country, is admirably illustrated and borne out 
in the present instance, the configuration of the surface of the ground 



JHARIA GARKHARI—JHIND. 229 

presenting the same uniform type of aspect which is common in areas 
composed of coal-bearing rocks, and resembhng in aUnost every detail 
the appearances exhibited by the Raniganj field. The coal area 
generally is flat, and nowhere rises into undulating scenery. There is 
scarcely a single elevation worthy of the name of a hill ; only a few 
low ridges and escarpments, principally along the eastern and northern 
boundaries of the field, where the hard grits and sandstones of the 
lower, or Barakhar, division of the Damodar series crop out. The 
excellence of the coal in the Raniganj group of the Raniganj field is 
well known ; but in the Jharia field, although there are many seams in 
the upper series superior to some in the Barakhars, the finest coal and 
the freest from ash occurs in the latter. In the Karharbari field, 28 to 
30 miles north of the Jharia field, much of the coal there, exclusively 
of Barakhar age, is superior to that of other districts, some of it yielding 
on assay as small an amount of ash as 2-5 and 4 per cent. Coking 
coal, as far as experiments have yet been made, is found only there ; 
and the evidence both in that and the present field tends to show that, 
whatever the average superiority of the coal in the Raniganj group 
over those of the Barakhars may be, the best quality of coal is found 
amongst the latter. In making a comparision of the economic values 
of the two series in this field, it must be remembered that, in addition 
to the comparative size of the seams, their freedom from partings, 
and their constancy, the question of the amount of dip enters largely 
into the subject. In India, where appliances for working collieries are 
necessarily limited, and human labour is in many cases the only power 
available, a slight increase in the angle of inclination would necessitate 
such an addition to the expenditure, owing to the greater depth from 
which the water would have to be pumped out and the coal raised, that 
whereas a seam dipping at 12° and 16° might profitably be worked, 
one inclined at 20° or even 18° would have to be abandoned, unless 
its superior quality enabled it to fetch a higher price in the market. 
Bearing this in mind, then, it is evident from what has been stated in 
this report that seams in the Barakhar group have the great advantage 
over thos'^ in the Raniganj series of dipping at much smaller angles, 
thus affording greater facilities for being worked. Indeed, the inclina- 
tion throughout the Raniganj group is so high, that its economic value 
may be set down as being nearly 7iil until the seams of the Barakhar 
group shall have been exhausted. 

Jharia Garkhari. — State in Khandesh District, Bombay Presi- 
dency. — See Dang States. 

Jheend. — Native State in the Punjab. — See Jixd. 

Jhelum. — River, District, tahsil^ and town in the Punjab. — See 
Jehlam. 

Jhind. — Native State in the Punjab. — See Jind. 



230 JHINJHUWARA—JHUNJHNU. 

Jhinjhuwara.— Petty State in the Jhalawar Sub-division of Kathia- 
war, Gujarat, Bombay Presidency. Area, 165 square miles. Population 
(1881) 15,766. Jhinjhuwara consists of 17 villages, with 9 independent 
tribute-payers. The revenue in 1876 was estimated at ;£8ooo. Tribute 
of ;£iio7, 7s. is paid to the British Government. Inhabitants mostly 
Kolis. There were formerly three salt-works in this State. They are 
all now closed, and the tdlukddrs receive on this account an annual 
compensation from the British Government. Saltpetre is also found 
in the State. A portion of the adjacent Rann, with several small 
islands, is owned by the State. Jhilanand, the principal of these 
islands, is about 10 square miles in area, and contains several small 
tanks and a hot spring called Bhotwa. Anand, a king afflicted with 
leprosy, is said to have been marvellously cured of his disease by 
bathing in this spring. 

Jhinjhuwara.— Town in the Petty State of Jhinjhuwara in the 
Jhalawar Division of Kathiawar, Gujarat, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 
23° 21' N., long. 71° 42' E. Population (1872) 3058; (1881)3770. 
Jhinjhuwara is an ancient town with a fort and well-built cut-stone 
reservoir or tank. The gates of the ruined outer fortifications are fine 
specimens of ancient Hindu architecture. Many of the stones bear 
the inscription Mahansri Udal; tradition declares this Udal to have 
been the minister of Sidraj Jayasingh of Anhilwara Patan, to whom is 
ascribed the construction of both fort and tank, and who is said to have 
been born here. Jhinjhuw^ara fell under the Sultans of Ahmadabad 
and became one of their fortified posts. Afterwards it was a thdrid of the 
Mughal Government under Akbar. On the decay of the empire it was 
wrested from them by Kambhoji, the ancestor of the present tdlukddrs, 
who claim to have been originally Jhalas of the Dhrangadra house, but 
were outcasted owing to intermarriage with Kolis. Jhinjhuwara is said 
to have been founded by one Jhunjho, a Rabari. The town is about 
16 miles north of Kharaghora station on the Patri Branch of the Bombay, 
Baroda, and Central India Railway. Post-office and school. 

Jhirak. — Sub-division and town, Karachi (Kurrachee) District, 
Sind, Bombay Presidency. — See Jerruck. 

Jhiri. — River of Assam, which rises in lat. 25° 16' n., long. 93° 
24' E., amid the Barel (Barail) Hills, and flows south into the Barak, in 
lat. 24° 43' N., long. 93° 7' E., forming for a considerable distance the 
boundary between Cachar District on the west, and the independent 
State of Manipur. It runs in a narrow valley, shut in between two 
steep spurs of the Barel range. 

Jhlinjhnu. — Parga?id and town in the Shaikhawdti District of the 
Native State of Jaipur, Rajputana. The pargand of Jhiinjhnu is one 
of four pargands held by the chief of Shaikhawati, one of the 
principal feudatories of the Jaipur State. — See Khetri. Population 



JHUSI—JIGXL 231 

of the town (1881) 9538, namely 5064 males and 4474 females. 
Hindus numbered 6167 ; Muhammadans, 3370; and 'others,' i. The 
town is situated on the route from Delhi to Bikanir, 120 miles south- 
west of the former, and 130 east of the latter. The hill, at the eastern 
base of which it ctands, is visible for miles round, and has been seen at 
a distance of 95 miles with the naked eye on a clear afternoon. Here, 
during the existence of the Shaikhawati confederacy, each of the five 
confederated chiefs had a stronghold. Lat. 28° 6' n., long. 75° 24' 

45" E. 

Jhlisi. — Village in Allahabad District, North-Western Provinces, 
opposite the city of Allahabad, on the left bank of the Ganges, situated 
in lat. 25° 26' N., long. 81° 58' e. An ancient town traditionally dating 
from 2200 B.C. in the Puranic age as the city of Kesi or Pratisthan, 
and the residence of the first prince of the Lunar dynasty, Pururavas. 
In the time of Akbar, the place was one of the triangle of cities 
(Prayag and Jalalabad being the two others) forming the centre from 
which the subah of Allahabad was ruled. The town consists of a new 
and an old quarter, the former containing (1881) 2267, and the latter 
1404 inhabitants — total, 3671. A bridge of boats in the dry season, 
and a ferry during the rains, connects Jhiisi with Daraganj, a suburb of 
Allahabad, on the other side of the river. It is a station of the Great 
Trigonometrical Survey, and contains an imperial post-office and first- 
class police station. For police and conservancy purposes, a house- 
tax is levied, amounting in 1881-82 to j[,<^Z' 

Jia Dhaneswari {Dhansiri). — River in Darrang District, Assam ; 
which rises beyond the frontier amid the Aka Hills, and flows south 
into the Brahmaputra. It is navigable throughout the year for native 
boats of 4 tons burthen. 

Jiaganj. — Town in Murshidabad District, Bengal, on the left bank 
of the Bhagirathi. Lat. 24° 14' 30" n., long. 88° 18' 31" e. ; situated three 
miles above Murshidabad city, and opposite Azimganj railway station. 
In 1857, the revenue surveyor stated that Jiiganj carried on a large 
trade in cotton, saltpetre, sugar, rice, and silk. According to the 
registration returns of 1876-77, the total imports were valued at 
^123,000, chiefly salt, oil-seeds, tobacco, and ghi ; the principal 
exports were piece-goods and rice. No later returns are available, 
owing to an alteration in the system of river registration of trade. 

Jigni. — Petty State under the Bundelkhand Agency, Central India. 
Area, 21-28 square miles. Population (1881) 3427, dwelling in 6 
villages, containing 510 houses. Density of population, 165 7 persons 
per square mile; houses per village, 24; persons per house, 67. 
Hindus number 3339 ; Muhammadans, 88. Jigni State is situated 
south of the Betwa, at its confluence with the Dhasan river in the north- 
west of Hamirpur District. The State, at the time of the British 



232 JILO—jmD, 

occupation of Bundelkhand, consisted of '14 villages, which were 
attached in consequence of contumacy, but 6 villages were restored in 
1 810. The present Rao Jagirdar is named Lakshman Singh, a Hindu 
Bundela. He holds a saiiad of adoption. The revenue of the State 
is about ^^1400. There is a military force of about 57 infantry. 

Jilo or Jilo-Patan. — Town in the Tourwati District of the Jaipur 
State, Rajputana. Population (1881) 594I5 namely, 3417 males and 
2524 females. Hindus numbered 5492, and Muhammadans 449. 

Jind (yjh'md). — One of the Native States situated to the east of the 
Sutlej (Satlaj) river, under the political superintendence of the Govern- 
ment of the Punjab. It consists of three or four isolated tracts, with a 
total area of 1232 square miles. The principality, which is one of the 
Phulkian States {see Patiala), was founded in 1763, and the chief was 
recognised as Raja by the Emperor of Delhi in 1768. The Rajas of 
Jind have always been steady adherents of the British Government. 
Among the foremost and most sincere of those who proffered their 
allegiance after the overthrow of the Marathas was Raja Bagh Singh of 
Jind ; and the good offices of this chief were not unimportant in the 
negotiations which followed the advance of Lord Lake in pursuit of 
Holkar to the banks of the Beas (Bias). In recognition of these services, 
Lord Lake confirmed to the Raja the grants of land he held under the 
Emperors of Delhi, and under Sindhia. After the Sutlej campaign, the 
Governor -General bestowed a grant of land of about £,z^o a year 
in value on the Raja of Jind, as a mark of satisfaction with his conduct. 
In 1857, Swariip Singh, then Raja, was the first to march against the 
mutineers at Delhi. His troops acted as the vanguard of the army, and 
he remained in the British camp until the re-occupation of the city, 
and a portion of his troops took part in the assault. For these services 
he received a grant of additional territory, yielding ;j^i 1,681 per 
annum, on condition of fidelity and political and military service in 
time of difficulty and danger. The present Raja, Raghbir Singh, 
G.C.S.I., is a Sikh of the Sidhu Jat tribe, and is entitled to a salute 
of II guns. At the Imperial Assemblage at Delhi on January i, 1877, 
he was appointed a Counsellor of the Empress. 

The Jind territory comprises an area of 1232 square miles, 
and has a population returned in 188 1 at 249,862, namely, males 
136,909, and females 112,953. Hindus numbered 210,627; Muham- 
madans, 34,247 ; Sikhs, 4335 ; Jains, 649; Christians, 3 ; unspecified, i. 
The State contains 8 towns, 415 villages, and 51,394 houses, of which 
42,078 are occupied and 9316 unoccupied. Number of resident 
families, 62,787. Average density of population, 203 persons per 
square mile. The revenue has rapidly increased of late years, and is 
now between 6 and 7 lakhs of rupees, or between ;^6o,ooo and 
^70,000. The military force consists of 6 horse and 6 mule guns, 



JIND—JOBAT. 233 

234 artillerymen, 392 cavalry, 1600 infantry. The Raja su^jplies 25 
horsemen for general service in British territory. 

Jind. — Chief town of Jind State, Punjab, and residence of the Raja ; 
situated in lat. 29° 19' n., and long. 76° 23' e. Population (1881) 
7136, namely, Hindus, 4092; Muhammadans, 2823; Sikhs, 65; Jains, 
155; and unspecified, i. Number of houses. 1619. 

Jinjira. — State and port in Bombay Presidency. — See Janjira. 

Jinjiram. — River in Goalpara District, Assam ; rises in swamps 
between Agiagram and Lakhipur, and flows westward nearly parallel 
to the Brahmaputra, from which also it receives a partial overflow in 
the rains, till it falls into that river below Manika char. Another 
river is marked in the Survey maps named Jinjiram, but is really 
called the Jinari. It rises in the Garo Hills, and flows north into 
Goalpara District, emptying itself into the Brahmaputra a few miles 
above the town of Goalpara. Both streams are navigable during the 
rains by boats of 2 tons burthen. 

Jira.— Village in the south of Goalpara District, Assam, on the left 
or west bank of the Krishna! river, at the foot of the Garo Hills. The 
weekly market is frequented by Garos, who bring down lac and other 
products of their hills to exchange for cotton goods, salt, rice, dried 
fish, etc. Jira has given its name to a dwdr or lowland tract in the 
Garo Hills, where valuable sal timber is found. 

Jiral. — Petty State of the Sankhera Mehwas, Gori group, in Rewa 
Kantha, Gujarat (Guzerat), Bombay Presidency. It is divided among 
three shareholders, who are also the proprietors of Kamsoli INIoti and 
Kamsoli Nani, the total area of the three estates being 5 square miles. 
The estimated revenue of Jiral in 1881 was ^170, of which £-] is paid 
as tribute to the Gaekwar of Baroda.— ^c?^ Kamsoli Moti and Kamsoli 
Nani. 

Jirang.— Petty State in the Khasi Hills, Assam ; presided over by a 
5c7r^^frnamed Moit Singh. Population (1881) 720. Natural products 
—rice, chillies, and caoutchouc. Cotton cloth is woven. Jirang 
contains some of the finest sal forests in the Khasi Hills. 

Jiri. — River of Assam. — See Jhiri. 

Jobat— Petty State under the Bhopawar or Bhil Agency, Central 
India; lying between 22° 24' and 22° 36' n. lat., and between 74° 37' 
and 74° 51' E. long. It is one of the offshoots of the Ali-Rajpur 
State, and consists of a small tract of hilly country, inhabited almost 
entirely by Bhils, which was left undisturbed during the turmoil which 
the Maratha invasions caused in Malwd. The Vindhya mountains 
skirt the northern frontier, and spurs from them run into the State. 
The road from Indore via Dhar, Rajpur (Ali-Rajpur) to Gujarat 
(Guzerat), passes through the north-w^est corner of the State. The Rana 
of Jobat is a Rahtor Rajput. The area of the State is 132 square 



2 34 J OB A T—JODHPUR. 

miles. Population (1881) 9387, namely, 4812 males and 4575 females, 
dwelling in 69 villages, containing 17 13 houses. Density of popula- 
tion, 71 persons per square mile; houses per square mile, 13; persons 
per house, 5-47. Hindus numbered 5293; Muhammadans, 168; 
aboriginal tribes, 3916; Jains, 10. Revenue (1876), ^£1700. 

Jobat— Town in the State of Jobat, under the Bhopawar Agency, 
Central India. Lat. 22° 26' 45" n., long. 74° 35' 30" e. Though the 
State is named after this town, it is not the capital. The minister 
of the State lives at Ghora, three miles distant, and State business 
is transacted there, though Ghora is only a large village, but healthier 
than Jobat, from which place it has been proposed to remove. The 
town of Jobat consists of a small collection of houses and a few shops, 
nestling under the fort of the Rana, which is picturesquely situated 
on a steep rocky hill, shut closely in on three sides by forest-clad hills. 
The inhabitants suffer much from fever. Here are the treasury and 
the jail. The State dispensary is at Ghora. 

Jodhia or Joriya.— Revenue division or mahdl, town, and chief port 
of Nawanagar State in Halar Sub-division, Kathiawar, Bombay Presi- 
dency. The port was formerly a mere fishing village, on the south- 
eastern shores of the Gulf of Cutch. The wharf is about a mile and a 
half distant from the town, with which it is connected by a good made 
road. A custom-house and a press for cotton and wool bales are at the 
wharf. The water off this part of the coast is too shallow for ships of 
any considerable burthen. According to a local legend, the gulf from 
Jodhia to the opposite coast of Cutch could be crossed by a foot- 
path at low water 200 years ago. The north-west bastion of the fort 
80 feet above the sea, the palace or Darbar house 300 yards south- 
east of the bastion, and a grove of trees a mile to the south and 
outside the town, are high and conspicuous marks in nearing the port 
from seaward. Population (1872) 6592; (1881) 6842, namely, 3377 
males and 3465 females; Hindus numbered 4315, Muhammadans 
2150, Jains 372, and 'others' 5. The town is situated in lat. 22° 40' n., 
long. 70° 26' 30" E., about 24 miles north-east of Nawanagar, 40 miles 
north-west of Rajkot, and 40 miles west of Morbi, and is surrounded by 
a wall with towers and a small interior fort. Post-office, vernacular boys' 
and girls' schools, and dispensary. Jodhia mahdl or revenue division 
has four subordinate divisions, Pardhari, Balambha, Hariana, and 
Vanathali. The head revenue and judicial officials of the division have 
their courts at Jodhia towm. 

Jodhpur (also called Mdrwdr). — Native State in Rajputana, 
under the Western Rajputana States Agency. The State is bounded 
on the north by Bikaner (Bickaneer) and the Shaikhawati District of 
Jaipur (Jeypore); on the east by Jaipur anc^ Kishangarh ; on the 
north-east by xVjmere-Merwara ; on the south-east by Mewar (Mey- 



JODHPUR. 235 

war) ; on the south by Sirohi and Palanpur ; on the west by the 
Rann of Cutch (Kachch) and the Thar and Parkar District of Sind; 
and on the north-west by the Native State of Jaisahner (Jeysulmere). 
It lies between lat. 24° 36' and 27° 42' n., and between long. 70° 6' 
and 75° 24' E. Its greatest length north-east and south-west is about 
290 miles, and its greatest breadth 130 miles. It contains an area 
of 37,000 square miles, being the largest State in Rajputana. The 
population (1881) numbers 1,750,403, so that Jodhpur is the second 
most populous State in Rajputana. The State is the cradle of a long 
line of chiefs of the Rahtor clan of Rajputs. 

Physical Aspects. — The river Liini is the most marked feature in the 
physical aspect of Jodhpur. It rises in the lake at Ajmere, and is 
first known as the Sagar Mati, taking the name of Luni after its 
junction at Govindgarh with the Sarsuti (Saraswati), which has its source in 
the Pushkar Lake. From Govindgarh the river flows in a south-westerly 
direction through the State, and is finally lost in the marshy ground at 
the head of the Rann of Cutch. It is fed by numerous tributaries, 
chiefly from the Aravalli Hills. In heavy floods, which occur very 
rarely, it overflows its banks in the separate District of Mallani. The 
local name of this overflow is rel, and fine crops of wheat and barley 
are grown on the saturated soil. Wells are dug in the bed of the 
river in all the Districts of Jodhpur through which it flows, and in 
this way large tracts producing wheat and barley are irrigated. There 
is a saying in Marwar, that half the produce of the country, so far as 
cereals are concerned, is dependent on the Luni. The river is, 
however, capricious and erratic. On one bank it may be a blessing, on 
the other a curse. This is seen in two villages in the Gura estate in 
the Mallani District. One is rich with crops, the other arid and bare ; 
on one side the stream flows over sand, and its water is sweet, — on the 
other, over a hard bed, and its water is briny. The Liini attains its 
greatest breadth in the Sachor and Mallani Districts. Its water is, as a 
rule, saline or brackish, but that of wells sunk at a distance of 20 or 30 
yards from the banks of the river is comparatively sweet, and the 
inhabitants of all the villages situated in its neighbourhood depend for 
their drinking supply on these wells. Melons and the singhdra nut 
(Trapa bispinosa) are grown in great quantities in the bed of the river 
during the dry season. The chief tributaries of the Liini are the Jojri, 
the Siikri, the Guyabala, the Reria or Pali, the Bandi, and the Jowai. 
The only important lake is the famous salt lake of Sambhar, on the 
borders of Jodhpur and Jaipur. Two other depressions of the same 
kind exist, one in the north of Jodhpur at Didwana, and the other in 
the south at Pachpadra. The out-turn of salt from these two latter 
lakes was, in 1877, 14^ lakhs of maiinds (say 52,000 tons). There are 
a few jhils or marshes in Jodhpur, notably one in the Sachor 



236 JODHPUR, 

District, which covers an area of 40 or 50 miles in the rainy season, 
and the bed of which, when dry, yields good crops of wheat and 
gram. 

The geological characteristics of the country are somewhat complex. 
The south-eastern boundary, viz. that portion of Merwara and the 
Aravalli range within the frontier of the State, consists principally 
of metamorphic or transition rocks, rising precipitously from the 
plains of Jodhpur, and in some localities attaining an elevation of 3000 
feet. These rocks are chiefly gneiss, hornblende, quartz, and mica- 
slate ; but in the higher hills bands of basalt and porphyry are found, 
and occasionally granite, which, more towards the south, becomes the 
principal feature of the range, as at Abu. Passing from the Aravallis 
towards the west, the surface, even at the base of the mountain range, 
is found to be sandy ; but tlie substratum appears to be chiefly 
gneiss, hornblende, mica-slate, and quartz, all of which may be seen 
cropping up through the sand, and in some places are from 800 to 1000 
feet in height. The aspect of the country, therefore, as far as the Luni 
river, which divides Jodhpur into two unequal parts, is that of a sandy 
plain, dotted with bold and picturesque conical hills or mers^ rising to 
the elevation above mentioned. The most prominent of these formations 
are — the Nadolai Hill, on which a colossal stone elephant has been 
placed ; the Punnagir Hill, near Jadhan ; the Sojat Hill ; the Hill near 
Pali ; the Hill near Gundoj ; the Sanderao Hill ; and the Jalor Hill. 
Immediately around these hills the ground is hard and stony, but 
gradually passes into sand, which becomes more heavy as the eastern and 
northern districts are approached. After crossing the Liini, or at about 
one-third of the breadth of the State, these conical hills are less numerous, 
and sandstone appears, but the metamorphic rocks are not lost sight 
of until the range is passed on which the capital, Jodhpur, is situated. 

The country to the north of Jodhpur city is one vast sandy plain, 
called the thai, only broken by sandhills or tebas, which, commencing 
in the State of Jodhpur, stretch into Bikaner in the north, and into 
Jaisalmer and Sind in the west and south. In the Mallani District 
these sandhills rise in places to a height of 300 or 400 feet, and this 
part of the country resembles an undulating sea of sand. Throughout 
the thai, an occasional oasis is met with ; but water is exceedingly scarce, 
and often from 200 to 300 feet below the surface. It is conjectured 
that the substratum of this part of the country is sandstone, as that is 
passed through in sinking the deep wells, but no special investigations 
have been made. Zinc used to be obtained in large quantities near Sojat. 
The country is rich in salt, which is obtained in large quantities, chiefly 
from the natural salt lake of Sambhar. At Pachpadra, 35 miles 
south-west of Jodhpur, and at Didwana, Phalodi, and Pokaran, salt 
is crystallized from the water of wells. The salt jhils of Sargot 



JODHPUR. 237 

and Kachawan possess unknown capabilities for salt manufacture. 
But in addition to these salt sources, there are in the State 72 
salt -producing villages, with 370 working factories. The method 
of obtaining the salt is extremely simple. . At Pachpadra, for 
instance, the process is as follows : — Oblong pits of various sizes are 
dug : a supply of brine percolates through the pit bed, and when that 
has become sufficiently concentrated so as to show signs of crystalliza- 
tion around the pit edge, branches of a thorny shrub called inorali are 
sunk in it. On these branches salt crystals form and continue to grow 
for two or sometimes three years. At the end of that period the 
salt crop is extracted, usually in this way : men enter the pit, and with 
an iron chisel, wedge-shaped, and having a handle five feet long, they 
cut through the thorny branches, and break up the salt which is caked 
on the bottom. The branches, with the crystals attached, are carried 
to the edge of the pit, and the crystals are shaken or broken off. The 
salt thus broken up is drawn to the sides by a broad iron hoe, and is 
removed in baskets to the top of the pit. Marble exists in abundance 
at Makrana in the north, and also in smaller masses near Ghanirao on 
the south-east border. Multdni matti or fuller's earth is found in 
considerable quantities at Kapuri ; it is used by natives of all castes 
for washing the hair. This earth is taken for sale to Umarkot in Sind, 
to Jodhpur, and Bikaner. It sells on the spot at about 2 annas (3d.) 
a bullock-load. 

Population, — The population of Jodhpur State consists of Rajputs, 

the conquerors and lords of the soil ; Charans, Bhats, Jats, Bish- 

nawis, Minas, and Bhils, the aboriginal inhabitants ; and the usual 

mixed Hindu population, with a scanty proportion of Muhammadans. 

The Charans, a sacred race, hold large religious grants of land, and 

enjoy peculiar immunities as traders in local produce. The Bhats are 

by profession genealogists, but also engage in trade. The Minas, 

Bauris, and Bhils are predatory classes, but are employed in menial 

capacities. The Muhammadans are principally soldiers, the word 

sipahi (sepoy) being used generally to designate a Muhammadan. The 

natives, as a race, are enterprising and industrious, but the agricultural 

classes have to undergo great privations from poor food, and often bad 

water. Md,rwari traders are to be found throughout the peninsula, 

especially in the Deccan. Although far from his native State, the 

Marwari trader or money-lender remains loyal to the Jodhpur chief. 

When the late Maharaja Takht Singh died, every Marwari in Calcutta 

and Bombay shaved his head and face as a mark of mourning. The 

peaked turban is a peculiarity of the Marwari head-dress. In pursuit 

of trade, the Marwaris quit their homes for years, only revisiting them 

on occasions of marriages or family concerns. 

Until 1881, no census of the population had been taken; an 



238 JODHPUR. 

enumeration in that year gave the following results. The area of the 
State was 37,000 square miles. Population, 1,750,403; number of 
towns and villages, 3785; number of houses, 386,707. Density of 
population, 47-31 persons per square mile; houses per square mile, 
io'45 ; persons per house, 4-53. There are ten villages on an average 
to every hundred miles of country. The religious division of the 
people shows — Hindus, 1,421,891; Muhammadans, 155,802; Jains, 
172,404; Christians, 207; and 'others,' 99. 

In the sandy portion of Jodhpur, and throughout Mallani, the houses 
are mostly beehive-shaped huts, with the exception of the Thakur's 
residence, which in small villages is generally of mud, with a thatch 
roof. The villages are enclosed with a strong fence to keep out wild 
animals and thieves. The middle classes dwell in houses constructed 
of mud, with thatch roofs ; those of the mahdjans (traders) are fre- 
quently of stone and mortar, whilst in some villages the Thakur's house 
is a handsome well-constructed residence. The lower classes are 
generally temperate, laborious, and economical ; their dress is of the 
most simple kind ; as a rule, they partake of two meals a day, consist- 
ing of bread, dried vegetables, and curds and milk. Their houses 
usually contain nothing but a few cooking utensils and sleeping cots ; 
carpets and rugs are rarely used, the people sitting on the bare ground. 
The majority of the cultivators are Jats, Sirwis, Bishnawis, Pitals, 
Rajputs, and Muhammadans of the country, such as Kaim Khanis, 
w^ho enjoy grants of land. 

Agriculture. — The principal rain crops are pulses and millets — bdjra, 
jodr, and vioth. In the fertile portion of the State enclosed within 
the branches of the Liini, wheat and barley are produced in consider- 
able quantities. The most fertile districts of Jodhpur are Godwar, 
Sojat, Jetaran, and Maroth. In these districts wells abound, and 
spring and autumn crops are grown. Cotton is occasionally seen near 
wells, but the staple is poor. Opium is cultivated in the south-east 
portion of the State, in the vicinity of the Aravalli range of hills, where 
the water is sweet and the soil rich. Tobacco and sugar-cane are also 
grown, but not extensively. 

The soils of Jodhpur have been classified under the following 
heads : — Bdikal, the most prevalent, is a light sand, having little 
or no earthy admixture, and only fit for the production of hdjra, 
viotJi^ til (sesamum), water-melons, and other cucurbitaceous plants; 
chikna^ a clayey fat black earth, producing chiefly wheat; pila^ a 
yellow sandy clay adapted for barley, tobacco, onions, and vegetables; 
safedi (white), a soil of siliceous nature, only productive after heavy 
rains ; khari, alkaline earth, poisonous to all vegetation. In the sandy 
parts of the State, the rain sinks into the soil, and does not flow off the 
surface, so that a very small rainfall suffices for the crops. When the 



JODHPUR. 239 

rainy season commences, the sandhills are ploughed by camels, and the 
seed planted very deep in the ground. After it has sprouted, a few 
showers at long intervals bring it to maturity ; and as the light-built 
desert camels are quick movers, each householder is able to put a large 
extent of ground under crop. The ijroduce in a favourable season is 
more than sufficient for the wants of the population, but, unfortunately, 
the means of storing grain are difficult to be got, as burnt earthen 
vessels for the purpose have to be brought from long distances. The 
surplus produce is therefore frequently left on the ground as fodder for 
the cattle. Irrigation works are rare ; but care is taken to make the 
best use of the scanty rainfall by embanking the fields, so that the 
water is retained for two or three months, until the soil becomes suffi- 
ciently saturated to produce crops of wheat. Irrigation is also carried 
on by Persian wheels and ordinary wells where the water is not more 
than 75 feet in depth; beyond that depth, well irrigation is not re- 
munerative. No uniform system of assessment of land revenue exists 
in Marwar ; it varies in different localities, but one-third of the actual 
produce is the prevailing rate. In Nagar, the land yields a single 
luxuriant rain crop, of which the extreme share of one-half falls to the 
landlord. In the thai, or sandy portions of the State, where labour is 
scarce, and the ground yields poor and uncertain returns, the landlord's 
share sometimes falls as low as one-fourteenth. 

The manufactures of Jodhpur are of no great importance in a com- 
mercial point of view. Turbans and scarves, and embroidered silk 
knotted thread for wearing on the turban, are specialities of the 
country. Leather boxes for holding clothes and brass utensils are 
also manufactured. Snuff is made in Jodhpur city. The principal 
exports of the State are salt, cattle, sheep, goats, horses, cotton, wool, 
dyed cloth, hides, and pom.egranates. From Makrana, marble and 
marble manufactures are exported, and stone from various quarries. 
Stone flour-mills are constructed at Barmer in Mallani, and exported 
in large numbers. The chief imports are giir and kand (coarse and 
refined sugar), and rice from Bhiwani in Hissar, opium from Kotah, 
Udaipur (Oodeypore), and Beawar. From Bombay come English 
piece-goods, silver and copper; from Gujarat, spices of every kind, 
dates, gum-arabic, borax, cocoa-nuts, silk, sandal-wood, and dyes. Corn 
is imported from Sind and Bhiwani. Trade is carried on chiefly by 
permanent markets at Jodhpur city, Pali, Merta, Parbatsar, Nagar, 
Didwana, Pachpadra, Phalodi, Jalor, Pipar, and Balotra, the chief 
towns. In ordinary years, the local crops suffice for local \vants, but 
the local manufactures do not. 

Medical Aspects. — The prevailing diseases are malarious or paroxys- 
mal fevers, especially in the autumnal season, when the extremes 
of temperature are first experienced. Skin affections are also very 



240 JODHPUR. 

prevalent, probably caused by the bad water and indifferent food of 
the lower classes, and partly by their dirty habits, the latter being in 
some degree the result of a scarcity of water for household use. The 
food of the people, consisting chiefly of bdjra (Holcus spicatus), is also 
instrumental in the production of dyspeptic complaints, \vhich w^ould 
be even more prevalent, were it not for the abundance and cheapness 
of salt throughout the country. Guinea -worm and mycetoma or 
Madura-foot are also diseases of the soil. Of epidemic maladies, 
small-pox occurs periodically with some violence. Cholera, however, 
comparatively seldom presents itself, and still more rarely penetrates 
the semi-desert districts to the west of the city of Jodhpur. 

History. — The present ruling chief of Jodhpur is His Highness 
the Maharaja Jaswant Singh, who holds that position as chief of the 
Rahtor clan of Rajputs, to whom the territory belongs. The princes 
of Jodhpur, like their rivals of Udaipur (Oodeypore), term themselves 
Surya Vansa, or the ' Solar Race,' and claim descent from Rama. The 
founder of the dynasty migrated from Kanauj ; and the Rahtor race, from 
its warlike and aggressive propensities, became the most powerful clan 
of the Rajputs. Several independent States w^ere founded by offshoots 
from it, among which are the present States of Bikaner (Bickaneer) and 
Kishengarh in Rajputana, and Edar and Ahmednagar in Gujarat. It is 
probable that the Jats, the Minas, and the Bhils originally held the 
country of Marw^ar in separate petty chiefships before the Rahtor 
conquest. The local historians relate that subsequently to the fall of 
the Rahtor dynasty of Kanauj in 1194 a.d., Sivaji, the grandson of 
Jai Chand, the last king of Kanauj, entered Marwar on a pilgrimage to 
Dwarka, and, halting at the town of Pali, he and his followers displayed 
their valour by repelling large bands of marauders. At the entreaty of 
the Brahman community of the place, who were greatly harassed by 
constant raids of plundering bands, Sivaji agreed to settle among them 
and become their protector. The Rahtor chief, acquiring land and 
power around Pali, gained there the first footing in the future kingdom. 
His son and successor, Asthan, extended the domain by conquering 
the land of Kher from the Gohel Rajputs, and established his brother 
Soning in Edar, then a small principality on the frontier of Gujarat. It 
was not, however, till the time of Rao Chanda, the tenth in succession 
from Sivaji, that Mandor, then the capital of Marwar, w^as acquired 
by the Rahtors. Erom the time of Chanda, about 1382, the actual 
conquest of Marw^ar by the Rahtors may be dated. Chanda was 
succeeded by Rao Rir Mall, a famous warrior. His son Jodha ruled 
after him, and founded the city of Jodhpur, which he made his capital. 
In 1528, the Rahtors fought under the standard of Udaipur (Oodey- 
pore) against the Mughal Emperor Babar, on the field of Khanua. 
In 1544, the Afghan Sher Shah led an army of 80,000 men into 



JODHPUR. 241 

]\Iar\var, and obtained victory, but only after a narrow escape from 
defeat. 

In 1 56 1, the Emperor Akbar invaded the country, and eventually 
the chief of Jodhpur succumbed to necessity, and, as was the 
custom of the time, sent his son as a mark of homage to take service 
under the Mughal Emperor. When this son, Udai Singh, succeeded 
to the chiefship, he gave his sister Jodhbai in marriage to Akbar, 
and was rewarded by the restoration of the former possessions of his 
house in Marwar, with the exception of Ajmere ; and several rich 
districts in Malwa were added. The son of Udai Singh, Raja Sur 
Singh, attained to high honour with Akbar, for whom he conquered 
Gujarat and the Deccan. On the occasion of the contests among the 
four sons of Shah Jahan, Jaswant Singh, successor to Raja Sur, was 
appointed to the command of the army sent against Aurangzeb. He 
was, however, defeated ; and though he made peace with Aurangzeb 
afterwards, he was never forgiven. Aurangzeb, to get rid of him, 
appointed him to lead an army against the Afghans. Jaswant Singh 
died beyond the Indus, leaving a posthumous son, Ajit Singh. 
During the infancy of the latter, Aurangzeb invaded Marwar, plundered 
Jodhpur, sacked all the large towns, and commanded the conversion of 
the Rahtor race to Muhammadanism. This cemented into a bond of 
union all who cherished either patriotism or religion ; and the Rajputs, 
making common cause, held their own against the Muhammadan power. 
Ajit Singh was a party to the triple alliance with Udaipur and Jaipur to 
throw off the Muhammadan yoke. One of the conditions of this 
alliance was, that the chiefs of Jaipur and Jodhpur should regain the 
privilege of marriage with the Udaipur family, which they had forfeited 
by contracting alliances with the jMughal Emperors, on the understanding 
that the offspring of the princesses of Udaipur should succeed to the 
State in preference to all other children. Ajit Singh was murdered by 
his son Bakht Singh ; but the quarrels arising from the stipulation in 
the above treaty lasted through generations, and led to the invitation 
of the help of Maratha leaders by the aspirants to power in support of 
their claims, and finally to the subjection of all the Rajput States to 
the Maratha court of Poona. 

Jodhpur was conquered by Sindhia, who levied a tribute of 6 
lakhs of rupees (^60,000), and took from it the fort and city of 
Ajmere. At the commencement of the Maratha war of 1S03, Man 
Singh had just been elected by the nobles to be chief of Jodhpur, 
after a long struggle with his cousin Bhim Singh. The alliance of the 
British Government was offered to him, and a treaty drawn up, but not 
ratified ; and Man Singh, having meanwhile given assistance to Holkar, 
the treaty was formally cancelled in 1804, and Man Singh left to his 
own resources. Thereafter, troubles came quickly upon Jodhpur, owing 

VOL. YII. Q 



242 ' JODHPUR. 

to internal disputes regarding the succession of Dliokal Singh, a reputed 
son of Bhim Singh, and a disastrous war with Jaipur for the hand of 
the daughter of the Rana of Udaipur. The aid of the great Pindari 
freebooter, Amir Khan, was called in first by the Jaipur and afterwards 
by the Jodhpur Raja, Amir Khan thus became the arbiter of affairs in 
Marwar; and after terrif}'ing the Maharaja into abdication and pre- 
tended insanity, ended by plundering the treasury and leaving the 
country with its resources completely exhausted. Chhatar Singh, the 
only son of the Maharaja, assumed the regency on the withdrawal of 
Amir Khan in 1817. With him the British Government commenced 
negotiations at the outbreak of the Pindari war ; and a treaty was con- 
cluded in January 181 8, by which Jodhpur was taken under the pro- 
tection of the British Government, the tribute payable to Sindhia was 
transferred to the British, and the Raja engaged to furnish a contingent 
of 1500 horse when required, and the whole forces of the State 
when necessary. Chhatar Singh died shortly after the conclusion 
of the treaty, whereupon his father threw off the mask of insanity, and 
resumed the administration. In 1824, 21 villages in Merwara were 
made over temporarily to the British Government, with a view of bring- 
ing the lawless Minas and Mers into submission. The lease expired 
in 1843, but the Raja expressed his readiness to leave the villages under 
British administration. No definite arrangement was made, and the 
tract is still being administered on this footing. The desert tract of 
Mallani has also been under the superintendence of the Political Agent 
since 1836. It belongs to Jodhpur; but the feudatories acknowledge 
the Raja's supremacy merely by paying an annual tribute of ;£^688, 
which is collected by the Political Agent, and paid over to the Jodhpur 
(rovernment. 

The misgovernment of Man Singh, and the consequent disaffection 
and insurrection in the State, reached such a pitch that in 1839 the 
British Government was compelled to interfere. A force was marched 
to Jodhpur, of which it held military occupation for five months, and 
Man Siiigh executed an engagement to ensure future good government. 
Four years after this, Man Singh died, without sons of his body, and 
without adopting an heir. The succession lay between the chiefs of 
Edar and Ahmednagar, the chief of Edar being the nearest of kin {see 
Edar). It was left to the widows, the nobles, and the State officials 
interested to select the future ruler. Their choice fell upon Takht 
Singh, chief of Ahmednagar, a direct descendant of Raja Ajit Singh, 
whom with his son Jaswant Singh they invited to Jodhpur. Owing to 
constant disputes between the Darbar (official administration) and the 
Thakurs (feudatory chiefs), the affairs of Jodhpur remained in an unsatis- 
factory state during the administration of Raja Takht Singh, but he was 
loyal to the British Government, and did good service during the Mutiny. 



JODHPUR. 243 

He died in February 1873, ^'^^ ^^'^'^ succeeded by his son Maharaja 
Jaswant Singh, the present ruler, who was born about 1837. He has 
received the right of adoption, and has been created a G.C.S.I. 

The constitution of Jodhpur has been hitherto generally spoken of as 
feudal, but it may be more accurately described as a tribal suzerainty 
rapidly passing into the feudal stage. The institutions of the State are 
highly favourable to general peace and the protection of personal pro- 
perty, provided that the tribal chiefs live in harmony with their suzerain, 
and with one another, for there is a chain of authority running from the 
ruler to the possessor of a circle of 100 villages and of i village. The 
rights of all classes of the agricultural community are well defined, 
and thoroughly respected, except in periods of anarchy and misrule. 
Not only is the village community in its full sense intact in Jodhpur, 
but there is also a community of villages and of interdependent 
relations between them and their inhabitants. The pattdit or tribal 
chief of any magnitude is the ruler of his estate, and the judge almost 
exclusively in all matters of civil and criminal jurisdiction over his 
people. Hie Thakurs of Jodhpur owe military service to their 
suzerain, and exact the same from their brethren to whom assignments 
of land have been made, and who form their following, — the whole con- 
stituting the following of the suzerain himself. The fiscal lands are 
managed by hakims or sub-divisional governors; but these hardly 
amount to one-fifth of the area in the possession of the Thakurs and 
jdgirddrs. The right of Government to a certain money rate or share of 
the produce is well understood, and the agricultural classes everywhere 
live in comparative security. 

There are various kinds of tenure in the State. ^Nlost tenures are 
ancestral and hereditary, having been obtained at different times by 
the relatives of the reigning family. The holders of these tenures 
pay military cess and succession- tax. The Thakurs of the separate 
district of Mallani pay tribute only, but although nearly independent, 
cherish extreme loyalty to the head of the State. The rekh, or 
military cess, is believed to be about 8 per cent, of the gross 
rental of the thdkurate, or estate. Village tenures are numerous, the 
principal being known as Inipi {= fatherland), mangli, hdsili, sdsan, 
pasaitajdgiri, and bhum. Bdpi\.^x\m^^ are those granted in considera- 
tion of improvements eff"ected by the tenants ; majigli are bdpi lands 
held by Brahmans ; hdsili are lands ordinarily assessed by the State or 
2ijdgirddr; sdsan lands are those granted for religious purposes ; pasaita 
are lands given rent free by the jdgirddr, and are resumable at will ; 
yi^/r/ lands are the untaxed lands of \.\\e jdgirddrs ; and bhum lands are 
lands granted for State service, or upon reclamation by private enter- 
prise. Bhum lands are tax free, hereditary, and only resumable by the 
State for treason or serious crime. 



244 JODHPUR. 

Administration. — At Jodhpur city there are civil and criminal courts 
presided over by separate officials. The Maharaja alone has power of ., 
life and death, and final appeals lie to him in all but petty cases. Most , 
of the district cases are disposed of by the Iidkiuis. The Thakurs ■ 
within their estates assume independent magisterial authority; and 
until lately, it was only the lower feudatories who would surrender 
criminals or brook interference in criminal cases. Arbitration is I 
generally resorted to in all civil disputes. The ceremonies of the i 
Court are intricate and curious. The highest, honour the Maharaja 
bestows on a visitor is to receive and dismiss him standing, and raise 
his right hand a little in salutation on his arrival and departure ; to 
the next in rank the Maharaja rises both on arrival and departure; 
there is a third grade of visitors, on the arrival (not departure) of whom 
the Maharaja rises. All the aristocracy of Jodhpur precede the Maharaja 
in processions ; if the chief stops to address any one, it is a token of 
particular honour. The great drum beats four times every night in the 
fort at Jodhpur, and it is a special sign of respect for a deceased Thakur 
to omit one of the beats. On the death of a considerable Thakur the 
Maharaja pays a visit of condolence at the home of the Thakur's 
family. 

There is one large newly-constructed jail at Jodhpur city, to which, 
as a rule, all prisoners sentenced to more than three months' imprison- 
ment are sent. At the head-quarters of each district there is a lock-up. 
Police duties are generally conducted by the army, no separate establish- 
ment existing. There are three dispensaries in the city of Jodhpur, 
besides one at the town of Pali, one at Nagar, and one at Jasol in Mallani. 
The Maharaja is very liberal in responding to any call for these charitable 
institutions. Education in an advanced form is unknown in Jodhpur. 
A large proportion of the population can read and write Hindi ; amongst 
whom are included most of the ladies of good birth, a condition of 
things almost peculiar to this State. The capital now possesses two 
good schools, one for the sons of Thakurs and the higher classes, the 
other for the children of trades-people and the lower classes. At both 
these schools, English is taught, as well as the vernacular languages. 
There are also schools supported by the State in some of the towns, and 
every large village possesses one, presided over by the local Jain priest. 
The language spoken in Jodhpur is a peculiar patois called Marwari, 
considered to have an affinity to Hindi. 

There is one metalled road, loo miles in length, running through 
jodhpur ; it is the main route from Ajmere to Ahmadabad in Bombay. 
The Rajputana-Malwa State Railway, on the metre gauge, from Ajmere, 
connecting with the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway at 
Ahmadabad, skirts the south-eastern border of Jodhpur. This railway 
also touches the territory by the small northern branch line to the 



JODHPUR. 245 

Sambhar Salt Lake, which is on the boundaries of Jodhpur and Jaipur. 
From Karchi station (now called Jodhpur Junction, 87 miles south- 
west of Ajmere) of the Rajputana-Malwa State Railway, a short line 
of 64J miles is under construction, at the expense of the State, to 
the town of Jodhpur, of which 43I miles were open in 1884. 
Fairs are held in March, at Tihvara, lasting 15 days; at Mundwa in 
December, when from 30,000 to 40,000 people assemble ; at Parbatsar 
in August, attended chiefly by Jats, who come to trade in bullocks ; 
and at Bilara and Barkhana. 

The revenue of the State is mainly derived from the land, salt, and 
custom dues, a cess imposed on the feudatory nobles, succession dues, 
etc. The total receipts may be calculated at about 40 hikhs of rupees 
(say ^400,000). The numerous nobles of Marwar enjoy very large 
incomes, and there are also a great number of religious and other free 
grants, which amount probably altogether to more than double the 
revenue receipts. 

In the treaty of 18 18, it was stipulated that the tribute hitherto paid 
to Sindhia by the Jodhpur State should be paid in perpetuity to the 
British Government. This tribute amounted to Rs. t 08,000 (;£i 0,800), 
but has been reduced to Rs. 98,000 (say ^9800), Rs. 10,000 {£\oo6) 
having been remitted as compensation for the fort of Umarkot 
in Sind. In the same treaty, it was agreed that the Jodhpur State 
should furnish a contingent of 15,000 horse when required. In 1832, 
a demand was made for a force to co-operate against freebooters who 
occupied Nagar Parkar. The contingent failed in its duty, and proved 
utterly useless. In 1835, therefore, the obHgation to furnish the force 
was commuted to an annual payment of ^11,500 towards the Jodhpur 
Legion which was then raised. This Legion mutinied in 1857. ^ Its 
place is now supplied by the Erinpura Irregular Force. The military 
establishment of the State, in addition to the Erinpura Force, consists 
of 55 field and 125 other guns, more than half being unserviceable, 
320 gunners, 3499^cavalry, and 5954 infantry. 

Climate.— i:)\Q climate of Jodhpur at all seasons may be described 
as dry. This dryness is due to the geographical position of the State, 
the geological nature of the surface, and the absence of forest. The 
Aravalli range separates the State from the more fertile districts of 
Udaipur. The country is therefore beyond the range of the full 
force of the south-west monsoon from the Indian Ocean, and entirely 
removed from the influence of the south-east monsoon from the Bay 
of Bengal. Also the clouds from the south-west, before arriving at 
Jodhpur, must float above extensive arid Districts, as the sandy tracts 
of Northern Gujarat, Cutch, the Rann, and the desert Districts of 
Umarkot and Parkar. This results in a very small rainfall, which at 
the centre of the country, i.e. the city of Jodhpur, does not often 



246 JODHPUR CITY, 

exceed the average of 14 inches. In 1881 the rainfall was unusually 
heavy, gauging over 22 inches at Jodhpur city. The Luni contains 
only scai-ity°pools of water, and its tributaries are dry during the greater 
part of the year. The sandy soil, the brackish water nearly everywhere 
found, and the prevalence of the saline efflorescence known as reh, are 
the principal reasons why there is so little of either wild jungle growth 
or of cultivated ground. Thus all conditions unite in producing that 
extraordinary dryness characteristic of Marwar. - The next most striking 
peculiarity of the climate is the extreme variation of temperature which 
occurs in the cold season between the night and the day. This depends 
in a great degree on the dryness of the atmosphere, the heat given off 
by the earth at night passing freely through dry air, whereas it is 
absorbed and retained by the damp of a moist atmosphere. Thus it 
happens that on the sandy soil of Jodhpur, while the nights may be 
sufficiently cold for ice to form, the days are often marked by a tem- 
perature of 90° F. in the shade of a tent. Similarly, although hot 
winds prevail with great violence in the months of April, May, and 
June, the nights are fairly cool. 

Jodhpur.— Capital of the Native State of Jodhpur or Marwar, 
Rdjputana. Lat. 26° 17' n., long. 73° 4 e. It was built by Rao 
Jodha in 1459 a.d., and from that time has been the seat of Govern- 
ment of the principality. It is placed in the southern slope of a 
small range of hills running east and west, the prevailing geological 
formation of which is red sandstone. The fort commanding the city 
is built on a sandstone rock rising to the height of 800 feet, having 
to the north cones of porphyry and masses of trap of various descrip- 
tions placed in juxtaposition to the sandstone. The layers of this 
sandstone are usually parallel with the horizon, and they generally rise 
abruptly out of the sand below, but are sometimes visibly supported 
by trap or metamorphic rock. In some places, porphyritic trap is ranged 
in stairs, and has apparently been thrown up at a later date than the sand- 
stone, without having materially damaged the stratification of the latter. 
The city is surrounded by a strong wall nearly 6 miles in extent, 
and there are seventy gates, each bearing the name of the place to which 
it leads. The fort stands on an isolated rock, the highest point of 
the range, and contains the Maharaja's palace, a large and handsome 
building, completely covering the crest of the hill on which it stands, 
and overlooking the city, which lies several hundred feet below. The 
city contains many handsome buildings— palaces of the Maharaja, and 
town residences of the Thakurs or nobles, besides numerous fine 
temples and tanks. Building stone is plentiful, and close at hand, and 
the architecture solid and handsome. Three miles north from Jodh- 
pur are the ruins of Mandor, interesting from having been the site of 
the ancient capital of the Purihar Princes of Marwar, prior to its 



JOGESTIWARI—JORHA T. 247 

conquest by the Rahtors. Mandor contains the cenotaphs of the ruhng 
chiefs of the country, erected on the spot where the funeral pyre 
consumed the remains of those who in former days were seldom burned 
alone. There are also stone effigies of gallant chieftains of Marwar, 
curious as specimens of rude carving by workmen of the country. No 
statistics of population, etc. have been supplied by the State authorities 
for the town of Jodhpur. 

Jogeshwari. — Name of a celebrated cave in Amboli village, Salsette 
island, Thana District, Bombay Presidency. The cave is 2 i miles south- 
east of Gurgaon station, on the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India 
Railway. It forms a temple of Brahma, and next to the Kailas 
at Ellora is the largest known cave in India. Its length is 240 and 
breadth 200 feet. This cave temple contains rock-cut passages, an 
immense central hall supported by pillars, porticoes, and subsidiary 
courts. The temple dates from the eighth century. 

Jogigarh. — Fort in Hoshangabad District, Central Provinces ; 
situated on a small island in the Narbada (Nerbudda) river. Lat. 
22° 25' N., long. 76° 51' E. A rapid at this point renders navigation 
impracticable except during the rains, when a passage can be effected 
by small boats. 

Jogi-ghopa. — Village in Goalpara District, Assam ; on the right or 
north bank of the Brahmaputra, a few miles below the town of Goalpara. 
In old days, before the conquest of Assam by the British, it possessed 
considerable importance as a centre of frontier trade. It contains the 
temple of Dudhnath, sacred to Siva, which is frequented by Hindu 
pilgrims from distant parts of India ; and in the neighbourhood are 
many artificial caverns, cut in the rocky face of the hills, which are 
believed to have been occupied in former times by religious devotees. 
Jogi-ghopa was at one time the head-quarters of Goalpara District. The 
Bijni Raja has built a handsome residence here, and the place 
promises to increase in importance, 

Jogi-maradi. — Highest peak in a broken mountain range that 
crosses Chitaldriig District, Mysore State; 3S03 feet above sea- 
level. 

JoUarpet {Joldrampetti^ Jaldrapet), — Town in Tirupatiir tdink, 
Salem District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 12° 34' n., long. 78° 38' e. ; 
1320 feet above sea-level. Contains 142 houses, with (1881) 694 
inhabitants, of whom one-half are Pariahs. A zaminddri village, 
important only as a first-class station of the Madras Railway, south- 
west line, and junction for Bangalore. Five miles from Tirupatiir, the 
head-quarters of the tdluk. 

Joma-male. — Mountain in Coorg. — See Soma-male. 

Jorhat. — Sub-division of Sibsagar District, Assam; formed in 1869. 
Population (1881) 143,985, distributed among 24 viauzds or unions of 



248 JORHA T—JO IVAI. 

villages. Total revenue in 1881-82, ^23,821. The sub-divisional 
police force consists of 39 men stationed at the three thdnds of Jorhat, 
Kamalabari, and Salang, and an outpost of frontier police at Debrapar. 
The superior administrative staff usually includes an Assistant and 
an extra-Assistant Commissioner. The tea-gardens numbered 95 in 
1881. 

Jorhat. — Village in Sibsagar District, Assam, and head-quarters of the 
Jorhat Sub-division ; lying in lat. 26^ 46' n., and long. 94° 16' e., on the 
eft or west bank of the Disoi river, about 1 2 miles south of Kokilamukh 
on the Brahmaputra. Population (188 1) 1984. Situated amid valuable 
tea-gardens, and at the centre of a system of roads, Jorhat has JM^me 
the most important mart in the District, though the Disoi can scarcely 
be called a navigable river. In 1865, out of a total of 160 shops in the 
bazar, 28 were occupied by Marwari or Jain traders from the north- 
west, who import cotton goods, salt, and hardware from Bengal, in 
return for which they export silk, cotton, mustard seed, and jungle 
products. A few shops are kept by native Muhammadans, who chiefly 
sell ' Europe ' goods and furniture ; the remainder are petty stalls for 
retailing rice, oil, and vegetables. Many of the tea-gardens consign 
their produce by river steamer direct to England. The Jorhat Tea 
Company is chiefly owned by shareholders in that country. The public 
buildings include a lock-up, a charitable dispensary, and a Government 
High School, which teaches as far as the University entrance examina- 
tion. There is also an artisans' school, supported out of a bequest 
from a European tea-planter of the District. Jorhat was erected into a 
municipal union in October 1881. At the close of the last century, 
the place was at various times the residence of Raja Gaurinath, the 
last of the independent kings of the Aham dynasty. 

Joriya. — See Jodhia. 

Joshimath. — Village in Garhwal District, North-Western Provinces; 
situated in lat. 30° 33' 25" n., and long. 79° 36' 35" e., at the con- 
fluence of the Alaknanda and the Dhauli. Chiefly remarkable as the 
winter residence of the Ravval, or priest of the temple of Badrinath, 
who retires hither after the snows have rendered the higher shrine 
inaccessible. The village contains several ancient temples. Elevation 
above sea-level, 6200 feet. 

Jotdar. — Channel of the Devi, or branch of the Mahanadi estuary, 
in the south-east of Cuttack District, Bengal. Enters the sea in lat. 
20° 11' N., and long. 86° 34' e. 

Joura. — State in Central India Agency. — See Jaora. 

Jowai. — Village and administrative head-quarters of the Jaintia 
Hflls Sub-division, Khasi Hills District, Assam ; 4422 feet above sea- 
level. Population (1881) 3229. Jowai is the residence of the Assistant 
Deputy Commissioner ; and, as the centre of a system of hill roads, it 



JUANGS, THE. 249 

possesses a considerable trade. The chief exports are raw cotton and 
caoutchouc ; the imports — rice, dried fish, cotton goods, and salt. The 
average annual rainfall for the five years ending December 1881 was 
362-63 inches. Jowai was the centre of the Jaintia rebellion in 1862. 

JuangS, The. — One of the most primitive tribes of the Orissa 
TkiBUTARV States {q.v.). Their principal habitat is in Keunjhar 
State, where they numbered 4592 in 1872, and Dhenkanal State, 
where they numbered 4120. There were also 367 of this tribe returned 
in Pal Lahara State in 1872, with 290 in Hindol, and 290 in Baxki. 
Total, 9398 within the Tributary States in 1872. Owing to changes in 
classification, the Census of 1881 fails to disclose the number of this 
tribe, and includes the Juangs among the Hindu low-castes. Colonel 
Dalton was informed that there were 32 settlements of the Juang tribe 
in Keunjhar, occupying the hill country southward from- Keunjhar fort 
to Handah ; between 21° 20' and 21° 40' n. lat., and between 85^ 30' 
and 85° 45' E. long. 

In this tract, as in their other settlements, the Juang hamlets are 
mingled with Bhuiya and Goala villages. The following description is 
slightly condensed from Colonel Dalton's Ethnology of Bengal (pp. 
152-158, Government Press, Calcutta 1872). The Juangs appear to 
have been driven back by the Bhuiyas from the fertile valleys, and 
their cultivation is now chiefly found upon the hill-sides. They have 
no traditions which affiliate them with any other race ; and notwith- 
standing a similarity in their languages, they repudiate all connection 
with Hos or Santals. They aver very positively that they are autoch- 
thones in Keunjhar, the direct descendants of the first human beings 
that appeared or were produced in that country, or indeed in the world. 
For they assert a claim to be the first produced of the human race, 
though they make no pretensions to be the fathers of mankind. The 
head-quarters of the tribe, or cradle of the race, they consider to have 
been at Gonasika, in 21° 30' n. lat., and 85° 37' e. long., where a stream 
which is the source of the Baitarani issues from two holes in a rock, 
supposed to bear a resemblance to the nostrils of a cow. They assert 
^hat the Baitarani, on whose banks they were created, is older than the 
Ganges ; and that the present Juang inhabitants of the village of Gona- 
sika, and other villages in the vicinity, occupy the very soil from which 
the parents of their race were produced. They have no traditions to 
record, except that very long ago nine hundred Juangs left the country 
of their birth and moved to Dhenkanal, and that then the Bhuiyas came 
and took up the land of the brethren who had left them ; but it is more 
probable that they were driven out by the Bhuiyas, who are now the 
dominant race in those hills. The Bhuiyas, however, deny this, assert- 
ing that they are the true autochthones, and that the Juangs are inter- 
lopers. There is a tradition of a Bora Raja (probably some allusion to 



250 • JUANGS, THE. 

the Baraha avatar^ or Boar Incarnation of Vishnu) having had a fort 
in the heart of the country now occupied by Juangs, the remains of 
which are still in existence ; and it is said that the Juangs are the 
remnant of his people. 

In Habits a7id Customs the Juangs are most primitive. They occupy 
a hill country in which stone implements, the earliest specimens of 
human ingenuity that we possess, are occasionally found ; and though 
they have now abandoned the use of such implements, and have lost 
the art of making them, it is not improbable that they are the direct 
descendants of those ancient stone-cutters, and that we have in the 
Juangs representatives of the stone age in situ. Until foreigners came 
amongst them, they must have used such weapons, or none at all, for 
they had no knowledge whatever of metals. They had no ironsmiths 
nor smelters of iron. They have no word in their own language for 
iron or other metals. They neither 'spin nor weave, nor have they 
ever attained to the simplest knowledge of pottery. In the hills of 
Keunjhar they are still semi-nomadic in their habits, living together in 
villages during a portion of the year, but often changing the sites, and 
occupying isolated huts in the midst of their patches of cultivation, 
whilst the crops are on the ground. 

Dwellings. — Gonasika, one of the largest of their villages, contains 
about twenty-five houses of Juangs. The huts are amongst the smallest 
that human beings ever deliberately constructed as dwellings. They 
measure about six feet by eight, and are very low, with doors so small 
as to preclude the idea of a corpulent householder. Scanty as are the 
above dimensions for a family dwelling, the interior is divided into two 
compartments, one of which is the storeroom, the other being used for 
all domestic arrangements. The head of the family and all his belong- 
ings of the female sex huddle together in this one stall, not much larger 
than a dog-kennel. For the boys there is a separate dormitory. This 
latter is a building of some pretensions, situated at the entrance of the 
village. It is constructed upon a solid platform of earth raised about 
four feet, and has two apartments. One of these is an inner and closed 
one, in which the musical instruments of the village are kept, and in 
which most of the boys sleep ; the other is open on three sides, — that 
is, it has no walls, — but the eaves spread far beyond the platform, and 
the inmates are effectually protected. This is where all guests are 
lodged, and it makes a convenient travellers' rest. 

Cultivation. — The Juangs cultivate in the rudest way, destroying the 
forest trees by the process of girdling them, burning all they can of the 
timber when it dries, and spreading the ashes over the land. They 
thus raise a little early rice, Indian corn, pulses, pumpkins, sweet 
potatoes, ginger, and red pepper, the seeds being all thrown into the 
ground at once, to come up as they can. 



JUANGS, THE. ' 251 

Food. — They declare that they subsist every year more on wild roots 
and fruits than on what they rear, but it is doubtful if they are so badly 
off as they pretend to be. The area of their cultivation appears pro- 
])ortionate to their numbers. They pay no rent, being under an 
obligation to render personal service to the Raja, by repairing his house 
and carrying his burdens when required. They are addicted to ardent 
spirits, which they are obliged to buy, as they have not acquired the 
art of distilling, or even of brewing rice beer. In regard to food, they 
are not in the least particular, eating all kinds of flesh, including mice, 
rats, monkeys, tigers, bears, snakes, frogs, and even offal. The jungles 
abound in spontaneously-produced vegetables. In quest of such food, 
the Juangs possess all the instinct of animals, discerning at a glance 
what is nutritive, and never mistaking a noxious for an edible fungus 
or root. Their favourite weapon is the primitive sling made of cord, 
with rough unfashioned stones or pebbles for missiles. They also use 
the bow and arrow. 

Dress. — Until recently, the only clothing of the Juangs, particularly 
among the females, consisted of a few strings of beads, with a bunch of 
leaves before and behind. The Juangs take young shoots of the dsdn 
(Terminalia tomentosa) or any tree with long, soft leaves, and arrange 
them so as to form a flat and scale-like surface of the required size ; the 
sprigs are simply stuck in the girdle, and the costume is complete. 
The beads that form the girdle are small tubes of burnt earthenware 
made by the wearers. The women wear also a profusion of necklaces 
of glass beads, and of brass ornaments in their ears and on their wrists. 
The males were first induced to adopt a scanty cotton loin cloth for 
purposes of decency, but the women were long deterred by superstition 
from following their example. Several traditions exist to account for this, 
the simplest of which is connected with the origin of the Baitarani. The 
river goddess, emerging for the first time from the Gonasika rock, came 
suddenly on a merry party of Juang females dancing naked ; and 
ordering them to adopt a garment of leaves, laid on them the curse 
that they must adhere to the costume for ever or die. Some years ago, 
the British officer in charge of the khedd operations in Keunjhar in- 
duced a number of Juang females to clothe themselves, he supplying 
the first robes. The Juangs under British influence have now been 
clothed by order of Government ; and their native chiefs in the Tribu- 
tary States have been persuaded to do the same work for others. In 
1 87 1, the English officer called together the clan, and after a speech, 
handed out strips of cotton for the women to put on. They then passed 
in single file, to the number of 1900 before him, made obeisance, 
and were afterwards marked on the forehead with vermilion, as a sign 
of their entering into civilized society. Finally, they gathered the 
bunches of leaves which had formed their sole clothing into a great 



252 JUANGS, THE. 

heap and solemnly set fire to it. It is reported, however, that a 
number of the Juang women, their original garments wearing out, and 
finding that they were not to be renewed gratuitously, have again lapsed 
into their primitive leafy attire. 

The p'edo/ninaiing physical characteristics of the Juangs are — great 
lateral projection of the cheek bones, or zygomatic arches and general flat- 
ness of features; forehead upright, but narrow and low, and projecting 
over a very depressed nasal bone ; nose of the pug species ; alae spreading ; 
mouth large, and lips very thick, but upper jaw rarely prognathous, 
though the lower jaw and chin are receding; hair coarse and frizzly; 
prevailing colour of a reddish brown. Some of them have oblique 
eyes of the Indo-Chinese type, but in this feature there is considerable 
variety. It is noticeable that the Juang women tattoo their faces with 
the same marks that are used by the Mundas, Kharrias, and Uraons : 
namely, three strokes on the forehead just over the nose, and three on 
each of the temples. They attach no meanings to the marks, have no 
ceremony in adopting them, and are ignorant of their origin. 

The Juangs are a small race, like the Uraons, the males averaging less 
than five feet in height, the women not more than four feet eight inches. 
Religion. — The Juangs appear to be free from the belief in witchcraft, 
which is the bane of the Kols, and perniciously influences nearly all 
other classes in the Jungle Mahals and Tributary States. They have 
not, like the Kharrias, the reputation of being deeply skilled in sorcery. 
Their language has no words for '' God,' for ' heaven ' or ' hell ; ' and, 
so far as can be learned, they have no idea of a future state. They ofl'er 
fowls to the sun when in distress, and to the earth to give them its 
fruits in due season. On these occasions an old man officiates as 
priest ; he is called Nagam. The even tenor of their lives is unbroken 
by any obligatory religious ceremonies. 

Marriages and Funeral Ceremonies. — Marriage is recognised, but is 
brought about in the simplest manner. If a young man fancies a girl, 
he sends a party of his friends to propose for her; and if the offer is 
accepted, a day is fixed, and a load of rice in husk is presented on his 
behalf. The bridegroom does not go himself to the bride's house ; his 
friends go, and return with her and her friends. Then they make merry, 
eating and dancing, and all stay and make a night of it. In the morning, 
the bridegroom dismisses the bride's friends with a present of three 
measures of husked and three of unhusked rice ; and this is a full and 
sufficient solemnization. A man may have more wives than one if he 
can afford it, but no Juang has ever ventured on more than two at a 
time. They are divided into tribes, and are exogamous. They burn 
their dead, and throw the ashes into any running stream ; their mourn- 
ing is an abstinence for three days from flesh and salt. They erect 
no monuments, and have no notion of the worship of ancestors. 



JUBA—JUHAR. 253 

Jliba. — Deserted fortress in Sargiija State, Chutia Xagpur, Dengal ; 
about 2 miles south-east of Manpura village. It stands on the rocky 
shoulder of a hill, and commands a deep gorge overgrown with jungle. 
Among the trees are the remains of carved temples, almost covered with 
accumulations of vegetable mould. Here Colonel Ousely found a com- 
plete linga^ with a well-carved face and head projecting from its surface. 
Jubbal {Juhal). — One of the Hill States under the Government of 
the Punjab, situated between 30° 46' and 31° 4' n. lat., and between 
77* 27' and 77° 50' E. long. Jubbal was originally tributary to Sirmiir 
(Sarmor), but after the Gurkha war it was made independent. The 
Rana misgoverned the State, and in 1832 abdicated in favour of the 
British Government. He very soon, however, repented the act, and 
refused the allowance of jQAc\o a year which was made for his support. 
After a lengthy correspondence, it was resolved in 1840 to restore the 
State. In that year the Rana died, and Government approved the 
succession of his son, Tika Kami Chand, who died in 1877 ^.nd was 
succeeded by his son, Padam Chand, the present Rana. The family 
is by caste Rahtor Rajput. The area of the State is 288 square miles. 
It contains 472 villages and a population (1881) of 19,196, namely, 
wales 10,605, and females 8591. Hindus numbered 19,159, and 
^luhammadans 37. Estimated revenue, nearly ;£4ooo. The chief 
products are grain and opium. Sentences of death passed by the Rana 
require the confirmation of the Superintendent of Hill States and of the 
Commissioner of the Division, Other punishments are awarded by the 
Rana on his own authority. 

Jubbulpore. — Division, District, taJisil, and city in the Central 
Provinces. — See Jabalpur. 

Juggaur. — Town and railway station in Lucknow District, Oudh ; 
situated about three miles south of the Lucknow and Faizabad (Fyzabad) 
road. A Musalman village conquered from the Bhars by a family of 
Shaikhs, who colonized 52 villages in this part of the country, for 
which they received 2,farmdn confirming them in the proprietary right. 
Their descendants are still proprietors of Juggaur. Population (1881), 
Hindus, 1613 ; Muhammadans, 653; total, 2266. 

Juhar {Jawahir). — Valley in Kumaun District, North-Western Pro- 
vinces. Lat. 30° 10' to 30° 35' N,, long. 79° 49' to 80° 19' e. One of 
the Bhutia mahdls^ or tracts on the northern Himalayan slopes in- 
habited by people of Tibetan origin. The population have, however, 
adopted the language, customs, and religion of their Hindu neighbours. 
They are chiefly engaged in commerce, being the only Bhutia's who 
enjoy unrestricted intercourse with Gartoh, where a great annual fair 
is held in September. During the ofiicial year 1876-77, the value of 
the imports by Lilam from Juhar amounted to ^12,600, and that of 
the exports to ;2{^4ioo. 



254 JU-I-SHARKI— JUMNA. 

Ju-i-Sharki. — Town in Rai Bareli tahs'il, Rai Bareli District, 
Oudh; situated 12 miles from Bareli town, at a distance of 2 miles 
from the Sai river. Population (1881) 2623, namely, Hindus, 2513, 
and Muhammadans, tto. Government school. 

JuUundur. — Division, District, tahsil^ and city, Punjab. — See 
Jalandhar. 

Jummoo. — Province and town in Kashmir State, Punjab. — See 
Kashmir and JaMxMU. 

Jumna (^Jannind). — A river of the North-Western Provinces and 
the Punjab. It rises in the Himalayas, in the Native State of Garhwal, 
about 5 miles north of Jamnotri, and about 8 miles north-west of the 
lofty mountain Bandarpcinch (20,731 feet), in lat. 31° 3' n., and long. 
78° 30' E. From this place the Jumna flows south for 7 miles, past 
Jamnotri, and then turns to the south-west for 32 miles, receiving on 
its right bank two small streams, the Badiar and the Kamalada ; 
thence it runs due south for 26 miles, receiving the Badri and the 
Aslaur as tributaries. Just below the point of junction of the latter, 
the Jumna turns sharply to the west, and continues in this direction 
for 14 miles, till it is joined on its right bank by the great river Tons 
from the north, and at the same time it emerges from the Himalayas 
into the valley of the Dun, in long. 77° 53' e. From this point it flows 
in a south-westerly direction for 22 miles, dividing the Kiarda Dun on 
the west from the Dehra Diin on the .east; and it receives in this 
stretch two large affluents, the Giri from Sirmiir (Sarmor) on the west, 
and the Asan from the east. 

In the 95th mile of its course, the Jumna leaves the Siwalik Hills 
and enters the plains at Faizabad in Saharanpur District. It now 
flows for 65 miles in a south-south-west direction, dividing the Districts 
of Ambala (Umballa) and Karnal in the Punjab from those of Saha- 
ranpur and Muzaffarnagar in the North-Western Provinces. By the 
time the Jumna debouches on the plains, it has become a large river, 
and near Faizabad it gives off both the Western and Eastern Jumna 
Canals {qq.v.). At Rajghat it receives the Maskarra stream from 
the east, but no other tributaries of any size join it in this section. 
Near Bidhauli, in Muzaffarnagar District, it turns due south, and runs 
in that direction for 80 miles till it reaches the city of Delhi ; here it 
turns south-east for 27 miles to near Dankaur, when it again resumes 
its southerly course. In this portion it receives on the east the Katha- 
nadi and the Hindan river, while on the west the Sabinadi joins it a 
little north of Delhi. The Jumna here separates the Punjab Districts 
of Karnal and Delhi and the Native State of Ballabhgarh from the 
Districts of Muzafl'arnagar, Meerut (Merath), and Bulandshahr, in the 
North-Western Provinces. From Dankaur to Mahaban, near Muttra 
(Mathura), a distance of about 100 miles, the Jumna receives no affluents 



JUMNA. 255 

of any size; it divides the Punjab District of Gurgdon from the Districts 
of Bulandshahr and Ah'garh in the North-Western Provinces, and near 
Hodal it enters the North-Western Provinces altogether. It flows through 
the centre of the District of Muttra till it leaves it near Mahaban to enter 
the District of Agra. The Agra Canal forms a recent and an important 
work. 

From Mahaban the Jumna turns eastwards and flows a little south 
by east for nearly 200 miles. In this part of its course the river winds 
in a remarkable manner through the ravines of Agra and Etawah Dis- 
tricts ; the bed of the stream is narrower, and the banks higher and 
steeper than in its upper reaches. It receives on its left or northern 
bank the Karwanadi near Agra, and on its right or southern the river 
Utanghan. It passes the towns of Agra, Firozabad, and Etawah. 
From Etawah the Jumna takes a more southerly direction, and flows 
south-east for 140 miles to Hamirpur. In this portion of its course the 
river passes through the southern tract of Etawah,. and then forms the 
boundary between Etawah and Cawnpur Districts on the north, and 
Jalaun and Hamirpur Districts on the south. On its north bank the 
Jumna is joined by the Sengur a little below Kalpi ; and on its south 
bank, by the great river Chambal from the west 40 miles below Etawah, 
and by the Sind on the borders of Etawah and Jalaun. 

From Hamirpur, till its junction with the Ganges at Allahabad, the 
Jumna flows nearly due east. It separates the Districts of Fatehpur 
and Allahabad on the north from that of Banda on the south, until it 
enters Allahabad District, and finally falls into the Ganges, in lat. 25' 
25' N., and long. 81° 55' e., three miles below the city of Allahabad, the 
only important town which the Jumna passes during this last section 
of its course. Total length from its source, 860 miles. Its chief 
tributaries in this part of its course are the Betwa and the Ken. 

The Jumna, after issuing from the hills, has a longer course through 
the North-Western Provinces than the Ganges, but it is not so large 
or so important a river, and above Agra in the hot w^eather it dwindles 
to a small stream. This is no doubt partly caused by the two canals 
(the Eastern and Western Jumna Canals) taken off from it at Faizabad, 
where it issues from the Dun. 

The trade on the Jumna is not now very considerable ; in its upper 
portion, timber, and in the lower, stone, grain, and cotton are the chief 
articles of commerce, carried in the clumsy barges which navigate its 
waters. These have sails, and always take advantage of a favourable 
wind ; at other times they float down with the current, or are slowly 
and laboriously tugged up against stream by long strings of boatmen. 
Its waters are clear and blue, while those of the Ganges are yellow and 
muddy ; and at the point of junction belo\v the fort of Allahabad the 
difference between the streams can be discerned for some distance 



256 JUMNA CANAL, EASTERN 

below the point at which they unite. Its banks are high and rugged, 
often attaining the proportions of cliffs, and the ravines which run into 
it are deeper and larger than those of the Ganges. It traverses in 
great part the extreme edge of the alluvial plain of Hindustan, and in 
the latter part of its course almost touches the Bundelkhand offshoots 
of the Vindhya range of mountains. Its passage is therefore more 
tortuous, and the scenery along its banks is more varied and pleasing 
than that of the Ganges. 

The Jumna at its source near Jamnotri is 10,849 f^et above the sea- 
level ; at Kotnur, 16 miles lower, it is only 5036 feet ; so that, between 
these two places, it falls at the rate of 314 feet in a mile. At its 
junction with the Tons, it is 1686 feet above the sea; at its junction 
with the Asan, 1470 feet ; and at the point where it issues from the 
Siwalik Hills into the plains, it is 1276 feet. The catchment area of 
the Jumna is 118,000 square miles; its flood discharge at Allahabad, 
1,333,000 cubic feet per second; discharge per square mile of catch- 
ment area, 1 1 "3 cubic feet per second. 

The Jumna is now crossed by railway bridges at Delhi, Agra, and 
Allahabad ; and there are bridges of boats at Etawah, Kalpi, Hamirpur, 
Muttra, Chillatara, and other places. 

Jumna (Jamund) Canal, Eastern. — An important irrigation work 
in Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, and Meerut (Merath) Districts, North- 
Western Provinces. Lat. 28° 38' to 30° 19' n., long. 77° 19' to 77° 
38' E. It derives its supply from the left or eastern bank of the 
river Jumna, irrigates the western portion of the Upper Doab, and 
eventually tails into the Jumna (Jamuna) in Meerut District, after a 
course of 160 miles. The frequent recurrence of famines in this part 
of India, before the establishment of British rule, and for some years 
subsequently, caused attention to be directed at an early period of our 
occupation to the necessity for an extended system of canals. Owing 
to the pressure of other important measures, however, it was not till 
the close of 1823 that the actual work of excavation commenced, and 
the canal reached its completion in 1830. Being the first large irriga- 
tion scheme undertaken in India by our authorities, some changes in 
detail became necessary at a later period, but the work as a whole 
reflects the greatest credit upon its projectors. From the Jumna head- 
works to the iTth milestone, the bed consists of boulders or shingle, 
gradually decreasing in size ; thenceforward to Sarkari {26 miles), sand 
and clay predominate on the bottom, interspersed between Sarkari and 
Jauli (123 miles) with nodular carbonate of lime, and merging below 
Jauli into pure sand. 

On the sandy sections, erosion has been avoided by the construction 
of falls, also utilized as motive-power for flour-mills. Rows of sal, sisi/, 
teak, and tun trees fringe the bank, and their timber forms an important 



JUMNA CANAL, EASTERN 



257 



item in the revenue. The total area irrigated by the Eastern Jumna Canal 
during the year 1875-76 amounted to 195,846 acres, of which 87,294 
belonged to the kharif or autumn harvest, and 108,552 to the rabi or 
spring harvest. In 1880, the total area irrigated by the canal was 
235,862 acres; and in id>%2-ZT„ 254,513 acres. Taking the average 
of five years ending 1881-82, the total area annually irrigated by the 
canal amounts to 245,933 acres, of which 140,807 acres belong to 
the kharif, and 141,126 to the rabi harvest, the average water-supply at 
Kalsia being 11 16 cubic feet for the kharif, and 933 cubic feet for the 
rabi. The area irrigated for each cubic foot of supply was accordingly 
93-89 acres in the former case, and 151 '18 acres in the latter. The 
water was dispersed by means of main distributaries, having a total 
length of 618 miles. The following table shows the tariff in force 
in 1876 : — 







Per Acre irrigated by- 




Class. 


Nature of Crop. 




Per 




Natural Flow. 


Lift. 








s. d. 


s. d. 




I. 


Sugar-cane, . . . 


10 


6 8 


Year. 


11. 


Rice, tobacco, opium, 
vegetables, gardens, 










or orchards, . . . 


6 


4 


Crop. 


III. 


All rabi crops, indigo, 










cotton, .... 


4 6 


3 


Crop. 


IV. 


All kharif crops, or 
crops not above 










specified, .... 


3 4 


2 


Crop. 



By 'flow ' is understood water which reaches the fields from distribu- 
taries above their level ; and by ' lift,' water which must be raised by 
means of buckets or otherwise to the level of the fields. 

The canal opened in 1830 with a debit against its capital account of 
;^43,8oo. The following statement shows the financial position of 
the undertaking in 1875-76, and in 1881 : — Outlay during 1875-76, 
^12,273; ^rid ;£47,ooo in 1881. Outlay from date of opening to 
the end of 1875-76, ordinary ;^2i8,293, extraordinary ^13,450 — total, 
^231,743. Total outlay to end of 1881, ;^266,99o. The revenue 
account in 1875-76 yielded the following gross results: — Revenue during 
the year — direct income, ;^59,248 ; increased land revenue, ;£"46,857 
total, ;^io6,io5 • revenue from opening — direct income, ;£^i5039,485 ; 
increased land revenue, ^£221, 555; total, ^1,261,040: working 
expenses — during the year, ;^23,o27; from opening, ;£459,5o8. In 
1 88 1, the revenue account showed the following gross results : — Revenue 
during the year — direct income, ;£" 73,918; increased land revenue {i.e. 
indirect income), ^22,153 ; total, ^96,071 : working expenses during 

VOL. VIL R 



258 JUMNA CANAL, WESTERN. 

the year, ^17,287, showing a profit of ^f 78,784. From the opening 
of the canal up to the end of 1881, the total direct income has been 
^1,450,472, and the total increased land revenue, ^354,476 ; grand 
total, ;£"i,8o4,948. Total working expenses from opening to the end 
of i88r, ^578,445, showing a profit of income over expenditure of 
;^i,2 26,503. According to the principle of calculating profit and loss 
officially adopted, the net revenue in 1875-76 shows a return of 15-63 
per cent, on capital, or including increased land revenue, a return of 
35-25 per cent. In 1881, the net revenue shows a return of 21-2 per 
cent, on capital, or including increased land revenue, a return of 29-5 
per cent. 

The following are the details of direct income for 1875-76 : — 
Water rates, ^54,649 ; mill rents, ^1145 ; canal plantations, ^2869; 
miscellaneous, ^585 ; total actual receipts, ^■/^59,248. The details of 
direct income for 1881 are as follow: — Water rates, ;z{J"7o,35i ; mill 
rents, ^1171 ; canal plantations, ^1681 ; miscellaneous, ^715 ; total 
actual receipts, ;£73,9i8, 

Jumna {Jamund) Canal, Western. — An important irrigation work 
in Ambala (Umballa), Karnal, Delhi, Rohtak, and Hissar Districts, 
Punjab. Lat. 28° 54' to 30° 13' n., long. 76° 35' to 77° 26' E. 
It takes its supply of water from the Jumna at Hathni Kiind, on 
its western bank, at Tajawala, about a mile and a half below the point 1 
where the river debouches from the Siwalik hills. The head-works 
consist of a permanent vreir across the river bed, with scouring and 
regulating sluices on both banks, those on the right bank feeding the \ 
Western, and those on the left the Eastern Jumna Canal. One-third 
of the Jumna river has already been carried oft' for the Eastern Jumna ■ 
Canal, whose head stands 3I miles higher up the channel. Nearly the 
whole river at Hathni Kiind is diverted by artificial cuts and dams, 
first into the Budhi Jumna, and then into the Patrala torrent. The ^ 
latter shortly joins the Sombh, and just below their junction, at 
Dadiipur, a dam crosses the united stream and turns the whole body 
of water into the canal. The canal diverges at an acute angle from the 
Sombh, and the water is admitted through a regulator on the western 
bank of that river. The dam is 777 feet in length, and consists of a 
series of masonry piers, 3 feet in thickness, with openings of to feet 
wide. When it is required to stop the water back into the canal, these 
openings are closed by boards ; while by the removal of the boards, the 
whole water of the river can at any time be allowed to escape down 
the bed of the Sombh, and thence into the Jumna. 

The first irrigation cut from the Jumna, of which record remains, was | 
drawn about the middle of the 14th century by the Emperor Firoz j 
Shah Tughlak for the supply of his city of Hissar. The head-works j 
probably coincided with those of the modern undertaking (although 



I 



JUMNA CANAL, WESTERN. 259 



! the precise position cannot be determined), and the alignment followed 
one or other of the natural channels intersecting the Jumna lowlands 
as far as Karndl. Thence a short excavation led into a line of drainage 
connected with the Chutang, whose bed may still be traced to its 
junction with the Ghaggar. The old canal appears to have terminated 
in a small masonry tank a little beyond Hissar ; and the absence of 
distributaries or their remains along its course would seem to show that 
it was not employed for intermediate irrigation, but simply for the supply 
of the imperial grounds. Two hundred years later, the channel, which 
had silted up in the interim, was reopened by order of Akbar, about 
1568. About the year 1628, All Mardan Khan, the famous engineer 
of Shah Jahan, took off a large branch for the purpose of bringing 
water to the new city of Delhi. This work must have been executed 
v.ith considerable skill and at great cost. Another branch was at the 
same time carried in the direction of Rohtak. 

During the decline of the Mughal Empire, however, and the 
period of Sikh reaction, the canal gradually silted up once more, and, 

, ceasing to flow about the middle of the 18th century, remained in 
disuse until after the introduction of British rule. In 181 7, our 

I Government undertook the restoration of the Delhi branch, and the 

■ water re-entered that city in 1820. The restoration of the Hissar 
branch followed in 1823-25, and during the succeeding year, irrigation 

\ commenced in Hissar District. The famine year of 1832-33, how- 

i ever, first roused the cultivators to a sense of its value. The total 
length of canal now open amounts to 433 miles, with an aggregate of 
259 miles of distributing channels, besides private watercourses. From 
Dadiipur to Karnal (40 miles in a straight line), the canal takes a windin 
course through the lowlands, by an old bed, parallel in the main to the 
Jumna. Six miles below Karnal it passes south-westward through the 
high outer bank of the river valley by a cutting. At Rer, 14 miles below, 
the Delhi branch strikes off due south, traverses Delhi city, and terminates 

' in a junction with the river. The Rohtak branch leaves the main line 
Ti miles farther on, and, passing Rohtak, loses itself in a sandy tract 
south of that town. The Butana branch strikes off 3I miles below the 
Rohtak, and, dividing into two forks, ends after a course of 27 miles a 
little beyond Butana. The main line continues along Firoz Shah's align- 
ment, in a tortuous channel, till it meets the Chutang Nadi, whose bed 
it utilizes for the remainder of its course. Flowing south-westward as 
far as Hansi, and then slightly northward to Hissar, it divides into two 
branches, one of them artificial, and finally ends in the sands beyond 
the British frontier. After very heavy seasons, a small quantity of water 
finds its way to the Ghaggar. 

The following statement shows the area irrigated during the ten years 
ending 1873, and also during the six years from 1877-7S to 1S82-S 



& 



J 



26o 



JUMNA CANAL, WESTERN 



1863-64, 351,537 acres; 1864-65, 434,9^4 acres; 1865-66, 397,963 
acres; 1866-67, 447,i7i acres; 1867-68, 331,037 acres; 1868-69, 
486,878acres; i869-7o,496,542acres; 1870-71, 472, 404acres; 1871-72, 
444,385 acres; 1872-73, 351,820 acres. In 1877-78, the irrigated 
area was 507,974 acres; 1878-79, 39^,460 acres; 1879-80, 310,680 
acres; 1880-81, 265,551 acres; 1881-82, 300,545 acres; 1882-83, 
374,243. Average for the six years ending 1882-83, 359^576 acres. 
The total capital outlay of the British Government upon this canal up 
to the end of 1872-73, amounted to ;£"3 11,693, and up to the end of 
1882-83, ;£884,952. No data exist upon which an estimate of its 
original cost may be based. The canal, with its extensions now 
(1884) approaching completion, is intended to protect an area of 1640 
square miles. The following table exhibits the financial state of the 
undertaking for fourteen years ending 1883-84 : — 

Statement showing Area irrigated. Income, Working Expenses, 
AND Profit on the Western Jumna Canal from 1870-71 to 
1883-84. 



Year. 


Gross Income. 


Working 
Expenses. 


Profit. 


Percentage upon 

Capital at the 

beginning of the 

Year. 


Area 
Irrigated 
in Acies. 


Direct. 


Direct 

with 

Indirect. 


Direct. 


Direct 

with 

Indirect. 


Direct. 


Direct 

with 
Indirect. 


1870-71 


150,757 


188,013 




£ 
116,884 


£ 
154,140 


44-46 


58-63 


462,707 


1871-72 


109,296 


146,552 


37,645 


71,651 


108,907 


25-66 


39-01 


444,385 


1872-73 


102,300 


139,556 


40,118 


62,182 


99,438 


20-86 


33-36 


351,821 


1873-74 


100,328 


137,585 


37,298 


63,030 


100,287 


22-21 


32-17 


311,747 


1874-75 


91,290 


128,546 


33,873 


57,417 


94,673 


17-18 


28-32 


382,847 


1875-76 


100,871 


140,999 


37,515 


63,356 


103,484 


16-64 


27-18 


309,595 


1876-77 


87,813 


126,405 


38,937 


48,876 


87,468 


1-13 


20-23 


366,482 


1877-78 


99,210 


136,586 


41,872 


57,338 


94,714 


11-74 


19-39 


507,974 


1878-79 


118,069 


129,706 


41,600 


76,462 


87,399 


1328 


1517 


398,460 


1879-80 


113,086 


140,669 


47,563 


65,523 


93,106 


9-96 


14-17 


310,686 


I 880-8 I 


91,012 


181,774 


40,825 


50,187 


140,949 


7-17 


20-13 


265,556 


1881-82 


120,125 


123,933 


43,116 


77,009 


80,817 


9-83 


10-31 


300,545 


1882-83 


"5,949 


121,785 


47,179 


68,770 


74,606 


8-29 


9-00 


374-243 


1883-84 


139,240 


145, 504 


47,766 


91,474 


97,738 


10-34 


11-04 


472,426 



JUNAGARH. 261 

I The indirect revenue represents the increase in the receipts from the 
land-tax, in consequence of the benefits derived from irrigation. The 

, works for the restored canal system above described, as based on the 
old native works, were begun by Captain Blane and carried out by 

I Major John Colvin. In addition, a costly work now (1884) nearly 
completed, in the reformation of the middle section of the canal, 
with a view to the reclamation of swamps and saline efflorescence, 

. produced by the bad alignment of the old canal and its interference 
with the surface drainage of the country, which have rendered barren 
thousands of fruitful acres, ruined many populous homesteads, and 
undermined the health of the whole country-side. This project 
embraces new permanent head-works on the Jumna ; a new main line, 
taking off from the old channel about 15 miles above Karnal, and 
terminating at the 28th mile in new regulators for the Delhi and Hansi 
branches; a new channel in substitution for the first 55 miles of the 
former branch; the remodelling of the first 20 miles of that branch; 
a navigation canal 9! miles in length to connect the Delhi branch with 
the lately opened Agra Canal ; and drainage works in the irrigated 

I tract and improvement of the outfall into the river Jumna from the 

I Najafgarhy/^//, the natural receptacle for the drainage from a portion 
of the irrigated districts. These rectifications have been rapidly pushed 
on with. The new head-works on the Jumna have been in use since 
1878. The remodelling of the canal and the construction of new 
distributaries are (1884) approaching completion ; some of the drainage 
schemes connected with them are in hand, while others are being 
elaborated or are under consideration. 

Junagarh (or Jimdgadh). — Native State under the Political Agency 
of Kathiawar, Gujarat (Guzerat), Bombay Presidency. Lat. 20° 48' to 
21° 40' N., long. 69° 55' to 71° 35' E. Area, 3283 square miles. Popu- 
lation (1872) 380,921; (1881)387,499; number of towms, 7; number 
of villages, 850; houses, 6578; estimated gross revenue, ^200,000. 
Distributed according to religion, the population consists of — Hindus, 
306,295; Muhammadans, 76,401; 'others,' 4803. Since 1872, the 

i population has increased by 6578. The only elevation rising above 

,the general level of the plain is the Girnar group of hills, the highest 

jpeak of which, Gorakhnath, is about 3666 feet above sea -level. 

|There is also a densely - wooded tract called the Gir, hilly in some 
parts, but in others so low as to be liable to floods during the rainy 
season. The soil is generally black, but in certain spots the lighter 
varieties are found. Irrigation is commonly practised by means of 

iwater brought in canals, or drawn from wells by the Persian wheel 
and the leathern bag. The climate is upon the whole healthy, though, 

except on the Girnar Hill, the heat is excessive from the beginning of 
April to the middle of July. Fever and dysentery are the prevailing 



262 JUNA GARH TO WN. 

diseases. Stone exists suited for building purposes. The agricultural 
products comprise — cotton, shipped in considerable quantities from the 
port of Veriwal to Bombay ; wheat ; the ordinary varieties of pulse 
and millet ; oil-seeds ; and sugar-cane, both the indigenous and Mauritius 
varieties. The manufactured articles are oil and coarse cotton cloth. 

The coast-line is well supplied with fair-weather harbours, suited for 
native craft. Of the harbours, the chief are Verawal, Nawa-bandar, and 
Sutrapara. The main roads through the State are from Junagarh towards 
Jetpur and Dhoraji, and from Junagarh to Verawal. The ordinary 
country tracks serve in the fair season for the passage of carts, pack- 
bullocks, and horses. There are 34 schools, with i960 pupils. Places 
of interest include — the sacred mountain of Girnar, crowned with Jain 
temples ; the port of Verawal ; and the ruined temple of Somnath. 

Junagarh ranks as a first-class State among the many petty States 
of Kathiawar. Its ruler first entered into engagements with the British 
Government in 1807. The present (1884) chief, who is entitled to a 
salute of II guns, succeeded his father, Sir Mohobat Khanji, K.C.S.I., 
who died on the 29th September 1882. His name is Bahadur Khanji, 
and his title, Nawab of Junagarh. He is twenty-nine years of age, and 
was installed on the ist October 1882. He is ninth in succession 
from Sher Khan Babi, the founder of the family. He pays to the 
British Government and the Gaekw^ar of Baroda a yearly tribute of 
;£"656o, 8s., and maintains a military force of 2682 men. He holds a 
sanad authorizing adoption, and the succession follows the rule of 
primogeniture. He has power of life and death over his own subjects. 
He has entered into engagements to prohibit sati^ and to exempt from 
duty vessels entering his ports through stress of weather. 

Until 1472 A.D., when it was conquered by Sultan Muhammad 
Begara of Ahmadabdd, Junagarh was a Rajput State, ruled by chiefs 
of the Churasama tribe. During the reign of the Emperor Akbar, 
it became a dependency of the Court of Delhi, under the immediate 
authority of the Mughal Viceroy of Gujarat (Guzerat). About 1735, 
when the representative of the Mughals had lost his authority in 
Gujarat, Sher Khan Babi, a soldier of fortune under the viceroy, 
expelled the Mughal governor, and established his own rule. Sher 
Khan's son, SaUbat Khan, appointed his heir chief of Junagarh, assign- 
ing to his younger sons the lands of Bantwa. 

Though himself tributary to the Gaekwar of Baroda and the 
British Government, the Nawab of Junagarh receives yearly contribu- 
tions, called zortalabi^ from a large number of petty chiefs in Kathiawar. 
This levy, which is collected and paid to the Nawab by British officers 
of the Kathiawar Agency, is a relic of the days of Muhammadan 
supremacy. 

Jundgarh.— Chief town of the Native State of Junagarh, Kathiawar, 



JUNAPADAR— JUNGLE MAHALS. 263 

Bombay Presidency. Lat. 21° 31' n., long. 70° 36' 30" e., 60 miles south- 
west of Rajkot. Population (1872) 20,025: (1881) 24,679, namely, 
13,605 males and 11,074 females. Hindus numbered 12,910; Muham- 
madans, 11,287; Jains, 462; Christians, 19; and Parsi, i. 

Junagarh, situated under the Girnar and Ddtar hills, is one of the 
most picturesque cities in India, while in antiquity and historical 
interest it yields to none. The Uparkot or old citadel contains 
interesting Buddhist caves, and the whole of the ditch and neighbour- 
hood is honeycombed with caves or their remains. The most interest- 
ing of these, called Khaprakodia, have the appearance of having been 
once a monastery, two or three storeys in height. Dr. Burgess, in 
his Antiquities of Cutch and Kdthidiudr^ has fully described these caves. 
The ditch is cut entirely out of the rock, and forms a strong defence. 
In the Uparkot are two vavs^ said to be built by slave girls of Chudasama 
rulers of olden times ; a mosque built by Sultan Mahmud Begara ; near 
the mosque is a cannon 17 feet long, 7 J feet in circumference at the 
breech, and 9^^ inches in diameter at the muzzle ; another large cannon 
in the southern portion of the fort is 13 feet long, and has a muzzle 14 
inches in diameter. The Uparkot has been many times besieged, and 
often taken, on which occasions the Raja was wont to flee to the fort 
on Girnar, which from its inaccessibility was almost impregnable. Of 
late years a fine hospital and other public buildings have been erected, 
and the town has been much improved by fine houses built by the nobles 
of the court. A collection of shops called Mahabat circle is in front 
of the Nawab's palace. Here is a clock tower. Uparkot is the ancient 
Junagarh. The present town is more correctly called Mustafabad, and 
was built by Mahmud Begada of Gujarat. 

Junapadar. — Petty State in Gohelwar Sub-division, Kathiawar, 
Bombay Presidency. It consists of i village, Junapadar, with i separate 
tnbute-payer. The revenue in 1876 was estimated at ^'55 ; and 
tribute of ^4, 4s. is paid to the Gaekwar of Baroda, and i6s. to 
Junagarh. Population (1881) 199. The tdlukddrs ^XQ Khasia Kolis. 

Jungle MaMls. — Formerly a Western District of Lower Bengal. 
The Jungle Mahals was originally a vague term applied in the last 
century to the British possessions and semi-independent chiefdoms 
lying between the regular Districts of Birbhiim, Bardwan, and Bankura, 
and the hill country of Chutia Nagpur. As the administration became 
more precise, inconvenience arose from the vagueness of the jurisdiction, 
the stoppage of writs, etc. Accordingly Regulation xviii. of 1805 
erected the Jungle Mahals into a distinctly defined District, consisting 
of i^pargafids ov mahdls ixom Birbhiim District (including Pachete), 
3 from Bardwan (including most of Bishnupur), and 5 from Midnapur 
(including Manbhiim and Barabhiim). The separate District of the 
Jungle Mahals was abolished by Regulation xiii. of 1833, and the 



264 JUNNAR—JUNONA. 

territory redistributed among the adjoining Districts. It is now com- 
prised within the western parts of Birbhiim and the Santal Parganas, 
Bankura and Midnapur Districts, and within the eastern Districts of 
the Chutia Nagpur Division, especially Manbhiim. The tract lies 
between lat. 21° 51' 30" and 22° 48' 30" n., and long. 86' 36' and 87° 
16' E. Regulation xviii. of 1805 affords an interesting illustration of 
the elaborate rules and details involved in the erection of a separate 
jurisdiction under the Company. There is now no specific tract of 
country known as the Jungle Mahals. 

Junnar. — Sub-division of Piina (Poona) District, Bombay Presi- 
dency. Area, 611 square miles; contains i town and 153 villages. 
Population (1881) 102,273, namely, 50,666 males and 51,607 females. 
Hindus numbered 95,748; Muhammadans, 5006; 'others,' 1519. 
Since 1872, the population has decreased by 4603. Revenue (1882-83), 
;^i4,7i8. The Sub-division contains i civil and 2 criminal courts; 
number of police stations {thd?ids), i ; regular police, 48 men ; village 
watchmen (chatckiddrs), 93. 

Junnar. — Chief town of Junnar Sub-division, Poona (Piina) Dis- 
trict, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 19° 12' 30" n., long. 73° 58' 30" e. 
Population (1872) 10,298; (1881) 10,373, namely, males 5043? ^"^ 
females 5330. Hindus numbered 7952; Muhammadans, 2006; and 
Jains, 415. Area of town site, 233 acres. Municipal revenue (1882-83), 
^512; municipal expenditure (1882-83), £i()S ) rate of taxation, lofd. 
per head. Junnar contains a sub-judge's court, post-office, and dispensary. 

Though fallen in size and importance since the time of Muhamraadan 
rule, and by the subsequent transfer of the seat of government to 
Poona under the Marathas, Junnar is still a place of considerable 
note, being the chief market of the northern part of the District, and 
a depot for the grain and merchandise passing to the Konkan by the 
Nanaghat. It was formerly celebrated for the manufacture of paper, 
but the low rates at which the European article is now sold, have 
almost driven native paper out of the market. The fort of Junnar, 
often noticed in Maratha annals, was built by Malik-ul-Tujjar in 1436. 
In May 1557, Sivaji surprised and plundered the town, carrying off 
about ;2{^i 00,000 in specie, besides other valuable spoil. About a mile 
and a half south-west of the town of Junnar is the hill fort of Sivner, 
granted in 1599 to the grandfather of Sivaji, who is said to have been 
born here in 1627. During the turbulent times of Maratha warfare 
Sivner was often taken and retaken, and once, in 1670, the forces of 
Sivaji himself were beaten back by its Mughal garrison. Besides fine 
gates and solid fortifications, it is celebrated for its deep springs. 
They rise in pools of great depth, supposed to be coeval with the 
series of Buddhist caves which pierce the lower portion of the scarp. 

Junona.— Ancient village in Chanda District, Central Provinces. 



JUTOGH—KABBAL-DUA'GA. 265 

Lat. 19° 55' 30" N., long. 79° 26' E. ; six miles north of Ballali)ur, and 
perhaps connected with it when Ballalpur was the Gond capital of 
Chanda. Possesses a fine tank, on the stone embankment of which 
stand the ruined remains of a palace ; and in its rear are traces of a 
wall 4 miles long. An elaborate system of under-channels, now im- 
perfect, communicates with the tank. Population (i88i) 322. 

JutOgh. — Small military station in Simla District, Punjab ; situated 
on the top of a lofty and steep hill, a few miles from the town of 
Simla. The quarters of a mule battery of mountain artillery, and of a 
wing of the British regiment stationed at Subathu. Area, 365 acres. 
Population (1881) 953. 

K. 

Kabadak (or Kapotdksha, ' Dove's Eye '). — River of Bengal. A 
deltaic distributary of the Matabhanga, branching off from that river 
near Chandpur, in Nadiya District, whence it flows a winding easterly 
course for a few miles, after which it turns southwards, marking the 
boundary between Nadiya and the Twenty-four Parganas on the one 
hand and Jessor on the other. Five miles east of Asasuni in the 
Twenty-four Parganas, it is joined by the Marichhap Gang, which com- 
municates with the series of boat passages and canals from Calcutta ; 
and two miles below this junction it sends off the Chandkhali khd/ 
eastwards into Jessor District, continuing the boat passage towards 
Khulna, Dacca, etc. Farther to the south, in lat. 22° 13' 30" n., 
and long. 89° 20' e., the Kabadak unites with the Kholpetua, and the 
combined stream then takes the successive names of the Pangasi, Bara, 
Panga, Namgad, Samudra, and near the sea, Malancha, under which 
name it falls into the Bay of Bengal. 

Kabar. — Lake or marsh in Monghyr District, Bengal, lying between 
25° 35' 30" and 25° 39' 30" N. lat, and between 86° 9' and 86° 13' e. 
long. The chief of a chain of marshes running along the north of the 
District, with high and abrupt banks, which seem to indicate that they 
owe their origin to a change of course in the Ganges or Gandak. 
They are annually filled by the floods of these rivers, and abound in 
crocodiles, fish, and wild-fowl. 

I Ka-baung". — A river in Taung-gnu District, Tenasserim Division, 
British Burma. Rises in the Pegu Yoma Hills, and after a south-west 
course of 68 miles falls into the Tsit-taung just below Taung-gnu, and 
for some distance up is a fine broad stream. Navigable for about 25 
miles; teak, theng-gan (used for boat-building), sesamum, etc., are 
brought down this stream for the Taung-gnii market. 

Kabbal-durga. — Conical hill in ]\Ialvalli tdhik of Mysore District, 
Mysore State, in the watershed between the Shimsha and Arkavati rivers. 



266 KABBANI— KABUL. 

Lat. 12' 30' N., long. 77° 22' E. It is fortified, and accessible only on one 
side by narrow steps hewn in the rock. Used as a penal settlement under 
the Hindu and Musalman dynasties, 'where the insalubrity of the climate 
was mercifully added to the unwholesome water to shorten the suffer- 
ings of State prisoners.' It was dismantled and abandoned in 1864. 
The name of Jaffarabad, given by Haidar Ali, is now forgotten. 

Kabbani. — River of Mysore and Madras Presidency. — See Kapini. 

Kabrai.— Town in Hamirpur District, North-Western Provinces. 
Population (1881) 2272. Situated near the Brahm Tal, an extensive 
tank, now much silted up, but once a fine sheet of water, the construc- 
tion of which is attributed to the Chandel Raja Babrahm. Ruins of 
ancient temples and other architectural remains are still shown on its 
banks. 

Kabul {Kdbal). — Principal Province of Afghanistan, bounded on 
the north-west by the Koh-i-Baba ; on the north by the Hindu-Kiish ; 
on the north-east by the Panjsher river; on the east by the Sulaiman 
range ; on the south by the Safed Koh and Ghazni ; and on the west 
by the hill country of the Hazaras. The following articles on the 
Province, city, and river of Kabul are condensed from General Sir 
C. M. Macgregor's Account (187 1), brought up to 1882 by Lieut.-Col. 
W. S. A. Lockhart :— 

The Province of Kabul is mountainous, but contains many rich 
arable valleys along the base of the hills. Wheat is the chief product, 
and after it barley. The poorest classes consume a considerable pro- 
portion of barley and pease in their food. There are none so poor 
but that they occasionally indulge in animal food, and the rich in a 
great measure subsist on it. Corn is imported from as far as the en- 
virons of Ghazni. Rice is brought from Upper Bangash, Jalalabad, 
Laghman, and even Kiinar ; in a dear year corn is sometimes brought 
from Bamian in small quantities. The supply of ghi is chiefly from 
Bamian and the Hazarajat. The quantity of grain annually imported 
into the valley does not bear a great proportion to that produced in 
it, and provisions are seldom dear. In the valleys a good deal of wood 
is cultivated — willows and sycamores. In Kohistan and Kuram there 
is abundance of timber. The orchards of Kabul, which are very 
numerous, are chiefly in the Koh Daman ; and in it the valley of Istalif 
is celebrated for the excellence and profusion of its fruits, and also 
for its picturesque beauties. The chief pasturage is in Logar, and on 
the south, as also towards Ghorband. The Division of Biitkhak is 
that in which agriculture is most pursued. In the whole valley the 
watered lands much exceed the unwatered, but in the southern skirts 
there are some small spaces in which the reverse is true. Fodder is 
plentiful in Kabul and most parts of the valley ; artificial grasses con- 
stitute a considerable part of it in those quarters where pasturage is 



KABUL CITY. 267 

much pursued. A part of the population live in tents in summer, but 
otherwise stone or brick houses are used, and the most common kind 
is the flat-roofed. The chief stock is in cows, except where pasturage 
is followed, and there sheep are a more important object. A con- 
siderable trade is carried on by the Kabulis, especially with Turkistan 
and Hindustan. A trade in horses and ponies is carried on with 
Turkistan. 

The villages are of various sizes, and on an average contain 150 
families; they are not fortified, but invariably contain small castles 
or private forts of no strength. There are few wastes or spaces ill 
supplied with water in the whole Province ; such as do exist are 
towards the south and the north-west limits. With respect to carriage, 
bullocks are chiefly used within the valley; those who trade to 
Khorasan employ camels ; in the east and south of the Province, 
camels, mules, and ponies are used ; in the Hazara country, mules 
and ponies. The Ghilzais, who trade to Turkistan by the road of 
iBamian, use camels. The heavy custom dues imposed in Russian 
I Turkistan have affected the trade of the Province. Cotton fabrics, 
tea, and other products of British India no longer pass upward to the 
extent of former years, and the Kabul authorities have therefore lost 
ithe revenue accruing from transit dues. The hakim, or governor of 
ithe Province, was in 1882 Sardar Ahmad Khan, half-brother to the 
late Amir Sher All Khan. The revenue of Kabul Province amounts 
to ;^i 80,000. Its military force is greater than that of any other 
Province of Afghanistan. The country is by nature strong, and it has 
good roads through it. 

Kabul {Kdbal). — The capital of Afghanistan ; situated between the 
rivers Kabul and Logar near their junction, 88 miles from Ghazni, 229 
miles from Khilat-i-Ghilzai, 316 miles from Kandahar, 94 miles from 
Jalalabad, 175 miles from Peshawar, and 687 miles from Herat by 
Kandahar. Lat. 34° 30' n., long. 69° 18' e. Population, according to 
a Census taken by order of the Amir Sher Ali in 1876, about 
140,000. 

Physical Aspects. — The city of Kabul is situated at the west extremity 
;of a spacious plain, in an angle formed by the approach of two inferior 
ridges, the Koh Takht Shah and the Koh Khoja Safar. With the 
excepdon of a suburb, it lies on the right bank of the Kabul river. It 
is about three miles in circumference. To the east and south-east is the 
Bala Hissar, or citadel. There are no walls round the city at the 
present time, though formerly it was encircled by walls constructed 
pardy of burnt bricks, and partly of mud, the trace of which remains 
most abundantly in the east quarter. The space included within 
the walls being largely filled with gardens, does not contain above 
5000 houses ; anciently it may be presumed to have comprised a 



268 KABUL CITY. 

I 

lower number. Seven gates allowed ingress and egress to and from | 
the old city : the Darwazas Lahori, Sirdar, Pet, Deh Afghanan, Deh ' 
Mazang, Guzar Gah, and Jabr. Of these, the Darwazas Lahori and ' 
Sirdar are the only ones now standing, being built of deeply coloured \ 
kiln-burnt bricks. That of Jabr was removed many years ago. The : 
sites of those no longer existing, besides being well known, are the : 
stations of officers appointed to collect the town duties on the neces- 
saries of life brought in from the country. Some of the names by 
which the gates are now known, or remembered, would seem to have 
replaced more ancient ones. 

The houses of Kabul are but slightly and indifferently built, , 
generally of mud and unburnt bricks. The few of burnt brick are ( 
those of old standing. Their general want of substantiality does ' 
not militate against their being conveniently arranged within, as \ 
many of them are, particularly those built by the Shias in Chandol 
and other quarters. The city is divided into quarters {mahalas), \ 
and these again are separated into sections {kikhas). The latter 
are enclosed and entered by small gates. On occasions of war or 
tumult, the entrance gates are built up, and the city contains as j 
many different fortresses as there are sections in it. This means of ' 
defence is called ' Kiichabandi.' It must be obvious that an insecure 
state of society has induced this precautionary mode of arrangement | 
in the building of the city. The necessity to adopt it has occasioned 
the narrow and inconvenient passages of communication, or streets, if , 
they must be so called, which intersect the several sections. The 
principal bazars of the city are independent of the sections, and extend 
generally in straight lines. 

There are no public buildings of any importance in the city. 
The mosques, or places of worship, are far from being splendid \ 
edifices, although many are spacious and commodious ; convenience 
and utility, rather than specious external appearance, has been sought 
for in their construction. Outside the city lie the fine tombs of 
the Emperor Babar and of Timiir Shah. The residence of former 
monarchs was the Bala Hissar, but the present Amir, Abdur Rahman : 
Khan, has his residence in the city. There is but one college, and 
this without endowment or scholars. There are some 14 or 15 sardis 
or kardvansardis for the accommodation of foreign merchants and 
traders, named sometimes after their founders, as the Sarai Zirdad, 
the Sarai Muhammad Riimi, etc., sometimes after the place whose 
traders in preference frequent it, as the Sarai Kandahari, etc. These 
structures will bear no comparison with the elegant and commodious 
buildings of the same kind so numerous in the cities and country of 
Persia. Hammauis or public baths, being indispensable appendages 
to a ]\Iuhammadan city, are in some number, but they are deficient in 



KABUL CITY. 269 

the matter of cleanliness. The approach to many of them is announced 
by an unwelcome odour, arising from the offensive fuel employed to 
heat them. 

Of the several bazars of the city, the two principal, running irregularly 
])arallel to each other, are the Shor bazar., and the bazar of the 
Darwaza Lahori. The former, to the south, extends east and west 
from the Bala Hissar Pain to the Zi'arat Baba Khiidi, a distance of 
a litde more than three-quarters of a mile. The latter, stretching from 
the Darwaza Lahori, terminates at the Chabutra, at which point there 
is a street to the south, called Chob Farosh or the wood market, 
communicating with the western extremity of the Shor bazar. To 
the north, another street leads from the Chabutra to the Kishti. 
The western portion of the bazar Darwaza Lahori is occupied by the 
Char Chata, or four covered arcades, the most magnificent of the 
Kabul bazars^ of which the inhabitants are justly proud. The structure 
is inscribed to Ali Mardan Khan, whose name is immortal in these 
countries, from the many visible testimonies to his public spirit 
extant in various forms. It is handsomely constructed and highly 
embellished with paintings. The four covered arcades, of equal 
length and dimensions, are separated from each other by square 
open areas, originally provided with wells and fountains. These 
were judicious improvements on the plan in vogue throughout Persia, 
where the covered bazars, extending in some of the larger cities 
for above 2 miles, not only exclude the rays of the sun, but com- 
pletely prevent the free circulation of air, producing thereby close 
and oppressive and, it may be presumed, unhealthy atmospheres. 

The shops of the Char Chata are now tenanted by retail vendors of 
manufactured goods, whether of wool, cotton, or silk. Before the 
shops are what may be called counters, on which sit, with their wares 
displayed, silk-mercers, makers of caps, shoes, etc., and money-changers, 
with their heaps of copper money before them. Beneath the counters 
are stalls ; and as they exactly resemble the cobblers' stalls of London 
in situation and appearance, so are they generally occupied by the 
same class of craftsmen. In Kabul, as in other places, all traffic is 
transacted through the medium of the broker. Besides the shop- 
keepers, or fixed tradesmen, a vast number of itinerant traders parade 
the bazars ; it is probable that the cries of Kabul equal in variety those 
of London. Inclusive of the Bala Hissar, the number of houses in 
Kabul is about 9000, of which nearly one-half are occupied by Shia 
families. The population may therefore be computed at something 
between fifty and sixty thousand. In the summer season, from the 
influx of merchants and people from all parts of the country, the city 
is very densely inhabited ; and this pressure of strangers explains the 
crowds and bustle to be witnessed in the bazars, with the great propor- 



2 70 KABUL CITY. 

tion of itinerant traders in cooked provisions and the necessaries of 
life, who may be said to infest the streets. ': 

The appearance of Kabul as a city has little to recommend it ' 
beyond the interest conferred by the surrounding scenery. It is best 
approached, and, indeed, can only be seen, from the east. In that 
direction the traveller catches his first view of the low country from ' 
the crest of the Pass of Lataband. Formerly a canopied apartment of ; 
the palace of Kabul was cased in copper gilt, which, besides being very ; 
ornamental, had a conspicuous effect in the obscure and indistinct mass ' 
presented by the city from the Kotal, or crest of the pass. 

Across the river which flows through Kabul, so far as the city is 
concerned, there can be said to be only one bridge, viz. the Piil-i-Kishti 
(brick bridge). This is a substantial structure, however ill kept in repair, 
of mixed brickwork, and masonry. It leads directly into the busy parts 
of the city, where the custom-house, corn market, the covered arcades, li 
and the principal bazars are found. At a little distance east of it is the 
so-called Piil Nawa, or the canoe bridge, composed of the hollowed ■ 
trunks of trees joined to each other. It affords a tremulous passage to 
pedestrians who choose to venture over it, and connects the quarters 
Bagh All IMardan Khcin and Morad Khani. To the west, at the gorge 
between the two hills through which the river enters upon the city, is ; 
the fortifled bridge of Sirdar Jahan Khan. This is sometimes called i 
the bridge of Nasir Khan, and is probably due to the governor so 
named who flourished at the epoch of Nadir Shah's invasion. It is 
believed that he was one of the dignitaries who connected with this 
bridge the lines of fortifications over the hills ; and that he built the 
parapet wall which fringes the western or exterior face of the bridge. ' 
Between this structure and the Piil-i-Kishti was anciently a bridge 
connecting Chandol, on the southern side of the stream, with the 
Indarabi quarter on the opposite side. i 

Beyond the Pill Nawa, and altogether without the city, is another 
once substantial bridge thrown across the stream, said to owe its 
origin to Babar. It became injured through age and neglect; but 
being on the road from the palace of the Bala Hissdr to the 
royal gardens, it was necessary to repair it ; and at length, in the 
reign of Zaman Shah, it was restored by the governor of the city, 
Sirdar Jahan Nasi'r Khan, whose name it yet bears. It has, however, 
again become dilapidated. The river has yet another bridge travers- 
ing it west of the fortified bridge at the gorge of the two hills, 
and parallel to the tomb of the celebrated Babar. It is a substantial 
erection, and its date is probably that of the tomb and its appendages, 
of which it may be considered one. The river has, therefore, in Kabub 
and the immediate vicinity four permanent bridges crossing it. The 
canoe bridge is not entitled to be included, being little more important' 



KABUL CITY. 271 

I than a plank placed across a rivulet. Besides these bridges, the river 
has no other, either to the east or west of them, in the upper part of its 
course being easily fordable, and soon terminating its lower section by 
joining with the river of Logar. 

Kabul was first made the capital of Afghanistan by Timiir Shah, and 
it continued to be the capital throughout the period of the Saduzai 
dynasty. On the fall of the Saduzais, Kabul came into the hands 
of Dost Muhammad, who became Amir, and retained it for his 
capital. 

Iiihabita?its, etc. — The Emperor Babar boasts of the commercial 
importance of Kabul, and the consequent resort to it of the merchants 
of all countries, and the display in its markets of the fabrics and 
produce of all climes. The eminent advantage possessed by Kabul 
is that of locality. This is conferred by nature ; and so long as the 
present conformation of hill and plain endures, the city will preserve 
and enjoy it. There has always been a commercial communication 
between India and the regions of Turkistan. Kabul, happily situated 
at the gorge of the nearest and most practicable passes connecting the 
two countries, will always profit by the intercourse between them. 
The presence of the court, and of a comparatively large military force, 
not a litde contributes to the bustle and activity to be observed in the 
I city. It also imparts life and vigour to many professions and crafts 
engaged in the preparation of warlike instruments and necessaries. As 
a class, the artisans, while not inexpert and perfectly competent to 
meet the wants of their customers, do not excel. There is not an 
article made or wrought in Kabul which is not surpassed by specimens 
from other countries. It is probable that many of the trades did not 
exist before the foundation of the monarchy, and they should, perhaps, 
be even now considered in a state of progression, a remark perhaps 
applicable to the whole country. With respect to the trade of Kabul, 
it may be observed that there are six points within Afghanistan where 
duties on merchandise are levied, viz. Kabul, Ghazni, Bamian, 
Charikar, Logar, and Jalalabad. 

Kabul is abundantly supplied with water, which is generally of good 
i quality. The river, on its entrance from the plain of Char Deh, is 
jbeautifully transparent ; but after a course of a few* hundred yards, its 
Iwaters are little used by the inhabitants of the city as a beverage, from 
a belief that their quality is impaired by the large quantities of clothes 
cleansed in the river preparatory to bleaching upon its banks. Parallel 
to the river, in the first part of its course, is the canal called Jiii Sharin, 
whose water is esteemed excellent. The southern parts of the city are 
supphed with water from a canal called Bala Jiii, which is brought from 
the river at its entrance into the plain of Char Deh, and being carried 
on the western face of the hill, Koh Takht Shah, passes the sepulchre 



2 72 KABUL CITY. 

of Babar, and thence winds around the same hill until it reaches 
the Bala Hissar. Without the Bala Hissar, to the east, flows a canal, 
the Jiii Piil Mastan, whose water is held in high repute. It is derived 
from the river of Logar as it enters the plain of Shevaki, and has a 
course of about five miles, a length little inferior to that of the Bala 
Jul 

There are many wells throughout the various quarters of the city, 
and in the Bala Hissar. The waters of these are more or less 
esteemed, but are generally considered heavy, and decidedly inferior 
to river water undefiled. The monarchs were accustomed to have the 
water drunk by them brought from Shakar Dara, a distance of nine miles ; 
and experiments are narrated, testing its superiority over that of the 
neighbouring valleys of Ferzah, etc. The existence of the marshy 
ground to the north is by no means beneficial to the health of the city ; 
for it cannot fail to be remarked, that in those years when the accumu- 
lation of water is large, dangerous autumnal fevers prevail, and that 
the contrary happens under converse conditions. In cases of excessive 
rainfall, the ordinary causes of diminution, absorption, and evaporation 
are not sufficient to carry off or dissipate the mass, and the superfluity 
stagnates towards the close of autumn. The effluvia arising from this 
putrid collection are borne full upon the city by the prevaifing winds, 
particularly by the northerly winds of Parwan, which incessantly rage at 
that time of the year, and sweep over the more noxious chamafi of 
Wazirabad and Bemarii. Still Kabul may not be considered an 
unhealthy city. Its disadvantages, besides those just noted, are — its 
situation, wedged in, as it were, between two hills, its confined streets 
and buildings, with the evils consequent upon them. In compensation, 
it has the benefits of a fine atmosphere, excellent water and provisions, 
with delightful environs. The range of thermometer at Kabul from 
the 6th to the end of August in 1839 was from 46° to 74° F. at 4 a.m., 
and at 3 p.m. from 72° to 96° ; in September at 4 a.m. 50° to 64°, and 
at 3 P.M. 70° to 90°; from ist to 14th October at 4 a.m. 30° to 56°, 
at 3 P.M. 64° to 92°. From 4th to the end of July 1880 the thermometer 
ranged from 42^ to 103° at 9 a.m., and from 56° to 105° at 3 p.m. 

The defences of Kabul have been carefully described in Colonel 
Macgregor's Report, but need not be detailed here. The city played 
an important part in the first Afghan war. On the 7th August 1839, 
Shah Shujd entered Kabul as Amir, escorted by a British army. 
Throughout that year and the next, the British troops remained without 
hindrance. On the 2nd November 1841, the citizens and Afghan 
soldiery broke out in rebellion against the Amir Shah Shuja, and 
murdered him. On the 21st December, the English Resident, Sir 
William MacNaghten, was treacherously shot by Akbar Khan, at an 
interview for arranging the terms for the British troops withdrawing 



KABUL CITY. 273 

from the city. On the 6th January, the British forces marched out 
under solemn guarantee of protection, — 4500 fighting men, with 12,000 
followers. Their fate is well known ; of all that number only one man, 
Dr. Brydon, reached Jalalabad, and 95 prisoners were subsequently 
recovered from the Afghans. On the 15th vSeptember 1842, General 
Pollock, with his army of retribution, arrived at Kabul, took possession 
of the citadel (Bala Hissar) without opposition, and the British forces 
remained there till 12th October, when the city was evacuated. Previous 
to the departure of the army, the great bdzdr^ the Char Chata, was 
destroyed by gunpowder as a retribution for the murder of Sir William 
MacNaghten, and the indignities offered to his remains on this spot. 

By the treaty of Gandamak, in May 1879, ^ British Resident was to 
be stationed at Kabul. (See Afghanistan, vol. i. p. 52.) Accord- 
ingly, Major (afterwards Sir Louis) Cavagnari was appointed to this 
post, and was welcomed to the city with great apparent cordiality by the 
Amir Yakub Khan. Owing to intrigues which will probably never be 
unravelled, the fanatical party was allow-ed to gain head ; and on the 
3rd September 1879, the British Residency was attacked by a rabble of 
towns-people and troops, and Sir Louis Cavagnari and his escort were 
murdered, after a gallant defence. 

Orders w^ere immediately given for the despatch of an avenging force 
from the Kuram valley under Sir Frederick Roberts. The first move 
towards the Shutar-gardan Pass was made on the 8th of September ; 
the pass was occupied on the 13th; and by the 26th of the month 
about 6000 men w^re concentrated at Khushi ready for an advance 
upon Kabul. The advance, which then immediately began, was not 
seriously checked until General Roberts arrived on the 5th October 
at Char-asia, 11 miles from Kabul. Further progress next morning 
through the Sang-i-Nawishta defile was opposed by a considerable 
force. The enemy showed in regular formation along the ridge 
extending from both sides of the Sang-i-Nawishta defile to the heights 
above the Chardeh valley. Observing that they were concentrating 
upon the left, in anticipation of the main attack in that direction. Sir 
F. Roberts resolved upon holding them in check by a feint attack in 
the direction of the defile, while an outflanking movement was under- 
taken upon the enemy's right. These tactics proved completely suc- 
cessful, but the resistance offered by the Afghans was exceedingly 
stubborn. Before evening the peaks overlooking the Sang-i-Nawishta 
defile were in our hands, and a small force w^as pushed through into 
the plain beyond. On the 8th October, General Roberts occupied the 
Sherpur Cantonments north of Kabul, capturing 76 guns and howitzers 
of different calibres ; and on the following day the city itself fell into 
his hands after a feeble show of resistance. 

The Bala Hissar, including the fort and palace, was partially dis- 

VOL. VII. s 



2 74 KABUL CITY. 

mantled; the Amir Yakub Khan abdicated; and the guilty city 
remained under British occupation for nearly a year. A provisional 
government was instituted, road communication was opened between 
Kabul and Peshawar by the Khaibar Pass, and the telegraph was 
completed between these places. Supplies were at first abundantly 
procurable, and when the troops prepared to go into winter quarters 
at Sherpur, there was every appearance of local opposition having been 
broken down, or having melted away. 

Early in December, however, it became apparent that disaffection 

among the tribes was increasing. They had probably looked for the 

speedy withdrawal of the British troops after exacting retribution for 

the murder of the Envoy, and the prolonged occupation of the capital 

had inflamed the national antipathy. It was considered necessary, 

therefore, before settling finally into winter quarters, to take decided 

steps for the pacification of the neighbouring Districts. After a general 

parade of British troops in the plain north of Kabul, two small brigades 

under Generals Macpherson and Baker were sent to break up some 

hostile gatherings to the westward. It then appeared that the rising 

was far more widespread than had been supposed, and after five days' 

incessant fighting round Kabul, during which the enemy lost very 

heavily, their numbers had been so largely increased by the arrival of 

fresh levies, that General Roberts found it impossible any longer to 

make head against them. By the evening of the 14th December 

the British forces were all collected within the walls of the Sherpur 

cantonments, the Afghans being permitted to take possession of the 

city, the Bala Hissar, and the surrounding heights. In Sherpur the 

force remained more or less closely invested, until the crowning effort 

of the enemy was made and repulsed upon the morning of the 23rd 

of December. On that day General Roberts was attacked by fully 

50,000 men ; but they were beaten off without difficulty, and on the 

following day an additional brigade under General Charles Gough 

having joined General Roberts' force, the city of Kabul was again in our 

hands. The enemy's levies disappeared as rapidly as they had assembled. 

After three months of comparative quiet, during which General Sir 

Donald Stewart marched up from Kandahar to Kabul and assumed 

command, negotiations were opened with Sardar Abdur Rahman 

Khan, who had then crossed the Afghan border from Bokhara. In 

the month of July 1880, Abdur Rahman was recognised by the British 

Government as Amir of Kabul. Next month, about 10,000 men under 

General Roberts marched to Kandahar to relieve the British garrison, 

which had been besieged there by Sardcir Ayub Khan after the disaster 

of Maiwand. Meanwhile arrangements for the withdrawal of the rest 

of the British forces by the Khaibar route had been concluded, and 

three days after General Roberts' departure, i.e. on the nth August, 



KABUL RIVER. 275 

Sir Donald Stewart left Kabul for India. The Bala Hissar and the 
other positions which had been held by the British troops were 
handed over to the Amir's officials. The withdrawal of all troops 
from tlie Khaibar line was completed without difficulty by the 8th 
September 1880. 

Since then the Amir Abdur Rahman has remained in power at 
Kabul, and has gradually established and strengthened his hold upon 
the rest of Afghanistan. In June 1881, his supremacy was threatened 
by the advance of Sardar Ayub Khan from Herat to Kandahar, but the 
Amir marched in person against the invader, and eventually defeated 
him. Ayub Khan fled to Herat, and from thence to Persia. In 
October and November of the same year, during Abdur Rahman's 
absence from Kabul, the Wardaks and Kohistanis attempted a rebellion, 
which, however, was crushed by the Amir's governor. Abdur Rahman 
himself returned to Kabul in December, and he has not since been 
forced to enter upon any military operations of serious importance. 

In 1884, the Russians having occupied Merv and reached the border 
of Afghanistan, a British Commission composed of 20 political and 
military officers, with 400 troops and a number of followers, under the 
command of Lieutenant-Colonel Ridgeway, marched through Afghani- 
stan to the neighbourhood of Herat with the view of delimiting the 
North-Western boundary in concert with the Russians. The march 
was very successfully conducted, and a new route was opened up via 
Quetta and Nushki. On arrival at the Persian border, the command 
of the party was taken over by General Sir P. Lumsden, who had 
been sent out from England. Meanwhile the Amir, who had shown 
an inclination to visit India, was invited in February 1885 by Lord 
Dufferin to attend a Darbar at Raw^al Pindi. The Amir accepted the 
invitation, and reached India at the end of March. He was received 
with considerable display, and a force of all arras was assembled to 
do honour to the occasion. The Amir was much gratified at the 
reception accorded to him, and returned to Afghanistan after a fort- 
nigh^'s stay in British territory. 

Kabul. — River of Afghanistan. The Kabul river is believed to rise 
from a copious spring at Sar-i-Chasmah, lat. 34° 21' n., long. 68° 20' e., 
and elevation 8400 feet ; but there is said to be another source about 12 
miles farther west, on the eastern declivity of the Unai ridge. In its 
course the main stream is joined by many small tributaries from the south 
slopes of the Laghman range. It is at first an inconsiderable stream, 
everywhere fordable for 60 miles as far as Kabul, at a short distance 
beyond which place it receives the river of Logar from the south, and 
thenceforward is a rapid river with a great volume of water. About 40 
miles below Kabul, it receives from the north the Panjsher river; 15 
miles farther, the Tagao ; 20 miles below, the united streams of Alingar 



276 KABUL RIVER. 

and Alishang ; and 20 miles farther, at Balabagh, the Siirkh-ab from 
the south. About 2 miles below Jalalabad it is joined by a large river, 
the Kiinar. After all these accessions, the Kabul river becomes a 
large stream and unfordable. Flowing with great force, it hugs the 
north side of the Jalalabad valley until it enters the Mohmand Hills, 
when it presses towards the north base of the Khaibar range, and is 
confined between hills till it emerges into the Peshawar valley at Michni. 
Here it divides into two branches, called the Adiizai and the Nagiiman. 
The Aduzai, or north branch, receives in three branches the waters of 
the Swat river. The Nagiiman, or south branch, separates again into 
several smaller branches at Miiki to rejoin again at Zakhi, where also 
it receives the Bara river from the south, and then the two branches 
reunite at Diiobandi. Thence the Kabul river flows 40 miles east- 
south-east, and falls into the Indus at Attock (Atak), after a course of 
300 miles, in lat. 33° 55' N., and long. 72° 16' e. 

From Sar-i-Chasmah to Jalalabad, this river is of no value except 
for irrigation ; but from Jalalabad to Diiobandi, it affords safe and 
generally rapid descent by means of rafts of inflated skins. This mode 
of travelling is a good deal resorted to, especially when the Khaibar 
Pass is disturbed. It saves a distance of 10 marches, which may be 
traversed in 12 hours during the floods. From Diiobandi to Attock, 
the Kabul is navigable for boats of 40 or 50 tons. 

From its source at Sar-i-Chasmah to Kabul city the river is every- 
where fordable. From Kabul city to Jalalabad it is fordable at a short 
distance above Jalalabad on the road to Liighman in dry weather, and 
there are ferries at the village of Kutz, on the right bank. The fords, 
however, between Kabul and Jalalabad are of a more or less temporary 
and precarious nature according to the season, and both at Sarobi 
(opposite Naglii) and at Jalalabad there are alternative fords and ferries. 
At the Jalalabad ford on 31st March 1879, one officer and 46 non-com- 
missioned officers and men of the loth Hussars were swept away and 
drowned while attempting a passage in the dark. Opposite Jalalabad 
there is a difficult ford in April, and thence to Diiobandi the ferries are 
at Goshta, Lalpiira, Abkhana, Dhaka, Prang (Adiizai branch), Khalil 
Bandah (Nagiiman branch). Below Diiobandi are the following ferries : 
— (i) Nisata to Khalil Bandah, from 2 to 6 boats. This is the principal 
ferry between Peshawar and Yiisafzai through Hashtnagar. (2) Dehri 
Zardad to Shah Alam, 2 boats. This ferry is little frequented. (3) 
Khaishki to Pirpai and Zakhel, 2 boats. This ferry is little frequented. 
(4) New Naoshahra to old Naoshahra. This is the largest ferry in 
connection with Yiisafzai. In the hot weather it employs from 6 to 8 
boats. In the cold weather, and sometimes throughout the year, there 
is a bridge of boats below this ferry. (5) Pirsabak to Badrakai. This 
ferry has been closed of late years. (6) Misribandah to Akora, 2 boats. 



I I 



KACHCHII—KACHHLA. 277 

This is the favourite ferry between the east portion of the Yiisafzai plain 
and the Khataks. (7) Jahangira to Shaidoh, 2 boats. In case of need, 
8 or 12 boats can be procured from Attock. The only bridges over the 
river are at the city of Kabul, and have been described in the article 
on Kabul City. — See also Afghanistan. 

Kachchh. — Native State, Bombay. — See Cutch. 

Kachchh, Runn of.— ^^^ Cutch. 

Kachhandau. — Farga?id in Bilgram tahsil, Hardoi District, Oudh ; 
bounded on the north and east by Mallanwan />^r^^;/^' ; on the south 
by Bangarmau pargaud of Unao District ; and on the west by the 
District of Farukhabad in the North- Western Provinces, the Ganges 
forming the boundary line. Originally in the possession of the Tha- 
theras, who were expelled by some Chandel subjects of the King of 
Kanauj. First constituted a pargand about 330 years ago by Sher 
Shah, who, on his proselytizing march from Jaunpur to Agra, compelled 
the inhabitants of several Chandel villages to apostatize. Their 
descendants now intermarry with the families of Ahbans, Raikwars, and 
Gohelwars, who were converted to Islam at the same time. The 
pargand forms part of the kachh or moist low-lying country along the 
bank of the Ganges, as opposed to the bdngar or dry upland tract 
away from the river ; hence its name Kachhandau. Area, 47 square 
miles, of which 28 are cultivated. Government land revenue, ^3378; 
average incidence, 4s. iijd. per acre of cultivated area, or 2s. 3jd. per 
acre of total area. Staple products — barley, wheat, millet, rice, bdjra, 
gram, arhar, sugar-cane of an inferior quality. Of the 34 villages com- 
prising \}i\^ pargand, 16 are owned by Hindu and 8 by Muhammadan 
Chandels. Of the remaining 10, Brahmans hold 5 ; Kayasths, 2; and 
Panwars, Ahi'rs, and Chamars, 1 each. The prevailing tenure is that 
known as imperfect /^///^(zVz, which obtains in 18 villages; 15 are 
zaminddri, and only i tdlukddri. Population (1881) 20,137, namely, 
males 11,314, and females 8823; average density of population, 428 
per square mile. This parga?td is intersected by two unmetalled roads, 
and by cart tracks to three ferries on the Ganges. Owing to its liability 
to inundation, the climate is damp; and when floods are subsiding, 
fever is very prevalent. 

Kachhi Baroda. — Thdkurate and town in Badnawar pargand of 
Dhar State of Bhopawar Agency, Central India. The thdknr or chief 
holds from the Dhar Darbar 16 villages under British guarantee, and 
pays an annual tribute of ^966 ; his revenue is about ^3200. The 
town is situated 8 miles from Badnawar, the capital of the pargand, 
and 40 miles from the town of Dhar. 

Kachhla. — Town in Budaun ta/isil, Budaun District, North-Western 
Provinces, situated on the north or left bank of the Ganges, 18 miles 
from Budaun town, where the imperial road from Bareli to Hathras 



278 KACHOLA-KADAIYANALLUR, 

crosses the Ganges on a bridge of boats during the dry season. Agri- 
cultural produce is largely conveyed by road from Bareli and Budaun 
by road to Kachhla, where it is shipped in boats for transfer to Cawnpur 
and Fatehgarh. Police station, post-office, opium storehouse, sarai or 
native inn, and encamping ground for troops. Market twice a week. 

Kachola. — Town in the Native State of Udaipur (Oodeypore), 
Rajputana. Head-quarters of the Kachola district, comprising the 
Mewar estate of the chief of Shahpura. In former times the town, 
which apparently stood on the western bank of a large lake, must 
have been a place of some importance ; for all around, to a consider- 
able distance, the ground is strewn with fragments of sculpture of 
a superior character, and half-way up the hill the ruins of a temple are 
visible. 

Kachua. — Village and police outpost station in Khulna District, 
Bengal ; situated at the junction of the Bhairab and Madhumati rivers, 
about 6 miles east of Bagherhat. Contains a considerable bdzdr^ and 
is one of three market-places established in the Sundarbans by Mr. 
Henckell in 1782. A khdl or creek, crossed by a masonry bridge, 
divides the villages into two parts. The place probably derives its 
name from kachu, a species of yam, which is grown here in great 
quantities. 

Kadaba. — Tdluk in Tdmkiir District, Mysore State, Southern India. 
Area, 498 square miles, of which 10 1 are cultivated. Population (1881) 
68,158, namely, 32,541 males and 35,617 females; 65,203 were returned 
as Hindus, 2919 Muhammadans, and 36 Christians. Land revenue 
(1881-82), exclusive of water rates, ^9974, or 3s. per cultivated acre; 
total revenue, £^\i\,<^2df. The tdluk is watered by the Shirasha, 
which flows through it from north-east to south, forming large tanks at 
two places, Kadaba and Gubbi. Soil a red mould, shallow and 
gravelly. Near Dabbighata some hills yielding black hornblende were 
formerly quarried for the pillars of temples, tombs, and public build- 
ings. The tdluk contains i criminal court and 9 police stations 
{thd?tds) ; regular police, 75 men ; village watchmen {chaukiddrs), 336. 
The head-quarters of the tdluk are at Gubbi. 

Kadaba. — Village in Tiimkiir District, Mysore State, Southern 
India; 18 miles south-west of Tiimkiir town. Lat. 13° 14' 50" n., 
long. 76° 53' 20" E. Population (1881) 1679, including a settlement 
of Sri Vaishnava Brahmans. Boasts a mythical antiquity, its large 
tank, formed by a dam across the Shimsha river, being fabled to have 
been constructed by Rama on his return from Lanka (Ceylon). 

Kadaiyanalllir.— Town in Tenkasi tdluk of Tinnevelly District, 
Madras Presidency. Lat. 9° 5' n., long. 77° 23' e. Population (1881) 
7467; number of houses, 1854. A trading town on the road to 
Travancore, by the Achinkoil Pass. Police station. 



KADALUR—KADL 279 

Kadallir {Kudalnr). — Taluk and town in South Arcot District, 
Madras Presidency. — See Cuddalore. 

Kadana. — Native State in Rewa Kantha, Bombay Presidency. 
Kadana is bounded on the north and east by Dungarpur, Mewdr State, 
on the south-east and south by Sunth, and on the south-west and west by 
Luna Wara and Rewa Kantha States. Lat. 23° 16' 40" to it^'' 30' 30" n., 
long. 73° 43' to 73° 54' E. Area, 130 square miles. Population (1872) 
12,689 ; (18S1) 14,220, namely, 7322 males and 6868 females. Kadana 
is rugged, covered throughout with hills and forests. The Mahi river 
crosses the southern portion of the State. In the extreme south-west, 
on the left bank of the Mahi, the land is open and rich ; but to the 
north, except a narrow fringe along the river bank, the country is barren 
and rocky. Kadana is said to have been established as a separate 
power about the thirteenth century by Limdevji, younger brother of 
Jalamsingh, a descendant of Jalamsingh, the founder of the town of 
Jhalod in the Panch jMahals. In spite of its small size, the wildness 
and poverty of the country have saved it from being swallowed up by 
any of its neighbours or from being forced to pay tribute to the para- 
mount power. Estimated revenue, ^1000. The town of Kadana is 
situated towards the south-east of the State on the left bank of the 
Mahi. Lat. 23° 21' 30" n., long. 73° 52' e. 

Kadapa. — District, tdluk^ and town in Madras Presidency. — See 

CUDDAPAH. 

Kadattanad {Kartinad). — One of the ancient chieftainships {?idds) 
into which Malabar District of the Madras Presidency was formerly 
divided; situated between 11° 36' and ti° 48' n. lat., and between 75° 
36' and 75° 52' E. long. ; stretching from the sea-coast up the western 
declivity of the Western Ghats. The level tracts near the sea are very 
fertile, but suffered to such an extent from the devastations of Tipii 
Sultan, that the people were unable to raise grain sufficient for their 
support. The eastern hilly parts are well wooded, and contain indigenous 
cardamom plants. The petty State was founded in 1564 by a Nair 
chief, who probably inherited it (in the male line) from the Tekkalankiir 
(Southern Regent) of the Kolattiri kingdom, and he and his successors 
ruled the country until the invasion of Tipii Sultan. On the expulsion 
of Tipii in 1792, the Nair Raja was restored, and his family have held 
the estate ever since. Population, principally Nairs. Chief town, 
Kuttipuram ; lat. 11° 42' n., long. 75° 44' e. 

Kadi {Kari). — Northernmost Division of Baroda State (Gaekwar's 
territory), Gujarat (Guzerat), Bombay Presidency. Estimated area, 
3158 square miles. Population (1881) 988,487, namely, Hindus, 
^935058; Muhammadans, 63,205; Jains, 32,126; Christians, 44; 
Parsis, 49; 'others,' 5. Of the Hindus, 57,675 are Brahmans and 
44:387 Rajputs; of the Muhammadans those of the Sunni sect pre- 



28o KADI—KADIPUR. 

ponderate. The main portion of the division lies west of the Sabarmati 
river. It constitutes an uninterrupted plain, hilly only in the south 
and east. There are no forests, and no lakes. The climate is hot, 
but healthy. Rivers abound, and brick wells are numerous. The 
average rainfall is 32 inches. The division is traversed by the 
Rajputana-Malwa Railway; seven stations, viz. Siddhpur, Unjha, 
Bhandu, Mesana, Jagudan, Dangarwa, and Kalol are in the division. 

Kadi. — Sub-division of the Dehgam portion of the Kadi division of 
Baroda State, Gujarat (Guzerat), Bombay Presidency. Area, 280 
square miles; number of towns and villages, no. Population (1881) 
^'^,']ZZ-> namely, 45,950 males and 42,783 females. Hindus numbered 
78,489; Muhammadans, 8664; Jains, 1552; Parsis, 19; Christians, 
4 ; and ' others,' 5. The general aspect of the Sub-division is an un- 
interrupted plain bare of all trees. The Sub-division is bounded north 
by the Mesana Sub-division, east by the Kalol Sub-division, south and 
west by the Viramgam Sub-division of Ahmedabad District. 

Kadi {Kari). — Tow^n in Baroda State, Gujarat (Guzerat), Bombay 
Presidency. Lat. 23° 17' n., long. 72° 21' 30" e. Population (1881) 
16,689, namely, 8122 males and 8567 females. Kadi is 14 miles 
west of Kalol station on the Rajputana-Malwa Railway. A heavy 
sand road connects the two places. Hospital, Anglo - vernacular 
schools, and post-office. Calico-printing is the chief industry. Round 
the town and its neighbourhood are field trees in fair abundance and 
numerous tanks. On the north is a broad sheet of water fringed with 
trees. A well-preserved gate opens the way to the fort, which stands 
on a slight elevation ; its brick walls and numerous buttresses are of 
enormous thickness. The Rang and Supra Mahals and the arsenal 
are some of the principal buildings in the fort. Several fairs are held 
during the year. 

Kadihati. — Town and municipality in the District of the Twenty- 
four Parganas, Bengal, on the Calcutta and Barasat road. Lat. 22° 39' 
10" N., long. 88° 29' 48" E. Population (1872) 5680; in 1881, the 
population was below 5000, and the place is not returned as a town in 
the Census Report of that year. Municipal income (1876-7 7), ^132 ; 
expenditure, ;£"2 2i ; rate of municipal taxation, 5jd. per head. No 
municipality in 1881. English school. 

Kadipur. — Tahsil or Sub-division in Sultanpur District, Oudh, lying 
between 25° 58' 30" and 26° 23' n. lat., and between 82° 9' and 82° 
44' E. long. Bounded on the north by the Akbarpur taJisil of Faizabad 
(Fyzabad) ; on the east by the District of Azamgarh in the North- 
western Provinces ; on the south by the Patti tahsil of Partabgarh ; and 
on the west by Sultanpur tahsil. Area, 439 square miles, of which 229 
are cultivated. Population (according to the Census of 1869) 234,707 ; 
in t88i, 246,171, of whom 229,843 were Hindus, and 16,328 Musal- 



KADIRABAD—KA-DO. 281 

mans; number of males, 126,789, and of females, 119,382. Number 
of villages or towns, 764; average density of population, 563 persons 
per square mile. The tahsil comprises the 2 pargands of Chanda and 
Aldemau. 

Kadirabad. — Town in Aurangabad District, Haidarabad (Hyder- 
abad) State (Nizam's Dominions), Southern India. Population (1881) 
I 9876. Situated opposite Jalna, on the Kundalika stream. Kadirabad 
is a town of recent growth, and has a considerable trade in English 
manufactured goods and country produce. — See Jalna. 

Kadiri. — Tdluk in Cuddapah (Kadapa) District, Madras Presidency. 

Lat. 13'' 48' 30" to 14° 28' N., long. 77° 43' to 78° 31' 30" e. The 

j tdliik is irregular in shape, its extreme breadth being 35 miles, and 

its extreme length 45 miles. In the north is a rocky range of hills. 

I Area, 1416 square miles, with 143 towns and villages, and 26,299 

: houses. Population (1881) 116,252, namely, 59,656 males and 56,596 

females. Hindus numbered 106,967; Muhammadans, 9274; and 

Christians, 11. The climate is hot and unhealthy. The rivers and 

, almost all the tanks are dry during the hot months. The wells are 

I very deep, and four pair of bullocks are frequently used during the 

j day for drawing the water. The tdluk contains 3188 wells and 423 

j tanks. The soil is poor, but patches of black soil are met wath here 

I and there. Generally the country is scattered over with rocks and 

' boulders of disintegrated granite. There are six roads covering 128 

miles. Five of the roads meet in the kasba or head-quarters town. 

Chief products — rice, gram, cholam (great millet), sugar-cane, and cotton. 

The silk manufacture has been discontinued. Ironstone and granite are 

the minerals. Pasture is scanty and precarious. In 1883 there were 

2 criminal courts; police stadons, 14; and regular police, no men. 

Land revenue, ;£"i 2,241. 

Kadiri. — Town in Cuddapah (Kadapa) District, Madras Presidenc)\ 
Lat. 14° 7' N., long. 78° 16' E. Population (1881) 5004, namely, 2471 
males and 2533 females, occupying 1141 houses: Hindus numbered 
3555 \ Muhammadans, 1443 ; and Christians, 6. Head-quarters of 
the Kadiri /i////^y dispensary; elementary school. There is a pagoda 
here, the dancing girls of which contribute towards keeping up the bad 
reputation of the town. The pagoda is resorted to by crowds of pilgrims 
in the beginning of the year. Kadiri must have been at one time a 
Muhammadan town, though the buildings show no signs of Muham- 
madan architecture, yet for two miles outside the town there are many 
tombs and mosques. The Muhammadan occupation must have been 
previous to the building of the pagoda, which appears more recent than 
the tombs. 

Ka-do. — Village in Amherst District, Tenasserim Division, British 
Burma. Ka-do lies on the bank of the Gyaing, at the mouth of 



282 KADUR. 

the Ka-do creek, close to the junction of the Gyaing and the Sahvin. 
The town is well laid out with brick-tiled streets shaded by trees. 
The Government timber station at which all logs brought down the 
Salwin are collected, and the duty on them paid. Population (t88i) 
2685. Within the jurisdiction of the Judge and Magistrate of Maulmain. 

Kadlir. — District of Mysore State, Southern India. Kadiir District 
forms the south - western portion of the Nagar Division of Mysore, 
and lies between 13° 12' and 13° 58' n. lat., and between 75° 8' and 
76"" 25' E. long. It is bounded on the west by the Western Ghats, which 
separate it from the District of Kanara in the Madras Presidency ; on 
the north by Shimoga District (Mysore) ; on the east by the Chitaldriig 
District (Mysore) ; and on the south by Hassan District (Mysore). 
Area, 2984 square miles. Population (1881) 328,327. The adminis- 
trative head-quarters are at ChiKxMagalur. 

Physical Aspects. — The larger portion of the District consists of the 
Malnad or highlands, which contains some of the wildest mountain 
scenery in Southern India. The frontier on the \vest is formed by the 
lofty chain of the ghdts^ of w'hich the highest peaks are the Kudure- 
mukha (6215 feet) and the Meruti Gudda (5451 feet). The centre of 
the District is occupied by the horse-shoe range of the Baba Budans, 
which boasts the loftiest mountain in Mysore — Mulaingiri — rising to 
a height of 6317 feet above the sea. Companion heights of the 
same group are Baba Budan-giri (6214 feet) and Kalhatti-giri (6155 
feet). There are many minor ranges ; and the whole of the Malnad is 
broken into hills and valleys, which are alike covered with primeval 
forest, teeming with the characteristic fauna and flora of the tropics, 
and little disturbed by the invasion of man. The Maidan or plain 
country, lying towards the east, partakes of the general character of 
the Mysore plateau. The elevation slopes from 3400 to 2400 feet. 
The principal rivers of the District are the twin streams of the Tunga 
and the Bhadra, which rise near each other in the ghats, and, after a 
long separation, unite to form the Tungabhadra, itself a tributary of the 
Kistna. The Hemavati has its source in the south of the District, 
but almost immediately enters the District of Hassan. The eastern 
portion of Kadiir District is watered by the river system of the Vedavati. 
Where this river leaves the Baba Budan Mountains, it is embanked 
to form two extensive tanks, which irrigate the lower valley. One of 
these tanks, four miles north-west of Sakraypatna, forms an expanse of 
water seven miles in circumference, dotted with islands. From all 
the rivers water is drawn off into irrigation channels by means of 
anicuts or weirs. The valley lying beneath the amphitheatre formed 
by the Baba Budan Hills is the most fertile portion of the District. 
It commands an unfailing supply of water from the hill streams, and 
the soil is the famous ' black cotton-soil' 



KADUR. 



2S3 



Among mineral products, iron is largely obtained and smelted along 
the foot of the hills, and corundum is found in certain localities, liut 
I the chief natural wealth of Kadiir lies in its forests, which contain some 
fine timber, and also furnish shelter for the coffee plantations. 'Ihc 
highest mountains are precipitous, and bare of trees ; but the slopes 
and the valleys are clothed with valuable timber, arranged in park- 
like clumps, between which stretch glades of luxuriant grass. Teak is 
abundant, especially in the Lakwalli tdluk^ and sandal-wood is also 
found. About 78 square miles have been reserved as State forests, 
and trees are planted in avenues along the public roads. The eastern 

■ taluks, on the other hand, hardly possess sufficient food for fuel. In 
the IMalnad, wild animals are numerous. Wild elephants are occa- 
sionally seen, and bison abound. Beasts of prey include the tiger, 

'leopard, and bear; and the shivanga or hunting leopard is found. 
Wild hog are very destructive to the crops, especially to plantations 
of sugar-cane. Deer and antelope are common. The flying squirrel, 

! porcupine, and different varieties of the snake are everywhere met with. 

I Fish are abundant in both rivers and tanks, and are caught by rod and 

' line, by nets, and in long conical traps of bamboo. At certain sacred 

! spots in the rivers they are fed daily by the priests, and are so tame as 

' to rise to the surface at call. 

History.— ka containing the hallowed sources of the Tungabhadra, 
Kadiir District abounds with scenes associated with the legends of the 
Rdmdyana. Sringeri or Rishya-sringa-giri, on the Tunga river, takes 

' precedence of all other places in its claims to mythical antiquity. Here 
it was that the sage Rishya-sringa was born without a natural mother, 
by whose intervention alone could ' the horse sacrifice ' be celebrated 
and Rama himself be brought into the world. Here also, in historical 
times, was the home of Sankaracharya, the great Sivaite reformer of 
the 8th century ; and here at the present day resides the jiV^at-guni 
or supreme high priest of the Smarta Brahmans. The most ancient 
sites connected with local history are the ruins of Ratnapuri and of 

■ Saka-rava-patna, both of which are described as the capitals of powerful 
\ kings before the rise of the Ballala dynasty. On the overthrow of the 

Ballalas by the Muhammadans, the Vijayanagar Empire established 
itself over all Southern India ; but in this region, as in other outlymg 
tracts, the Government really fell into the hands of feudatory chiefs, 
who asserted all the attributes of independence. The three leading 
famihes in Kadiir were those of Karkala, Aigur, and Tarikere. Sub- 
sequently the greater part of the District was overrun by the Ikkeri or 
Bedmir palegdr from the neighbouring District of Hassan, who^ was 
in his turn defeated in 1694 by the conquering Hindu Rajas of 
Mysore. 
It was not until 1763 that Haidar Ali finally incorporated the whole 



284 KADUR, 

country in the Mysore dominions. In 1799, after the death of Tipu, 
Kadur was restored to the Hindu kingdom then set up by the Marquis 
of Wellesley. But the memories of local independence were strong in 
this remote and wild country, and the abuses of the Brahman officials 
provoked a general discontent both among the Lingayats and the 
general body of the cultivators. In 1 831, the people broke out into 
open insurrection, and found a natural leader in the representative of 
the old family of the Tarikere palegdrs, who was also joined by a large 
number of Thugs or professional stranglers. The insurgents seized 
upon several forts, and proved themselves too strong for the native 
government. In the early months of 1831, the insurrection was sup- 
pressed by a British force ; and the inquiry that followed led to the 
assumption by the British of the direct administration of the entire 
State of Mysore. Kadiir was formed into a separate District in 
1863; and two years later, Chikmagalur was fixed upon as the civil' 
station in place of Kadur town, though the District retains its original 
name. 

Fopulatio7i. — In 1838, a report by Mr. Stokes estimated the popula- 
tion of the District, which was then much smaller in extent, at i45»394 
persons; and a khdjia-siwidri house enumeration in 1853-54 returned! 
a total for the present area of 236,178. The regular Census of 1871 
ascertained the number to be 333,925, showing a comparative increase 
of 88 per cent, in the interval of thirty-three years, and of 41 per cent, 
in the latter period of eighteen years, if the earlier estimates can be 
trusted. The Census of 188 1 showed a total population for the District 
of 328,327, or a decrease of 5598 since 1871. This decrease is due to 
the mortahty caused by the famine of 1876-78. The area of the District 
is 2984 square miles, showing, when compared with population, an 
average of tig persons per square mile. Classified according to sex, 
there are 169,668 males and 158,659 females ; proportion of males, 51 
per cent. There are, under 15 years of age, 60,943 boys and 56,728 
girls; total, 117,671, or 35-8 per cent, of the District population. Of the 
1373 towns and villages in Kadur District in 1881, 837 contained less 
than two hundred inhabitants; 385 from two to five hundred; 126 
from five hundred to a thousand ; 1 7 from one to two thousand ; 5 
from two to three thousand ; i from three to five thousand ; and 2 
from five to ten thousand. The Census classifies the male population 
according to occupation into the following six main groups : — (i) Pro- 
fessional class, including State officials of every description and the 
learned professions, 5354; (2) domestic servants, inn and lodging- 1 
house keepers, 2260; (3) commercial class, including bankers, mer-j' 
chants, carriers, etc., 4117 ; (4) agricultural and pastoral class, including j 
gardeners, 86,688 ; (5) industrial class, including all manufacturers and 1 
artisans, 6995; (6) indefinite and non-productive class, comprising j 



general labourers, male children, and persons of unspecified occupation, 
^64,254. 

The rehgious division of the people shows :— Hindus, 313,290, or 
95-4 per cent. ; Muhammadans, 13,789, or 4 per cent. ; Christians, 1245; 
and 'others,' 3. The Brahmans number 16,004, almost exclusively 
belonging to the Smarta sect of Hindus, whose head-quarters are at the 
sacred village of Sringeri ; those claiming the rank of Kshattriya arc 
returned at 518, including 453 Rajputs. Komatis, who form the bulk 
of the trading castes, number 1252; agricultural castes, including 
'21,649 Lingayats, are returned at 183,478. The Lingayats have 
always been influential in this part of the country. Out-castes arc 
returned at 62,020; wandering tribes, 13,506; non-Hindu aboriginal 
castes and tribes, 62. The Musalmans, who muster strongest in the 
taluk of Lakwalli, are almost exclusively of the Sunni sect: there are 
only 307 Shias. Out of the total of 1245 Christians, 84 are Europeans 
i (mostly residing on the coffee plantations), and 92 are Eurasians, 
^leaving 1069 for the native converts. According to another princii)le 
of classification, there are 182 Protestants and 1063 Roman Catholics. 

The District contains 1373 primary iasali) populated towns and 
;villages, with 60,883 occupied and 11,303 unoccupied houses. As 
'compared with the area and the population, these figures yield the 
following averages : — Villages per square mile, "46 ; houses per square 
mile, 24*2 ; persons per village, 239 ; persons per occupied house, 5 "39. 
The only towns in the District with more than 5000 inhabitants are 
Chikmagalur and Tarikere. The latter was the residence of an 
old line of palegdrs, of w^hom the last representative was executed for 
rebelHon in 1834. Chikmagalur, the head-quarters of the District, 
has 7088 inhabitants; Tarikere, 5266 ; Kadur, the old civil station, 
2193. Other places of more or less importance in the District are 
— Ajimpur, a cotton centre ; Ayyankere, with a magnificent reservoir ; 
Banavar, a village in a taluk that was once a small Jain State, but since 
1875 the head-quarters of Banavar taluk as enlarged by the addition of 
Kadiir taluk; Birur, a centre for the areca-nut trade; Hariharpur ; 
Hiremagaldr, a village in which stands a spear-headed stone pillar, 
said to be efficacious in restoring any one bitten by a serpent ; Kalasa, 
the vicinity of which produces the finest areca-nut in Mysore ; and 
Koppa. The most interesting sites in the District are to be found on 
the Baba Budan range of hills, where the primeval forest is now dotted 
with trim coffee plantations. These hills derive their name from Baba 
Budan, a Musalman saint, who is said to have first introduced the 
coffee plant into India from Mecca. His tomb is guarded by a 
Muhammadan custodian, and is placed in a cave associated with 
Hindu legends. At Kalhatti, on the Baba Budan hills, is the hot- 
weather retreat for the European officials from all the neighbourmg 



286 KADUR, 

Districts. The sacred village of Sringeri, on the Timga river, has 
already been referred to. 

Agriculture. — The staple food-crop of the District is rice, of which 
fourteen different varieties are enumerated. It is principally grown on 
the slopes of the Malnad or hill country, where the natural rainfall is 
sufficient, and in the river valleys, where the fields can be irrigated from 
tanks and artificial canals. There are altogether 8740 tanks in the 
District; and 115 anicuts or dams across the several rivers, irrigating 
an area of 4928 acres, with a revenue of ^6128. The average rent 
per acre for land suitable for rice is (1880-81) 8s.; for wheat, 4s.; 
for cotton, 2s. ; for sugar-cane, 8s. The produce of land per acre in 
1880-81 was— rice, 1143 lbs.; wheat, 1428 ; cotton, 280; sugar-cane, 
1400. The principal 'dry' crop is ragi (Eleusine corocana), which is 
preferred as food by the natives to rice as affording more sustenance. 
The areca-nut palm flourishes in the moist and sheltered valleys through- 
out the west. 

But the main source of agricultural wealth in Kadur is derived from 
coffee. The berry is locally stated to have been first introduced by 
the Muhammadan saint, Baba Budan, about two centuries ago, who 
planted it after his return from a pilgrimage to Mecca on the hills, 
which are still the head-quarters of the cultivation. European capital 
was not attracted to the enterprise until about 1840, but there are now 
90,000 acres planted with coffee. The coffee zone extends over an 
area of about 1000 square miles, and about one-tenth of this is excel- 
lently adapted to the cultivation in respect of soil, aspect, and shade. 
The statistics for 1875 show a total of 12,376 plantations, owned by 22 
Europeans and 4760 natives, with about forty -four million plants. 
Most native cultivators in this tract possess a few coffee plants at the 
back of their houses. The returns for 1883 show a total of 23,090 
plantations, covering an area of 139,707 acres, yielding approximately 
4,955,076 lbs., or 2212 tons of the berry, valued at about ^149,140. 
The plantations owned by Europeans numbered 486, covering 41,237 
acres, yielding approximately 2,279,540 lbs., or 1018 tons, valued 
at ^75,092. Those owned by the natives numbered 22,604, 
covering 98,470 acres, yielding 2,675,536 lbs., or 1194 tons, valued at 
;z{^74,o48. The Mysore Government has recently abolished the halat^ '\ 
or tax on coffee, and levies instead from the planters a light land- 
tax varying from is. 8d. to 2s. 6d. an acre. This measure, while 
securing a fair revenue to Government, has conferred on the planters a 
better tenure, and induced an improvement of their estates. 

Several attempts have been made to introduce the tea plant, but 
hitherto without success. Efforts to extend the growth of mulberry 
and of foreign cotton have been equally unsuccessful. The carda- 
mom grows wild in the Malnad, and its systematic cultivation has 



L 



KADUR. 



287 



recently been undertaken by coffee planters. There is a Government 
plantation of cinchona (the quinine plant) at Kalhatti, on the Baba 
Budan Hills. 

The following agricultural statistics are approximate:— Out of the total 
area of 2984 square miles in 1880-81, 614 square miles were returned 
as under cultivation, and 376 more as cultivable. There were (1875) 
under rice, 42,646 acres ; wheat, 2500; other food-grains, 70,000; oil- 
seeds, 3000 ; sugar-cane, 443 ; cotton, 300 ; tobacco, 6500 ; cocoa-nut 
and areca-nut, 7800; coffee, 60,000; tea, 2. The agricultural stock 
consisted of 5924 carts and 45woo ploughs. The cattle of the District 
are generally small and of an inferior breed. The climate of the Malnad 
or hill country is very fatal to them, and buffaloes are bred on the 
plains to be imported into that tract. The returns show a total of 
281,963 cows and bullocks, and 86,205 •'^l^eep and goats. No later 
agricultural returns than those quoted are available. 

Manufactures, etc. — The chief articles of local manufacture are coarse 
cotton cloth, kainblis or rough blankets, oil and oil-cake. Jaggery is 
also largely made from sugar-cane in certain tracts, and there is a con- 
siderable production of iron. Arrack and other spirituous liquors are 
distilled. A certain amount of catechu or Terra japonica is made, and 
a little salt. The returns of manufacturing stock show 2000 weaving 
looms and 115 oil-mills. 

The statistics of trade appear to be more accurately kept than in 
other Districts of Mysore. The total of the annual exports was (1876) 
valued at p^^" 2 9 7,000, chiefly destined for Davangere and Bangalore; 
the imports were valued at ;^2 17,000, of which the greater part came 
from Bangalore and Hassan. The external trade passes by 31 recog- 
nised kanaves or passes, the most frequented being those of Biranhalli 
and Jodikatte for wheeled carts, and Tallagudde and Talmakki for 
pack-bullocks. A considerable proportion of commodities is still con- 
veyed on the heads of coolies. The interchange of goods between the 
highlands and lowlands of the District is very brisk. It is estimated 
that ^124,800 worth of dry grain, fine rice, piece-goods, kambiis, etc. 
annually passes along five kanaves leading from the Maidan into the 
Malnad; and that ^230,000 worth of paddy, areca-nut, cardamoms, 
pepper, coftee, etc. is carried in the reverse direction. Statistics for 
1880 estimate the value of the manufactures at ^77,617. The largest 
weekly markets are held at the towns of Chikmagaliir, Birur, and 
Tarikere, and at the village of Koppa; the most frequented annual fair 
is connected with the Nava-ratri at Sringeri. The most numerously 
attended religious festivals are the following: — Sringeri, Pura, Antar- 
gatte, Karahalli, and Hoshalli. The total length of State roads in the 
District is 245 miles, maintained at an annual cost of ^£"4005 ; of 
District roads, 348 miles, costing ^1820. 



2 88 KADUR TALUK. 

Admi?iistra/wn.—lr\ 18S0-81, the total revenue of Kadiir District 
amounted to £u,S^Z- The chief items were— land revenue, ^69,167 ; 
sdyar or customs, ^20,806 ; dbkdri or excise, £62 4^]. The District 
is divided into 6 taluks or fiscal divisions, which have, however, 
recently undergone alteration. In 1870-71, the total number of 
estates on the register was 62,462. During 1880, the average daily 
l^rison population of the District jail was 3079, and of the tdhik lock- 
ups, 3; total, 3379, of whom i"88 were women. In the same year, 
the District police numbered 50 officers and 525 men, and the muni- 
cipal police 2 officers and 15 men ; total, 592 men of all ranks, main- 
tained at an aggregate cost of ^62 71. These figures show i policeman 
to every 5 square miles of existing area or to every 554 persons of the 
present population, the cost being £2, 2s. 3d. per square mile. The 
number of schools aided and inspected by Government in 1874 was 
176, attended by 3027 pupils, being i school to every i6"9 square 
miles of the present area, and i pupil to every thousand of the popula- 
tion. In addition, there were, in 1874, 121 unaided schools, with 1235 
pupils. 

Medical Aspects. — Kadiir District offers a great variety of climate. 
At the station of Chikmagaliir, the mean annual temperature is 78° F. ; 
during 1880, the maximum recorded was 99° in May, the hottest 
month of the year; the minimum was 56*6°. The heat in Kadiir 
would often be excessive, if it were not for the breezes that blow 
from the mountains on the west and the north. The east winds, on 
the other hand, exercise an unhealthy influence, and it has been found 
necessary to shelter the town with a wide belt of trees. In the Malnad 
the temperature falls much lower, and the cold at night about Christmas- 
time is very sharp. The rainfall of the District is variable, owing to 
the same geographical causes. The average at Chikmagaliir during the 
twelve years ending 1881 was only 32-83 inches; whereas at certain 
coffee plantations in the Malnad from 100 to 170 inches have been 
registered in a single year. 

In the Malnad, malarious or jungle fevers are always prevalent at 
certain seasons of the year, from which neither Europeans nor natives 
are exemj^t. In the plains, the violent east winds are dreaded as pro- 
moting disease. The vital statistics are far from trustworthy ; but it 
may be mentioned that, out of the total of 6357 deaths reported in 
1880, 4187 wore assigned to fevers, 828 to bowel complaints, 19 to 
small-pox, and 18 to snake-bite and wild beasts. In 1880, the dis- 
l)cnsary at Chikmagaliir was attended by 216 in-patients, of whom 22 
died ; the out-i)atients numbered 6984. There are also dispensaries at 
Kadw and Hariharpur. 

Kadiir.— Once a tdluk in Kadiir District, IMysore State, Southern 
India, but now absorbed into Bandvar. The tdluk contained i criminal 



KAD UR—KAFJRISTAN. 289 

court and 6 police stations (thdnds) ; regular police, 71 men; village 
watchmen {chaukiddrs), 391. Land revenue demand (1883-84), 

Kadlir {^ Elk Toivn'). — Village in Kadiir District, Mysore State, 
Southern India. Lat. 13° 33' n., long. 76° 2 45" e. Population (1881) 
2193; situate 15 miles north-west of Chikmagalur on the Bangalore- 
Shimoga road. Inscriptions and other monuments show that there 
was a settlement of Jains here in the loth century. Subsequendy a fort 
was built by a local chieftain. In 1863, the District of Kadiir was 
formed, and two years afterwards the head-quarters were removed from 
Kadlir to Chikmagalur, Till 1875 the head-quarters of Kadiir idhik^ 
now absorbed into Banavar tdliik. 

Kafara. — Town in Kheri District, Oudh ; situated east of the 
Dahraura river, on the high bank of an ancient channel of the stream. 
Soil very fertile and drainage good. Population (1869) 2467 ; in 1881, 
4031, of whom 3573 were Hindus and 458 Muhammadans. Land 
revenue, ^341. 

Kafiristan. — Tract of country lying between the north-western 
frontier of India and the Hindu Kiish Mountains. On the west the 
country of the Kafirs is bordered by Afghanistan, the boundary line 
being the Alishang river ; on the east the line of the Kunar river may 
be taken as the limit. Several descriptions of the tract and its people 
have been published ; and writers like Elphinstone, Burnes, Masson, 
Raverty, and Lumsden give highly-coloured accounts, based on the 
tales of Muhammadan tribesmen who occupy the adjoining region. 
But, as a matter of fact, the country is particularly difficult of access 
to Muhammadans, for no Kafir is in his own neighbourhood 
thought to be of any consideration unless he has managed during 
his life to slay at least one follower of Islam ; and until 1883 no 
European had penetrated Kafiristan. Consequently the statements of 
Orientals concerning the Siahposh, who inhabit Kafiristan, have to 
be accepted for the various theories and descriptions current about a 
people always regarded by Europeans in a light more or less curious 
and mysterious. 

Some writers assign the origin of the Siahposh Kafirs to an Arab 
tribe whose customs closely correspond to those of the Gabars of 
Persia. Others have wildly conjectured them to be the descendants of 
the Greek soldiers of Alexander, who were left behind in the country. 
Lumsden believes them to be aborigines of the Indian plains driven to 
the mountains they inhabit, as refugees before Moslem fanaticism. The 
Kafir dialect, however, is said to have no affinity with either Arabic, 
Persian, or Turki, but to be allied to Sanskrit; and for this reason among 
others later writers think it probable that the Kafirs have no single 
genealogical descent or well-defined tribal divisions like the Arabs or 

VOL. VII. T 



2 90 KAFIR] STAN, 

the Afghans, but are valley communities, topographical rather than 
ethnographical in their origin. 

Masson mentions the following names of villages : — Kattar, Gambir, 
Delhulz, Arans, Ishurma, Amisoz, Pundit, and Waigal. He makes no 
attempt to estimate the total population ; but he is probably right in 
giving the numbers of the village populations as ranging between one 
and six thousand. An estimate, however, was roughly made in 1883. 
In April of that year, Mr. W. W. M'Nair, of the Indian Survey Depart- 
ment, paid a visit of two months' duration to the country, and he sets 
down the total number of the people at 600,000. Mr. M'Nair is believed 
to be the first European who has succeeded in penetrating the region. 

The character and appearance of the Siahposh Kafirs have been 
variously delineated, and particulars more or less reliable as to their 
daily habits and modes of life are available. The general idea about 
the Siahposh, and probably a correct one, is that they are a hardy, 
strong, and daring race of mountaineers, rather undersized as are most 
hillmen, extremely lazy, fond of pleasure, and constant wine-drinkers. 
Lumsden, who knew the Kafir general Faramosh Khan, at Kandahar, 
and who came into contact with several Kafirs who had been kidnapped 
and were slaves in the houses of Afghan chiefs, says ' the Kafirs 
are physically athletic, powerful men, leading an indolent, jovial life.' 
Raverty on hearsay assigns to them a European cast of feature, blue as 
well as dark eyes, and the lighter shades of hair ; and to the females 
exceptional beauty and intelligence. Wood remarked that the Kafirs, 
unlike all other Eastern races, are unable to sit cross-legged on the 
ground, and prefer a chair, such as are seen in the Laghmani dwellings, 
or indeed any form of support. Many travellers appear to have had an 
impression that the Kafir presented some of the characteristics of the 
Saxon type. The impression is not borne out by experience ; and Dr. 
Trumpp describes three Kafirs sent to him by Colonel Lumsden for : 
enlistment in the Guide Corps, as in no material way differing from the 
natives of the Upper Provinces of India. Their faces. Dr. Trumpp 1 
admits, were more reddish, but that he attributes to the great quantity 
of wine they were in the habit of consuming. Being asked as to what j 
they wished to eat and drink, they returned the answer * a inassak of ' 
wine a day.' A inassak of wine would be equivalent to about six English [ 
gallons. j 

Mr. M'Nair describes the people of Kafiristan as of good appear- 
ance and brave, but leaving all agricultural work in the orchards 
which everywhere abound, to the women of the tribe. They are, I 
Mr. M'Nair says, passionately fond of dancing, and most of their j 
evenings are spent in this amusement. Mr. M'Nair adds: — 'Itj 
is purely owing to their having no blood-feuds among themselves \ 
that they hold their own against the Muhammadans, who hem them in | 



KAFIRISTAN. 



291 



on all sides, and with whom they are always fighting. Towards the 
British they are exceedingly well disposed. Slavery exists to a certain 
extent among them, but the trade in slaves would soon die out if human 
flesh were not so saleable at Jalalabad, Kunar, Asmar, and Chitral. 
Polygamy is rare ; mild corporal punishment is inflicted on a wife for 
adultery, while the male offender is fined so many heads of cattle. 
The dead are coffined, but never buried. One Supreme Being — Imbra 
— is universally acknowledged. Priests preside at their temples, in 
which sacred stones are set up, but to neither priests nor idols is exces- 
sive reverence paid. In evil spirits, authors of ill-luck, the Kafirs firmly 
believe. Their arms are bows and arrows ; a few matchlocks have 
found their way among them from Kabul, but no attempts have 
been made to imitate them. Wealth is reckoned by heads of cattle. 
There are 18 chiefs in all, chosen for bravery mainly, but with some 
regard to hereditary claims.' 

Among the ordinary and extraordinary customs pertaining to the 
Siahposh Kafirs, and selected now at random from the writings of earlier 
authors, are the following : — 

The Kafirs hold themselves to be firmly bound by an oath. Before 
breaking a truce, a brace of bullets, or an arrow, is sent as a significant 
hint of future intentions. When a guest has crossed the threshold 
of a Kafir's house, the master of the house alone has the privilege 
of waiting on him ; should another inhabitant entice away the stranger 
a deadly feud will probably ensue. Women go uncovered, and wander 
where they will : they are not allowed to eat at the same table 
with the men. Special buildings are set apart in every village for the 
lying-in of women. Enmities constantly arise among the Kafirs, but 
the most bitter quarrel may be settled by one of the parties kissing the 
nipple of his antagonist's breast as being typical of drinking of the milk 
of friendship ; the other party to the quarrel kisses the suitor on the 
head, and an everlasting friendship is entered into. It is said that Kafirs 
do not sell their children to Muhammadans, but that when in distress 
they may sell their servant or the child of a neighbour kidnapped for 
the purpose. Major Biddulph, on the other hand, alleges that sale is 
frequent, and that the Chitral ruler annually receives a tribute of children 
of both sexes. When a Kafir crusade against the adjacent Muham- 
madans is decided upon, no individual of the expeditionary party either 
sleeps or eats in his own dwelling, but in whatever other house he 
happens to be until all the plans of the raid are matured. When the 
party arrives at the scene where the work is to be done, they separate 
into companies of two and three, and wait in ambush for the object of 
attack. When evening falls, they reunite and tell the exploits of the 
day. Moslem reprisals consist of incursions into the Kafiristan valleys 
for the purpose of kidnapping the inhabitants. 



292 KAFIRKOT—KAGAL. 

Bread is the staple article of food ; made of wheat, barley, and millet, 
ground in a handmill, and converted into cakes or bannocks by being 
kneaded and then baked on an iron dish suspended over a fire. Cattle 
are slaughtered by severing the head at one blow from the neck. 
Should more blows of the long, sharp knife be necessary, the carcase is 
considered impure, and is handed over to the Pariah caste of Ban's. 
Two kinds of Kafir wine are drunk, coloured according to the hue 
of the grape from which they are pressed. None but children are 
permitted to touch the vines before a certain season. When the proper 
period arrives, the entire population set to work to secure the vintage. 
The Emperor Babar notes that, 'so prevalent is the use of wine among 
them, that every Kafir has a "khig" or leathern bottle of wine about 
his neck.' ' They drink wine,' Babar adds, * instead of water.' 

No complete investigation has been made by any European of the 
country of the Kafirs. The safest way of entering their territory is to 
obtain beforehand the promise of some Kafir as security. If this pre- 
caution be adopted, the stranger may travel without apprehension; 
otherwise he is almost certain to be attacked. Pedlars, passed into the 
country by one of the Kafir inhabitants, make annual visits to the 
Siahposh valleys, distributing the merchandise which they have purchased 
in Peshawar. ^ 

Kafirkot— Ruins in Dera Ismail Khan District, Punjab. Lat. 32 
30' 15" N., long. 71' 22' 45" E. Those known as Til Kafirkot or Raja- 
sir-kot are situated a few miles to the south of the point where the 
Kuram river joins the Indus, upon a spur of the Khisor Hills, and 
consist of immense blocks of smoothly chiselled stone, with remains 
of Hindu temples or sanctuaries. The carvings represent idols and 
other designs, and retain their freshness to a considerable degree. 
The ruin specially known as Kafirkot lies on the left bank of the 
Indus, and is similar in character to the others, but smaller and less 
perfectly preserved. For full details, see General Cunningham's 
ArchcBological Survey Report, vol. xiv. p. 254. 

Kagal.— Native State, subordinate to Kolhapur, under the South 
Maratha Political Agency, Bombay Presidency. Watered by the 
Dudhganga and Vedganga rivers. Area, 129 square miles. Population 
(1881) 49,064. Annual gross revenue, ^21,196. Pays a yearly tribute 
of ^200 to Kolhapur, of which it is one of the most important 
feudatories. The present chief (1882), Jaya Singh Rao, Ghatge 
Sarjarao Wazarat Maab, a Hindu of the Maratha caste, is grandson 
])y adoption of Hindu Rao, who held a leading position at Gwalior 
eighty years ago, and whose father (Sakharam Rao), by means of his 
influence at the court of Sindhia, acquired in 1800 a grant of Kagal 
from the Kolhapur chief. He administers his own estate, and has 
been made Regent of Kolhdpur, with a salute of 9 guns, so long as he 



KAGAL—KAHLUR. 293 

holds that office. His fiimily has no sanad authorizing adoption ; 
succession follows the rule of primogeniture. Retinue, 41 armed 
police and militia ; schools, 10, with (1882) 697 pupils. 

Kagal. — Chief town of Kagal State, Kolhapur, Bombay Presidency. 
Lat. 16° 34' N., long. 74° 20' 30" E. ; 10 miles south-east of Kolhapur. 
Population (188 1 ) 6371, namely, Hindus, 5414; Muhammadans, 588; 
Jains, -^^GZ ; ' others,' i. 

Kagan. — Mountain valley in Hazara District, Punjab, penetrating 
far into the heart of the Himalayan system, and surrounded by Kashmir 
territory on every side except the south. Area, 800 square miles ; 
60 miles in length, with an average breadth of 15 miles. Lofty ranges 
shut it in on either hand, their summits rising to a height of nearly 
17,000 feet. Transverse spurs intersect the interior; and a thin popu- 
lation inhabit the glen. The Kagan range comprises 22 rak/is or forest 
and grazing reserves, with an area varying from 116 acres to 8776 acres, 
the total area of which is 87,487 acres, or 89*8 square miles. Total 
area of reserved and unreserved forest, 457 square miles. The rights 
of cutting grass and grazing cattle are let out annually. The Govern- 
ment Forest Department only fells timber, which is launched into the 
river Kunhar, caught at the different timber depots, and rafted to 
Jehlam, where it is sold by the Department. Through a narrow 
central gorge the river Kunhar forces its way to join the Jehlam 
(Jhelum), after draining the entire valley. The Kagan valley forms 
the northernmost extension of British India, and stretches like an 
intrusive arm far up into the mountain region. Its open mouth turns 
towards the main body of Hazara District and the Murree (Marri) 
Hills. The inhabitants consist almost entirely of Muhammadan 
Swatis and Gujars. Kagan village is situated in lat. 34" 46' 45" n., 

long- 75° 34 15" e. 

Kahan (or Ga/ian). — River or torrent in Jehlam (Jhelum) District, 
Punjab ; rises in the Salt Range, on the southern side of its northern 
spur, and, running nearly due east, passes through the southern or Tilla 
spur near Rohtas, falling into the Jehlam about 2 miles above Jehlam city. 

Kahlgaon. — Tow^n in Bhagalpur District, Bengal. — See Colgong. 

Kahllir (Bildspur). — One of the Simla Hill States under the political 
superintendence of the Punjab Government, lying between 31° 12' 30" 
and 31° 35' 45" N. lat., and between 76° 26' and 76° 58' e. long. Area 
448 square miles, with 1073 villages and 9626 houses; number of 
families, 18,600. Total population (1881) 86,546, namely, males 
47^133) and females 39,413 ; average density, 189 persons per square 
mile. Hindus number 85,280; Muhammadans, 1263; and Sikhs, 3. 
The Gurkhas, who had overrun the country at the beginning of the 
present century, were driven out by the British in 181 5, and the 
Raja was reinstated in his possessions of Bilaspur. In 1847-48, when 



294 KAHNUWAN—KAHROR. 

the Punjab was conquered, the Raja was confirmed in possession 
of the territory of Kahlur, including part of a tract on the right 
bank of the Sutlej (Satlaj), which he had previously held on terms 
of allegiance and payment of tribute to the Sikhs. The British 
Government waved its right to tribute, but required the Raja to 
abolish transit duties in his dominions. Subsequently, about 1865, the 
pargand of Basse Bachertu was given up to the Raja, on condition of 
an annual payment of ^800 to the British Government. In acknow- 
ledgment of his services during the Mutiny, the Raja received a dress 
of honour of the value of ^500, and a salute of 7 guns, since increased 
to II guns. Raja Hira Chand, a Rajput by caste, was born about 
1835, and after a reign of 32 years, died in October 1882, on his way 
back to his own territory after a visit to Simla. He was succeeded by 
his son Amar Chand, the present Raja (1883). Revenue about 
;^'86oo. Principal products — grain, opium, and ginger. Sentences of 
death passed by the Raja require the confirmation of the Superintendent 
of the Hill States ; other punishments are awarded by the Raja on his 
own authority. 

Kahnuwan. — Swampy lake {jhil) in Gurdaspur tahsil., Gurdaspur 
District, Punjab ; lying south-east of Gurdaspur town, below the high 
bank of the Beas (Bias), and evidently marking an ancient course of 
that river. It is 9 miles in length, by 2000 feet in width ; depth from 
12 to 20 feet in the deepest parts. In the centre stands a pavilion, 
erected by Maharaja Sher Singh. Rice and singhdra, or water nut 
(Trapa bispinosa), are cultivated in the shallows. A dam, 13 miles in 
length, erected to prevent flooding, has saved large portions of the \ 
surrounding country from inundation. Steps have been taken with I 
success for draining the swampy area, by which iioo acres of marsh j 
land have already been reclaimed, and the process still continues at I 
the rate of about 150 acres yearly. The lake formerly swelled to much j 
larger dimensions, but the dam now confines the water of the Beas to 
a narrower bed. [ 

Kahror {Karor). — Town and municipahty in Mailsi fahsil, Multan : 
(Mooltan) District, Punjab. Lat. 29° 37' n., long. 71° 57' 41" E. 
Situated on an old bed of the Beas (Bias), known as the Bhatiari 7idla, 
about 8 miles from the present right bank of the Sutlej (Satlaj). 
Ancient town, the legendary scene of Vikramaditya's victory over the 
Saka or Scythian invaders in the ist century B.C. Captured by Chach 
after the fall of Multan in the 7th century. Population (1868) 5069; 
in 1881, 4804, namely, Hindus, 2967; Muhammadans, 1832; and 
Sikhs, 5 : number of houses, 848. Municipal income (1881-82), 
;£"358, nearly all derived from octroi duties ; average incidence of 
taxation, is. 6d. per head. The town, which is built on an undulating 
site, consis's chiefly of brick houses. Kahror is the commercial centre 



KABUTA—KAILANG. 295 

of the southern half of Multan District, and has a fine broad bazar 
running east and west. It contains two schools, police station, 
dispensary, and rest-house. 

Kahuta. — Eastern tahsil of Rawal Pindi District, Punjab, lying 
between 33° 19' and 33° 47' n. lat., and between 73° 18' and 73° 41' 
E. long. ; partly in the tract known as the Murree (Marri) Hills. The 
Narh Mountain, rising to a height of 6000 feet, is situated in the 
north-east corner of the tahsii. The northern and eastern tracts are 
mountainous, the remainder resembles the plain iahsils in character. 
Area, 434 square miles. Population (1881) 87,210, namely, males 
46,188, and females 41,022 ; average density of population, 201 
persons per square mile. Classified according to religion, Muham- 
madans numbered 77,563; Hindus, 6201; Sikhs, 3364; and 'others,' 
82. Number of houses, 13,622; families, 21,308. Of the 226 villages 
in the tahsil, 185 contain less than five hundred inhabitants; 24 from 
five hundred to a thousand; 12 from one to two thousand; and 5 
from two to five thousand. The average annual area under the 
principal crops for the five years ending 1881-82 is returned as 
follows: — Wheat, 24,194 acres; bdjra, i9j945 acres; Indian corn, 
10,945 acres; moth, 3499 acres; barley, 2064 acres; and cotton, 3209 
acres. The revenue of the tahsil in 1882-83 was ^6896. The 
administrative staff consists of a tahsilddr and a miinsif, who preside 
over I criminal and 2 civil courts. Number of police circles {thdnds), 
2 ; strength of regular police, 606 men ; rural police or village watch- 
men {chaukiddrs), 1057. 

Kaidala {'The Restored Hand').— '^iWd.go. in Tiimkiir District, Mysore 
State, Southern India ; situated 3 miles south of Tiimkiir town. Lat. 
13° 18' N., long. 77° 8' E. Population (1881) 454. Said to have been 
formerly called Kridapura, and the capital of a powerful State; also 
regarded as the birthplace of Jakanachari, the great architect and 
sculptor, to whom all the temple carving in Mysore is attributed. The 
two temples at Kaidala, now in ruins, belong to the period of the 
Ballala dynasty (loth to 14th centuries). Tradition relates that 
Jakanachari, on being informed that there was a defect in one of the 
images of the Chennakesava temple in course of construction at Beliir, 
vowed to cut off his right hand should any blemish be found. A 
cavity was discovered, and he kept his vovv. Subsequently he was 
directed in a vision to dedicate a temple to the god Kesava in 
Kridapura, his native place. No sooner w^as this temple completed 
than his hand was restored, and in commemoration of this incident 
the village has ever since been called Kaidala. 

Kail.— Ancient port in Tinnevelli District, ^Madras Presidency. — See 
Kayal. 

Kailang {Kllang, Kyelang), — Village in the Lahul Sub-division of 



296 KAILAS—KAIMGANJ, 

Kangra District, Punjab ; situated in lat 32° 34' 15" n., and long. 77° 4' 
E., on the main trade route between the Rohtang and Bara Lacha Passes, 
on the right bank of the river Bhaga, about 4 miles above its junction 
with the Chandra. A station of the Moravian Mission has been 
established in the village for several years past, and a post-office is 
maintained during the summer months. A Government school was 
formerly managed by the missionaries, but they have now entirely 
ceased their connection with it, in consequence of the hostile feeling 
which it excited in the minds of the natives. 

Kailas. — A sacred mountain of the Hindus in the inner Himalayas, 
near the source of the Indus and Sutlej, beyond British territory. 
Height, 20,226 feet. Kailas lies to the north-west of the Manasarowar 
Lake in Tibet, and is famous in Sanskrit literature as Siva's paradise. 
Its distance, however, prevents it from being largely resorted to by 
pilgrims ; although it is still a favourite retreat of Hindu hermits, who 
like to end their days on Kailas. — See article Manasarowar. 

Kailashahr.— Sub-division of Hill Tipperah State, Bengal. Popula- 
tion (1881) 22,238, namely, males 12,060, and females 10,178. Hindus 
number 3452; Muhammadans, 4348; Christians, 3; and aboriginal 
tribes, 14,435. 

Kailashahr. — Town and head-quarters of Kailashahr Sub-division, 
in Hill Tipperah State, Bengal. Prettily situated at the foot of a low 
range of hills, in lat. 24° 19' \o" n., long. 92° 2' 15" e. The town 
contains a magistrate's and munsifs court, jail, hdzdr^ dispensary, and 
school. A military guard is stationed at Cherakuti, two miles from the 
town. 

Kailwara. — Town in the Native State of Udaipiir (Oodeypore), 
Rajputana. Kailwara lies in the heart of the Aravalli mountains, 
once the great refuge of the Rajputs, and is situated below the hill 
fort of Kumalgarh, on the western frontier of the State. It was 
to Kailwara that Rana Ajeysi, the survivor of the twelve Rajput 
princes, eleven of whom sacrificed themselves to save the royal line of 
Chittur, is said to have escaped when the Pathan Ala-ud-din sacked 
that city. 

Kaimahra. — Village in Kheri District, Oudh ; situated on the road 
from Lakhimpur via Muhamdi to Shahjahanpur, about \\ mile east of 
the Jamwari river, and surrounded on all sides by groves of mango 
trees. The property of the Kaimahra tdlukddr, and the head-quarters 
of his estate. Population (1881) 1569, namely, Hindus, 1293, and 
Muhammadans, 276. Land revenue, ^132. Large artificial tank, 4 
Hindu temples, and 10 mosques. Four sugar manufactories, good 
market, and vernacular school. 

Kaimganj.— North-western ta/isil of Farukhabad District, North- 
western Provinces, lying along the southern bank of the Ganges, and 



KAIMGANJ. 697 

comprising the pargajids of Kampil and Shamsabad west. The tahsil 
is divided into an ui)land {bdngar) and a lowland {tardi) tract. The 
first and largest division consists of a plateau occupying the whole area 
west and south of the old Ganges cliff, and watered by the Bagar river. 
On either bank of the stream stretches a wide expanse of sandy land 
{bhur\ showing \n parga?id Kampil some of the worst soil of its class in 
the District. North of this tract is a belt of fine yellowish loam, tilled 
by Kurmis, and famous for its sugar-cane cultivation, and its numerous 
and durable unbricked wells. South of the sandy tract extends a 
l)0orer loam, interspersed with saline plains, containing much uncultiv- 
able soil, dhdk jungle, and many lagoons and flooded spaces of rice 
land {jhabar). The lowlands, which skirt the present course of the 
Ganges, occupy nearly half of the whole tahsil^ and consist of a flat 
alluvial tract, long since deserted by the Ganges, and liable to inunda- 
tions from channels of the river. The belt of land skirting the river 
itself, some miles in breadth, is subject to almost yearly floods, and 
bears as a rule only a spring crop. An autumn crop is indeed sown, 
on the chance of the year being a dry one ; but the floods usually 
sweep from the fields all hope of an autumn harvest. This tract 
is succeeded by a sandy and comparatively sterile belt, beyond which, 
below the cliff marking the old bank of the Ganges, runs a belt 
of fine loam about half a mile in breadth. The principal crops are 
wheat, barley, gram, jodr^ bdjra, sugar-cane, and cotton. Area of the 
tahsil^ 371 square miles, of which about 240 square miles are returned 
as under cultivation. The population of the tahsil, in common with 
that of the District as a whole {see Farukhabad District), has 
decreased of late years from 182,873 in 1872, to 167,156 in 1881. 
In the latter year, the males numbered 88,779, ^^<^ ^^^^ females 
78,377. Hindus numbered 144,011; Muhammadans, 22,998; Jains, 
136; and 'others,' 11. Land revenue, ;2{^2i,964; total Government 
revenue, ^25,464 ; rental paid by cultivators, ^39,962. The tahsil 
contains i civil and i criminal court, with 4 police circles {thdnds)\ 
strength of regular police, 42 men ; besides 444 village watchmen 
{chaukiddrs). 

Kaimganj. — Town in Kampil pargand, Farukhabad District, North- 
Western Provinces, and head-quarters of Kaimganj tahsil. Situated in 
lat. 27° 33' 10" N., and long. 79° 23' 45" e., on the high cliff which 
marks the former bed of the Ganges, about a mile south of the 
Burhganga river. It is the terminus of a metalled road from Fatehgarh, 
the head-quarters of the District, 22 miles to the south-east. Kaimganj 
is a long and narrow town, consisting chiefly of one wide metalled bdzdr, 
measuring about a mile from east to west, from which branch many 
narrow unmetalled lanes. It was founded in 17 13 by Muhammad, 
the first Nawab of Farukhabad, who named it after his son Kaim. It 



298 KAIMUR—KAIRA. 

has always been a stronghold of Pathans. Many Pathans hold small 
plots of land around the town, while other Pathan townsmen have taken 
military service under the British Government, or in Native States. 
During the Mutiny in 1858, the tahsili wvi^ ineffectually besieged for a 
short time by a band of fugitive insurgents from Kalpi, The popula- 
tion of the town, which was 8650 in 1865, had risen to 10,323 in 1872, 
and to 10,443 in 1881. In the latter year, Hindus numbered 6763; 
Muhammadans, 3546; Jains, 124; and Christians, 10. Area of town 
site, 578 acres. For police and conservancy purposes, a house-tax 
realized ;£'2 23 in 1878-79. Fields yielding three crops annually 
extend up to the very walls of the houses, and Kaimganj is noted for 
its mangoes, tobacco, and potatoes. It is also a prosperous com- 
mercial town, and has superseded Shamsdbad as the chief place of 
trade on the road from Farukhabad to Budaun. Several kinds of cloth 
are manufactured, one for turbans, another for the fine apparel of 
women, and a third for stronger and coarser garments. The profession 
and habits of its Pathan population fostered in former times a manu- 
facture of swords and matchlocks, which has now dwindled down 
to a trade in ordinary knives and betel-nut cutters. Besides the 
ordinary tahsili courts and offices, the town contains a first-class police 
station, imperial post-office, English school, dispensary, sardi (native 
inn), and public garden. 

Kaimur. — The eastern but detached portions of the Vindhyan 
range, commencing near Katangi in Jabalpur (Jubbulpore) District 
of the Central Provinces, and running through the State of Rewa and 
Shahabad District of Bengal, dividing the valley of the Tons from that 
of the Son (Soane). In the Central Provinces, this range almost 
disappears in places, and never attains many hundred feet above 
the plain ; but in Shahabad District it rises precipitously to a height 
of about 1500 feet above sea-level, the summit forming a long table- 
land, with a series of saucer-shaped valleys, each a few miles in 
diameter, containing a deposit of rich vegetable mould in the centre, 
and producing the finest crops. The formation is primitive sand- 
stone, intermixed with schistose limestone. The ruined fortress of 
Rohtas is situated on these hills. Several ghats or passes lead to 
the summit, some of which are practicable for beasts of burden. 
The Kaimur range commences in lat. 24° 31' 30" N., and long. 83 
24' E., within the Central Provinces, and occupies more or less con- 
tinuously the great hilly area which extends from that point to lat. 
25° N., and long. 84° 3' 30" e., within the Lieutenant-Governorship of 
Bengal. 

Kaira {Kheda). — District in the Northern Division of Gujarat 
(Guzerat), Bombay Presidency. Lies between 22° 26' and 23° 6' n. lat., 
and between 72° 33' and 73° 21' e. long. Bounded on the north by 



KAIRA. 299 

Ahmadabad District, Mahi Kantba, and the small State of Balasinor 
in the District of Rewa Kantha ; on the west by Ahmadabad District 
and the Native State of Cambay ; on the south and east by the river 
Mahi and the Gaekwar's territory (Baroda). The breadth of the 
District varies from 25 to 40 miles. Area, 1609 square miles; 
population (1881) 804,800 persons. 

Physical Aspects. — Excepting a small corner of hilly ground near 
its northern boundary, and in the south-east and south, where the land 
along the Mahi is furrowed into deep ravines, the District of Kaira 
forms one unbroken plain sloping gently towards the south-west. The 
north and north-east portions are dotted with patches of rich rice land, 
broken by untilled tracts of low brushwood. The centre of the District, 
called the charotar or goodly land, is very fertile and highly cultivated ; 
the luxuriant fields are surrounded by high-growing hedges, and the 
whole country is clothed with clusters of large shapely trees. West- 
wards, this belt of rich vegetation passes into a bare though well- 
cultivated tract of rice land, growing more barren and open to the 
south till it reaches the maritime belt, whitened by a salt-like crust, on 
the Gulf of Cambay. 

Rivers. — The Mahi, the largest river of Kaira, and the third in im- 
portance of the Gujarat rivers, flows for nearly a hundred miles along the 
east, south-east, and south boundary of the District. Its deeply cut bed, 
sandbanks, and scanty summer channel, unlit it for either irrigation or 
navigation. This river is specially sacred to the Kolis, who believe that 
no guilty person can succeed in swallowing its waters. Its banks were 
formerly inhabited by predatory tribes, and there is a Koli saying 
that ' when the Mahi is crossed, there is safety.' One hundred miles 
of the course of the Mahi lie within or border on Kaira District. 
This hundred miles may be divided into three sections, first a stretch 
of forty miles over a rough and rocky bed, then ten miles of a still 
stream with a sandy bed, and forty-live miles of a tidal river. 
The fords in the District are at Kavi, Dehvan, Gajna, Khanpur, 
and Ometa. At Verakhandi, the limit of the flow of the tidal 
wave, the bed is in the dry season 500 yards wide, the stream 120 
yards, and the average depth \\ feet. A small 'bore' rises in the 
estuary at springs and dashes iiself on the Dehvan. The Sabarmati, 
the fourth largest river in Gujarat, flows for 14 miles along the 
western boundary, and is much used for irrigation. The Shedhi, being 
charged with soda, is not adapted for irrigation. The Khari, one 
of five smaller streams, waters a large area by means of canals and 
sluices, but fails at the end of the rice season, that is to say, about 
November. Except in two small tracts in the north-east and south- 
west of the District, where the land is saturated with salt, the supply 
from wells, reservoirs, and rivers is plentiful. Number of wells in 



3 DO KAIRA. 

1876, 9341; water-lifts, 531; ponds, 4600; besides 9 canals and 
dams. 

Minerals.— \roxi-oxQ was at one time worked in the neighbourhood 
of Kapadwanj. In the bed of the Majam river, about 15 miles from 
Kapadwanj, are found varieties of agate and moss stone. The bed of 
the Mahi contains masses and boulders of trap ; while on its upper 
portion, on the Balasinor frontier, rock is plentiful, including trap, with 
occasional limestone, quartz, and granite. At Lasundra, about 24 miles 
from the Nariad railway station, and about 12 miles from the Dakor 
railway station, springs of hot water rise to the surface in ten or twelve 
cisterns, the hottest having a temperature of 115° F. The water, 
slightly sulphurous, is thought to be useful for the cure of skin diseases. 
The place is held sacred by the Hindus, and is called Ram Kshetra, as 
Ramchandra, the hero of the Rdmdya?ia, performed here the shrddh 
ceremonies for the soul of his father. 

Wild Animals. — Tigers and leopards, a^few years ago always to be 
found in the bed of the Mahi, are now rarely heard of, owing to the 
spread of tillage and their pursuit by European sportsmen. Hyaenas, 
jackals, foxes, wild hog, antelope, gazelle, and hares are common. 
Of game birds, besides many varieties of duck, snipe and quail abound ; 
while geese, bustard, partridge, quail, and florican may occasionally be 
shot. Poisonous snakes are common. A reward of from is. 6d. to 6d. 
is paid for killing a cobra, and from is. to 3d. for killing other kinds. 
In 1877, 19 persons died from snake-bite. Mdhsir and other fresh- 
water fish are caught in the waters of the most considerable rivers. 

History. — Y^-:m2i District is made up partly of lands acquired 
from the Peshwa in 1802, by the treaty of Bassein, partly of terri- 
tory transferred by the Gaekwar of Baroda in 1803 and 18 17. 
Rajputs reigned in Kaira from 746 to 1290. The most celebrated 
dynasty was the Anhilwara. At the end of the 14th century Kaira 
passed to the Muhammadan kings of Ahmadabad, and in 1573 was 
transferred to the Mughals. In 1720, the Marathas appeared; and 
from that time to the fall of Ahmadabad in 1753, the District was the 
scene of perpetual struggles between the Marathas and the Muham- 
madan viceroys. The Marathas were victorious, and in 1753 the Dis- 
trict was shared between the Peshwa and his lieutenant the Gaekwar. 

Part of the lands of the District came into British possession in 
1803, and the rest in 18 17. Under the terms of the treaty of Bassein 
(31st December 1802), the Napad group of villages was handed over 
by the Peshwa. In 1803, for the maintenance of troops supplied by 
the British Government, the Gaekwar ceded Nadiad, Matar, and 
Mahudha, as well as the fort and town of Kaira. Again, by treaty 
dated 6th November 181 7, to provide for the payment of additional 
troops, the Gaekwar ceded Mehmadabad, Ah'na, Thdsra, Antroli, and 



KAIRA. 301 

half of the town and district of Petlad. At the same time, Kapadwanj 
and Bhalaj were received in exchange for the district of Bijapur in 
North Gujarat. 

The territories acquired in 1803, together with Dholka, Dhandhuka, 
Ranpur, and Gogha, which now form part of Ahmadabad District, 
remained in charge of the Resident at Baroda from the date of their 
cession till May 1805. During this time a European assistant and 
native officers administered, according to local usage, the police and 
justice of the country. In 1805, a Collector was appointed, with juris- 
diction over the ceded tracts, both those to the north of the Mahi and 
those to the west of the Gulf of Cambay. In the same year the town 
of Kaira {q.v.) was selected as a large military station. 

The increase in the British possessions consequent on the treaty of 
November 181 7 necessitated fresh administrative arrangements. The 
territory north of the Mahi was, from the ist January 18 18, divided 
into the two Districts of Kaira and Ahmadabad. In 1830, Kapadwanj 
was included in Ahmadabad, and Kaira reduced to a Sub-Collectorate 
under the principal Collector of Ahmadabad. In 1833, Ahmadabad 
and Kaira were again separated. Since then, more than once, villages 
have been moved from one District to the other, and the original 
irregular groups and collections of villages have been gradually con- 
solidated into seven Sub-divisions. 

Population. — In 1846, the population of the District was returned at 
566,513, or 354 to the square mile. By 1872 it had risen to 782,733 
persons, residing in 591 villages and 218,596 houses; density per 
square mile, 489. This latter density indicated a pressure of popu- 
lation higher at the time than in any other part of the Bombay 
Presidency. 

By the Census of February 17, 1881, the population of the District 
was returned at 804,800; area, 1609 square miles; density of popula- 
tion, 500 to the square mile. The increase of population since 1872 
has been nearly three per cent., and the District is still the most 
densely peopled part of the Presidency, outside the city of Bombay. 
The number of towns in the District was in 1881 returned at 10; 
villages, 571; occupied houses, 191,282; unoccupied houses, 51,396. 
Males numbered 426,781; females, 378,019; proportion of males, 53 
percent. In 1881, there was a town or village to each 277 square 
miles ; houses to the square mile, 150 ; persons per occupied house, 4'2. 

Of the 581 towns and villages in the District in 1881, 38 contained 
less than two hundred inhabitants ; 124 from two to five hundred; 158 
from five hundred to one thousand; 155 from one to two thousand; 
61 from two to three thousand; 30 from three to five thousand; 10 
from five to ten thousand ; 4 from ten to fifteen thousand ; and i 
from twenty thousand to fifty thousand. 



302 KAIRA. 

Classified according to occupation, the males were divided into six 
main groups: — (i) Professional class, including State officials of every 
description and the learned professions, 8431 ; (2) domestic servants, 
inn and lodging-house keepers, 2578; (3) commercial class, including 
bankers, merchants, carriers, etc., 5547 ; (4) agricultural and pastoral 
class, including gardeners, 190,826; (5) industrial class, including all 
manufacturers and artisans, 43,115; (6) indefinite and non-productive 
class, comprising general labourers, male children, and persons of un- 
specified occupation, 176,284. 

Classified according to religion, there were, in 1881, 383,207 male 
and 337,659 female Hindus; total, 720,866, or 89-6 per cent, of the 
total population. Muharamadans numbered 72,954, or 9'i per cent. ; 
Christians, 1041 ; Jains, 9603; Parsis, 131; Jews, 7; aboriginal 
tribes and 'others,' 198. Under the term Hindu are included the 
following caste sub-divisions: — Brahmans, 41,499; Rajputs, 25,973; 
Chamars, 10,874; Darjis, 2256; Dhobis (washermen), 1035; Hajjams 
(barbers), 10,859; Kunbis (agriculturists), 143,151; Kolis (agricul- 
turists), 279,344; Kumbhars, 8982; Lohanas, 3196; Lobars (black- 
smiths), 5964; Mall's (gardeners), 1106; Mahars or Dhers, 42,800; 
Sonars (goldsmiths), 2710; Sutars, 7807 ; Telis (oilmen), 83 ; Banjaris, 
113; and 'other Hindus,' 133,114. The aboriginal tribes are mostly 
(187) Bhils. The Muhammadans include Pathans, 8703; Sayyids, 
2953; Shaikhs, 6482; and Sindhis, 270. 

Among Hindus, the most important classes are the Lewa and Kadwa 
Kunbis, numbering 142,774; they are the best farmers in the District, 
and a sober, peaceable, and industrious race. The Kunbis of certain 
villages are held in honour, as descended from the leading men among 
the original settlers in Gujarat. The Rajputs, with the exception of a 
few who with the title of Thakur still retain landed estates, have sunk 
into the mass of ordinary peasant proprietors. The Kolis number 
279,340, or 34*7 per cent, of the entire population. Idle and turbulent 
under native rule, they are now quiet, hard-working, and prosperous. 
Among Hindu low castes, the Dhers or Mahars (42,800) are distin- 
guished for industry and good behaviour. They formerly lived in 
comfort by weaving coarse cotton cloth, but the competition of the 
Bombay and local steam mills is now shutting them out of the 
market. 

The Bhats or Barots, Rajput bards and genealogists, have their 
head-quarters in Kaira District. Many of the caste, formerly of much 
sanctity and importance, have had to turn themselves to ordinary 
pastoral occupations ; but some remain who travel to distant parts of 
India. Their different places of call are visited in order, generally at 
two or three years' interval. At each station they claim hospitality 
from castes which claim a Rajput descent. They are entertained in 



KAIRA. 



303 



some patron's house, remaining in one place several months, and 
during their stay they note down the births, marriages, and deaths that 
have happened in the family since the last visit. These particulars are 
carried away and duly recorded on the return to Kaira. 

Of the Musalman population, about one-third, under the name of 
Sayyids, Shaikhs, Pathans, and Mughals, represent the foreign con- 
querors of Gujarat. The remainder, called Momnas, Borahs, Tais, 
and Ghanchis, are the descendants of Hindus converted to Isldm under 
the Ahmadabdd kings. Musalmans of the first class, employed chiefly 
as cultivators, or in Government service as police and messengers, 
are for the most part poor. Musalmans of the second class, artisans, 
chiefly weavers and oil-pressers, are hard-working and well-to-do. 

The aggregate urban population of the District is 121,801, or 15 per 
cent, of the total population. 

Agriculture, the most important industry of the District, supports 
546,978 persons, or 68 per cent, of the total population. The soils belong 
to four classes — light, medium, black, and alluvial, with subordinate 
varieties. The alluvial or hatha land is chiefly found near the Vatrak 
river, and is a rich garden soil. In 1880-81, 371,793 acres, or 76-99 
per cent of the Government cultivable land, were taken up for tillage, 
and 19,421 acres were fallow or under grass. Grain crops occupied 
304j253 acres, or 81-83 peJ* cent.; pulses, 31,199 acres, or 8*39 per 
cent.; oil-seeds, 5348 acres, or 1-43 per cent.; fibres, 4662 acres, or 
1-24 per cent., of which 4424 acres were under cotton; miscellaneous 
crops, 17,640 acres, or 4-74 per cent., of which 11,754 acres were under 
tobacco. Spiked millet, bdjra (Pennisetum typhoideum), the staple 
grain crop, occupied 104,920 acres in 1881-82, or 27*4 per cent, of 
the total area (382,425 acres) under cultivation in that year. In 
1881-82, sugar-cane covered 1209 acres; indigo, 185 acres; and other 
dye-stuffs, 2626 acres. In the same year the agricultural stock of the 
District consisted of — bullocks, 136,235; cows, 49,345; buffaloes, 
175^946; horses, 1948; asses, 5894; sheep and goats, 42,700; 
ploughs, 60,513; carts, 26,669. 

The prices of agricultural produce in 1881-82 per maund of 80 
lbs. ranged as follows : — Wheat, 5s. 3d. ; barley, 2s. 9jd. ; rice (best), 
8s. 8d. ; rice (common), 5s. 5d. ; bdjra, 4s. 6d. ; jodr, 3s. 8d. ; gram, 
28.; salt, 6s. 2d. ; flour, 6s. 6d. ; ddl, 4s. 5d. ; firewood, is. ; ghi, £^. 
The average wages earned in Kaira District are from 9d. to is. per 
diem for skilled, and 3d. to 4jd. per diem for unskilled labour. Carts 
may be hired at 2s. per diem ; asses at from 3d. to 4jd. 

The finest tobacco in Western India is grown in Kaira ; but though 
skilful in rearing the plant, the cultivators know nothing of its 
preparation for the European market. Two varieties of tobacco 
are grown, the talabdi, or local plant, and the Khdndeshi, or plant 



304 KAIRA, 

introduced from Khandesh. An irrigated field yields twice as large 
a tobacco crop as a dry one. About the beginning of July, as 
soon as the first rain has fallen, the seed is sown on a well- 
prepared plot of ground, and after about a month and a half 
the seedlings are ready for transplantation. The field is scored in 
squares by a heavy, long-toothed rake, and at each point of inter- 
section a seedling is set. The plant takes about five and a half 
months to ripen. As soon as it is ready, it is carefully examined, 
and divided into two classes, kdlio and jardo ; the kdlio is cut down, 
stalk and all, and laid out to dry ; the jardo is left a little longer, and 
then the leaves are stripped off the stem. The kdlio is used for hookahs 
and for snuff; the jardo for chewing and smoking in cigarettes and 
pipes. The caterpillar is the chief enemy of the plant. Tobacco- 
growing is a costly process, and can only be undertaken by substantial 
cultivators. In 1876, it was calculated that the cost of rearing an acre 
of plant was ^27, and the profit £\o, 15s. 

Cotton is grown only from the local plant, and occupies every 
seventh furrow in fields sown with ordinary grain crops. Several 
attempts have been made to improve the Kaira cotton, but without 
success. Indigo was once one of the chief exports from Gujarat, but 
in 1827 it had almost ceased to be produced. An attempt to encourage 
the growth in Kaira later on was attended with failure. A Govern- 
ment silk garden was started in 1837, but was closed in 1847. Not 
only the strictly agricultural classes, Kunbis, Kolis, and Musalmans, 
but the whole population, including Brahmans and men of all castes, 
engage in agriculture. 

Natural Calamities. — A severe famine took place in 1791-92— rain 
fell only once that year; in 1813-14, there were only two showers of 
rain throughout the year; in 1825, the later rains failed, and remissions 
of land revenue to the amount of^i6,i98 were granted. On the other 
hand, the period 1814-22 was marked by heavy floods and rainfall 
that caused much damage to the country. In 1834, locusts ate up the 
crops, and remissions amounting to ^19^655 ^^ere sanctioned. In 
1837, 1868, and 187 1, disastrous storms swept over the District.! 
During the forty years 1836-1876, though the rainfall has at times' 
been scanty and the crops have failed, no season of famine or even of 
general scarcity has occurred in Kaira District. Owing to the scanty 
rainfall in 1877 (19-13 inches), there was a partial failure of crops, and 
the poorer people, especially in the Kapadwanj and Thasra Sub- 1 
divisions in the north-east, suffered some distress, which, however, did 
not leave behind serious results. 

Land Temires. — In 1803, when Kaira was ceded to the British, the 
District afforded examples of various forms of administration. In the 
centre were three kinds of villages, rdsti, or peaceable, viehwds, or 



I KAIRA. 305 

refractory, and an intermediate class of 7-dsfi-?nehuids villages. The 
refractory villages were occupied by the turbulent descendants of the 
Rajput and Koli warriors. Here Koli thdkurs or chiefs administered 
despotically their little clusters of beehive-looking huts. Revenue was 
stipulated for, but seldom paid. The peaceable villages were mostly 
grants of Government to those who had done some public service. 
The most important Muhammadan grants were called vidliks^ and 
were held rent-free. Internal administration was the concern of the 
village community. There were four forms of village government, the 
, commonest being that by which the village head-man engaged annually 
for the payment of a certain sum to Government. The profits of a 
good year, under this, the most simple and general system employed 
under the Peshwa, went to the head-man : on the other hand, the head- 
man had to bear any loss from failure of crop or short tillage. Above 
t'le head-man ox pdtel were the revenue-farmers ikamdvisddr)^ who fixed 
the village contributions, and below the head-men were the cultivators 
and coparceners of the village. A class quite apart, called mano- 
I tiddrs, or money-lenders, arose as sureties for the payment of the 
] revenue. This short statement furnishes an outline of the Maratha 
i revenue system. It has the merit of simplicity, and was calculated 
I to ensure the recovery of revenue. At the same time it is clear 
that it was extremely liable to abuses and suffering to the cultivating 
masses. 

When the District was taken over by the British in 1803, the system 
was continued with but small modification until 1862. In that year 
the revenue survey system, which deals directly with individual culti- 
vators, was introduced. The financial result of the survey assess- 
ment was an increase over the whole District of 1 1 per cent, in the 
Government land revenue demand. Of the 559 Government vil- 
lages, 90 are held on the 7tarvdddri tenure. The peculiarity of this 
holding is, that it involves joint responsibility for the payment of the 
Government revenue. In narvdddri villages, the pattiddrs or sharers 
belong to the Kunbi caste, and on account of being narvdddrs 
hold a high position among their fellows, being the descendants 
of the old proprietary cultivators. This tenure has been carefully 
preserved by Act v. of 1862 of the Bombay Government, but the land- 
tax is levied at survey rates on the whole arable land. Of late there 
have been instances of the community applying to change their special 
tenure for that under the Survey Act. The villages on the banks of the 
river Mahi, held on the mehivdsi tenure, pay their revenue in a lump 
sum. A clan of Musalmin yeomen, known as the Maliks, have for 
nearly 400 years held 27 villages on a special tenure. 

IVade. — Exports — grain, tobacco, butter, oil, and the petals of the 
mahud flower \ imports — piece-goods, grocery, molasses, and dye-stuffs. 
VOL. VII. n 



3o6 KAIRA. 

Kaira is particularly noted for its ghi or clarified butter, the export of 
which is calculated to benefit the District to the extent of ^80,000 
annually. The ghi when made is forced into large leather bottles 
holding from 60 to 200 lbs. The opening of steam factories at Ahmad- 
abad and of the Kaira railway centre of Nadiad has greatly reduced the 
demand for handspun cotton, once a staple. The produce of the 
Bombay and Gujarat weaving mills now threatens to destroy the 
demand both for native handiwork and for European piece-goods. 
The water of the District is thought to be especially good for dyeing 
purposes ; its calico prints are sought after in regions so distant as 
Siam. Soap and glass are manufactured at Kapadvvanj, and a steam 
spinning and weaving mill has recently been established at Nadiad, with 
12,704 spindles. Considerable quantities of coarse cloth for home 
consumption are woven in handlooms by the lower castes of Hindus. 
In the larger towns, calico printing is carried on by a class known 
as Bhavsars or Chhipias. There were no made roads of any kind, ' 
except one mile, in the District in 1844. About 72 miles of the 
Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway now run through the ' 
middle of the District; and 195 miles of road have during the past 
thirteen years been constructed or re-made. A new road is being 
made from the rice-producing villages on the Khari canals, to Barajri | 
station on the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway. There 
are 10 rest-houses for travellers in the District, built since 1869 at a 
cost to local funds of ;£'6i9t. Two ferries ply across the Mahi. There ' 
are 13 post-offices in the District. Letter-boxes are placed in most 
villages. Money-lending is chiefly in the hands of the Baniya, Sarawak, ' 
and Sonar, or jeweller, castes. Rates of interest vary, according to the 
credit of the borrower, from 6 to 1 8 per cent, per annum, rising in the 
case of poor cultivators and labourers to 25 per cent. In Kaira there 1 
are no guilds for trade purposes such as are found in Ahmadabad, and ; 
the system of apprenticeship is not known. 

Adiiii7iistratio7i. — The total revenue of Kaira, imperial, local, and 
municipal, amounted in 1882-83 to ^231,045, or, on a population of 
804,800, an incidence per head of 5s. 7jd. The land-tax forms the, 
great source of revenue, amounting (1882-83) ^^ £i^91->o^^\ other' 
large items are stamps and local funds (^33,277). The District is 
distributed for administrative purposes into 7 Sub-divisions (namely,^ 
Kapadwanj, Thasra, Mehmadabad, Nadiad, Matar, Anand, and Borsad); 
and contains five municipal towns, with an aggregate population of 
71,330 — viz. Nadiad, population (1881)28,304; Kapadwanj, 14,442;! 
Kaira, 12,640; Mehmadabad, 8173 ; Dakor, 7771. The total muni-| 
cipal receipts amounted in 1882-83 to ^5341, and the incidencej 
of municipal taxation varied from 5 Jd. to 2s. 9d. per head. Other towns| 
of importance are Umreth (14,643), Borsad (12,228), Mahuda (944°)'' 



KAIRA TOWN. 307 

Matar (4SS9), and Anand (9271). The revenue administration of the 
District is conducted by a Collector and three Assistants, of whom 
one is a covenanted civilian ; for judicial purposes, Kaira is included 
in the jurisdiction of the Judge of Ahmadabad. There are 5 civil 
courts, the yearly number of suits decided being about 11,000; 19 
officers administer criminal justice. The regular police (1882-83) 
consists of 722 officers and men, being i man to every 2*2 square miles 
and to each 11 16 inhabitants, costing ^12,171, equal to ^7, us. 3id. 
per square mile and 3|d. per head of the population ; average annual 
pay per man, ^10. Number of persons convicted of any offence, great 
or small, 2108, being i to every 381 of the population. In 1880, 
the daily average prison population was 166, including 9 females; the 
total cost of the jail was ^964, or ^5, i6s. 3|d. per prisoner; cash 
profit on manufactures, ^85, 14s., or los. per effective prisoner; 
death-rate, 14 per thousand. There was i prisoner in jail to every 4850 
of the District population. 

Education has widely spread of late years. In 1855-56, there were 
only 7 schools, attended by 1036 pupils; by 1876-77, the number of 
schools had risen to 189, and of pupils to 14,720, or an average of i 
school to every 3 villages. In 1882-83, ^^^e number of schools was 
220, with 18,372 pupils, or 2-28 per cent, of the total population. 
Kaira District has a public library and twelve reading-rooms ; and 
publishes two vernacular newspapers. 

Medical Aspects. — The average rainfall during the five years ending 
1876 was 30 inches. To Europeans the climate is trying. From 
November to March the air is pleasant and bracing. By the people of 
the District, the charotar or central portion is considered healthy. 
Cholera is rare. The temperature varies between 54° F. in January and 
104° in May. Fever of a malarious type is the prevailing disease. In 
1881-82, seven dispensaries afforded medical relief to 998 in-door and 
74,023 out-door patients, and 19,500 persons were vaccinated. Number 
of births (1882-83), 26,441; deaths, 22-3 per thousand. [For further 
information regarding Kaira, see the Gazetteer of Kaira and PancJi 
Ma/idls, vol. iii. of the Bombay Gazetteer, edited by Mr. J. M. 
Campbell, B.C.S. See also Mr. Stack's Memorajidiim upon Currejit 
Land Revenue Settlements in temporarily settled parts of British India ; 
the Bombay Census Report for 1881 ; and the several Administration 
and Departmental Reports for the Bombay Presidency from 1880 
to 1883.] 

Kaira {KJicda). — Chief town and municipality of Kaira District, 
Gujarat (Guzerat), Bombay Presidency. Lat. 22° 44' 30" n., long. 72° 
44' 30" E- ; 5 ^^^iles south-west of Mehmadabad station on the Bombav, 
Baroda, and Central India Railway, and 20 miles south-west of Ahmad- 
abad. Population (1881) 12,640, n:imely, 6432 males and 6208 females. 



3o8 KAIRANA—KAISAR-JO-TANDO. 

Hindus numbered 8704; Muhammadans, 1567 ; Jains,'23oo ; Christians, 
32; Parsi's, 25; and 'others,' 12. Municipal revenue (1882-83), 
;^898 ; incidence of municipal taxation, is. 3|d. per head. 

Kaira is a very ancient city, having a legendary connection with the 
Mahdbhdrata, and is proved by the evidence of copper-plate grants to 
have been known as early as the 5th century a.d. Early in the i8th 
century it passed to the Babi family, with whom it remained till 1763, 
when it was taken by the Marathas under Damaji Gaekwar ; it was 
finally handed over to the British by Anand Rao Gaekwar in 1803. Its 
frontier position rendered Kaira important to us ; and a large body of 
infantry, cavalry, and artillery were stationed there, until the transfer, in 
1830, of the frontier station to Deesa (Disa). The Collector, superin- 
tendent of police, executive engineer, and civil surgeon constitute the 
administrative staff at Kaira. The climate of the town is said to have 
improved of late years. Earthquake shocks were felt in i860 and 
1864. The court-house is a handsome building with Greek pillars. 
Near it is the old jail, in 1814 the scene of a riot in which the prisoners 
rose, and which was only suppressed with a loss of 19 killed and 12 
wounded. Reading-room, library, and clock-tower ; four Government 
schools, with an average attendance of 333 pupils ; civil hospital and 
post-office. 

Kairana. — Town and municipality in Shamli tahsil^ Muzaffarnagar 
District, North-Western Provinces. Lat. 29° 23' 15" N., long. 77° 14' 
30" E. Situated partly on the Jumna (Jamuna) lowland, and partly 
on the bank which leads to the higher ground above ; distant from 
Muzaffarnagar town 31 miles south-west. Mukarrab Khan, physician to 
the imperial family, received the town and surrounding country from 
Shah Jahan ; he adorned it with many edifices, and laid out a beautiful 
garden with a large tank. A flourishing town with a steadily increasing 
population, which has risen from 11,470 in 1847, to 15,162 in 1853, 
to 16,953 in 1865, to 17,742 in 1872, and to i8,374in 1881, Classified 
according to religion, there were in 1881 — Muhammadans, 10,466; 
Hindus, 7421 ; Jains, 481 ; and Christians, 6. Area of town site, 321 
acres. Municipal revenue in 1882-83, ;£793, of which ^731 was 
derived from taxation ; average incidence of taxation, 9|d. per head of 
population. Tomb of the Muhammadan saint, Khwaja Sahib. Crow'ded 
houses; narrow and tortuous streets; well-paved and clean bazar; 
sanitary arrangements defective. 

Kaisar-jO-Tando, or Taiido-Kaisar. — Village in Haidarabad 
(Hyderabad) District, Sind, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 25° 23' 30" N., 
long. 68° 34' 35" E. Nine miles south-west of Haidarabad, with 
which town and the villages of Khokhar, Husri, Tando Haidar, and 
Jam-jo-Tando it has road communication. The head-quarters station 
of 3 iapddd?'. Population (1876) 18 15. Not returned separately in 



KAITHAL TAhSIL AND TOWN, 309 

the Census Report for 1S81. The town is said to have been founded 
during the rule of Mir Fateh AH Talpur. 

Kaithal. — Western ta/isil of Karnal District, Punjab ; lying between 
29° 39' 30" and 29' 57' N. lat., and between 76° 13' and 76° 47' e. long. 
Area, 1106 square miles. Population (1881) 204,734, namely, males 
110,990, and females 93,744; average density, 185 persons per square 
mile. Hindus numbered 154,282; Muhammadans, 44,528; Sikhs, 
5229; Jains, 668 ; and 'others,' 27. Of a total assessed area of 71 1,564 
acres in 1878-79, the last year for which quinquennial agricultural 
statistics have been issued by the Punjab Government, 256,240 acres 
were returned as under cultivation, of which 7665 acres were irrigated 
from Government works, and 46,041 acres by private individuals. Of 
the remaining area, 8163 acres were returned as grazing lands ; 336,065 
acres as cultivable but not under cultivation; and 455,324 acres as 
uncultivable waste. The average area under the principal crops for 
the five years ending 1881-82 was as ioWows \—Jodr, 59,841 acres; 
bdjra, 40,458 acres; gram, 36,800 acres; barley, 33,684 acres; rice, 
23,937 acres; wheat, 16,887 acres; cotton, 4834 acres. Revenue of 
the taksil, ;2^ 14,689. The administrative staff consists of an extra- 
Assistant Commissioner in independent charge of the Sub-division, a 
Small Cause Court Judge, a mimsif, and 4 honorary magistrates. These 
officers preside over 6 civil and 6 criminal courts. Number of police 
circles {Ihdnds), 7 ; strength of regular police, 123 men; village watch- 
men (chaiikiddrs), 374. 

Kaithal. — Ancient town and municipality in Karnal District, 
Punjab, and head - quarters of the Kaithal tahsil, 38 miles distant 
from Karnal town. Lat. 29° 48' 7" N., long. 76° 26' 26" e. Kaithal 
is picturesquely situated on the brink of an extensive artificial 
lake or moat, which partly surrounds it, with numerous bathing-places 
and flights of steps. It is said to have been founded by the mythical 
hero Yudhisthira, and connected by tradition with the monkey-god 
Haniiman. It bears in Sanskrit the name of Kapisthala, or the abode 
of monkeys— a name which still applies. The town was renovated, 
and a fort built, under Akbar. In 1767 it fell into the hands of the 
Sikh chieftain Bhai Desu Singh, whose descendants, the Bhais of 
Kaithal, ranked amongst the most important and powerful cis-Sutlej 
chiefs. Their territories lapsed to the British Government in 1843. 
For a few years Kaithal formed the head-quarters of a separate District, 
but in 1849 it was absorbed into the District of Thanesar, and again 
transferred in 1862 to that of Karnal. The now somewhat dilapidated 
fort or palace of the Bhais stands out prominently on the bank of the 
lake. A high mud wall encloses the opposite side of the town. Popu- 
lation (1868) 14,940; (1881) 14,754, namely, males 7302, and females 
7452. Classified according to religion, there were, in the latter year— 



3 lo KAITHAN—KAKAR. 

Hindus, 8597; Muhammadans, 5852; Sikhs, 171; and Jains, 134. 
Number of houses, 2302. Municipal income in 1882-83, ^1310; 
expenditure, ^1594; average incidence of taxation, is. 9^d. per head. 
The town carries on a small trade in gram, sal-ammoniac, live stock, 
and blankets. Refineries of saltpetre. Manufacture of lac ornaments 
and toys. Station of an extra-Assistant Commissioner ; court-house, 
tahsili, police station, dispensary, school, sa?'di. 

Kaithan. — Town in Kotah Native State, Rajputana. Population 
(1881) 5031. Hindus numbered 3286; Muhammadans, 1670; and 
'others,' 75. 

Kaiti. — Village in the Nilgiri Hills District, Madras Presidency ; 
situated in lat. 11° 22' 30" n., and long. 76° 46' 30° e., in a valley of 
the same name, 3 miles from Utakamand (Ootacamund). Population 
(1881) 2954 ; number of houses, 575. Notable as one of the earliest 
settlements on the Nflgiris. A Government experimental farm was 
established in 1831, and the first tea plants sent from Calcutta to the 
Nilgiris were planted here four years later. The valley is closely cultivated 
with barley, wheat, and other cereals, potatoes and garden crops. In 
1833, Lord Elphinstone, then Governor, obtained the land on lease, 
and built and furnished a beautiful house, which in 1841 became the 
property of a civilian, from whom it passed to the Basel Mission. \ 
There are about 40 Christians in the valley. Three miles distant is the 
missionary out-station of Nikambe. 

Kajliri, or Kajuri Alldddd. — Estate held by a guaranteed Girasia, ' 
Thakur, or chief, under the Bhopal Agency, Central India. It is one 
of the sub-divisions of territory assigned to Rajan Khan, brother of ' 
the notorious Pindari leader, Chitii. At the death of Rajan Khan, the 
share of Kajuri fell to one of his sons, Ilahi Bakhsh, who was suc- 
ceeded in 1859 by his posthumous son, Karim Bakshsh, the present | 
chief. Revenue, about ;£^240. — See Jabria Bhil. I 

Kakair {Konkair). — Town in Nagpur District, Central Provinces; '• 
situated between the right bank of the Mahanadi and a high rocky hill ! 
surmounted by a fortress. Lat. 20° 15' n., long. 81° 33' e. Other lofty 
mountains surround the town, which is distant from Nagpur city 170 ; 
miles south-east. Population under 2000. Under the Maratha Govern- • 
ment, the zamindd^-i, of which Kakair is the chief place, was held on \ 
condition of furnishing 500 soldiers when required. In 1809, the ' 
Raja was dispossessed of his territory ; but, having joined the rebels in 
the troubles which arose on the escape of Apa Sahib, he retook Kakair, ; 
and was confirmed in possession, subject only to the payment of a fixed j 
rent of ^50 annually. 1 

Kakar. — Tdluk of Shikarpur District, Sind, Bombay Presidency; [ 
lying between 26° 51' 15" and 27° 13' 45" n. lat., and between 67° 24' I 
and 68° 2' e. long. Area, 598 square miles. Population (1872) 46,443; ; 



KAKAR—KAKORI. 311 

(1881) 49.500, namely, 26,609 males and 22,891 females, occupying 
8506 houses. Hindus numbered 4885 ; Muhammadans, 42,164 ; Sikhs, 
2437; aboriginal tribes, 13; and Christian, i. Number of tapds, 11 ; 
number of towns, i ; of villages, 102, of which 7 are alienated. Total 
revenue in 1S81-82, ^18,621, of which ;^i 7,380 came from imperial, 
and ^1240 from local sources. The tdhik contains 2 criminal courts ; 
police stations {thdnds), 1 1 ; regular police, 40 men. 

Kakar.— Town in Kakar tdliik, Shikarpur District, Sind, Bombay 
Presidency ; situated on the right bank of the Western Nara, in lat. 26° 
58' N., and long. 67° 44' e. Distant from Mehar 16 miles south-south- 
west, and from Rukan 10 miles south-west ; roads to both places. 
Population (1872) 702, of whom 403 were Muhammadans and 299 
Hindus. No return of population for 1881. Local trade in grain and 
cloth. Government vernacular school. 

Kakarbai. — Village in Jhansi District, North-Western Provinces ; 
situated on a peak to the left of the Chaich nadi, 54 miles from Jhansi 
town, and 9 miles from Garotha. Population (1881) 1633. Post-office 
and police station. 

Kakora. —Village in Budaun tahsil, Budaun District, North-Western 
Provinces; situated near the bank of the Ganges, 12 miles from Budaun 
town. The village contains only about 2000 inhabitants, but is 
noted for its large annual religious trading fair held at the full moon of 
the month of Kartik (October-November), which is attended by as 
many as 100,000 persons, from Cawnpur, Delhi, Farukhabad, and 
various parts of Rohilkhand. After performing their religious ablutions 
in the sacred river, the pilgrims turn their attention to trade. The 
principal articles bought and sold are household furniture, confectionery 
and fruit, cooking utensils, shoes, cloth and other fabrics, to each of 
which a separate bdzdr is assigned. Articles of European manufacture 
are sold at a few stalls. 

Kakori. — Pargcmd in Lucknow District, Gudh ; bounded on the 
north by Malihabad pargdna ; on the east by Lucknow pargajid ; on the 
south by 'B\]n^nr parga?id ; and on the west by Mohan Auras pargand 
of Unao District. Originally in the possession of the Bhars, who were 
expelled by the Bais Rajputs, and the tract included in the Baiswara 
kingdom. The Bais Raja Sathan fixed upon the old Bhar stronghold 
of Kakorgarh as his fort and head-quarters, from which he despatched 
plundering expeditions into the surrounding country. A force was 
sent against him by the Muhammadan King of Jaunpur ; the Raja was 
defeated and slain, and the Rajputs expelled from the pargand. At 
the present day, 34 out of the 64 villages are held by the descendants 
of the victorious Musalmans. Area, 60 square miles, of which 30 are 
cultivated ; the remaining half is nearly all uncultivable, owing to the 
extent of saline {usai) plains. Average incidence of Government land 



312 KAKORI—KAKSA. 

revenue, 4s. lofd. per acre of cultivated area; 3s. 6d. per acre of 
assessed area; and 2s. sjd. per acre of total area. Population (1869) 
31,789; (1881) 30,535, namely, males 15,523, and females 15,012. 
The main line of the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway runs through this 
pargand, within a mile of Kakori town. 

Kakori. — Town in Kakori pargand, Lucknow District, Oudh; 
situated nine miles due west of Lucknow city. Lat. 26° 51' 55" n., 
long. 80° 49' 45" E. An ancient town, dating from the time of the 
Bhars. Next to Lucknow city, it is the largest town of the District, 
and its well-stocked bazars indicate considerable prosperity. The 
weaving trade, however, for which it was formerly noted, has of late 
years decayed. Kakori contains the tombs of several Muhammadan 
saints, and is the birthplace of numerous distinguished Musalmans 
who have served under both the Native and British Governments 
during the past century. Many of the native lawyers {wakils) prac- 
tising in the Lucknow courts reside in the town, and their well- 
built red brick residences considerably add to the beauty of the place. 
The population which in 1872 was returned at 8467, had fallen in 1881 
to 7462, namely, Hindus, 3909 ; and Muhammadans, 3553. Area of 
town site, 115 acres. For police and conservancy purposes, a small 
house-tax is levied. Two bi-weekly markets ; Government school. 

Kakrala. — Town in Dataganj talisil, Budaun District, North- 
western Provinces ; lying on the unmetalled road from Budaun town to 
Usahat, 12 miles distant from the former place. Population (1881) 
5810, namely, 3469 Muhammadans, 2305 Hindus, and 36 Christians. 
Area of town site, 62 acres. A small municipal revenue is raised 
for police and conservancy purposes. The public buildings consist 
of a police station, post-office, sardi or native travellers' rest-house, 
and a village school. There are also a Hindu temple and several 
mosques. Trade and manufactures insignificant. The town was 
burnt during the Mutiny, and consists at present chiefly of mud- 
built huts. In April 1858, a British force under General Penny, 
when advancing against the rebels, was attacked by a party of Ghazis 
or Muhammadan fanatics lying in ambush near Kakrala. The general 
was killed in the fight, but the attacking party were completely 
defeated, and this victory put an end to the rebel government which 
had ruled at Budaun during the previous eleven months. 

Kakraul.— Village in Darbhangah District, Bengal ; situated about 
1 2 miles north of Darbhangah town, on the Jainagar road. Population 
(1872) 2440; (1881) 2945. Cloth of fine texture is woven here, 
and is very popular with the Nepalese. An ancient sage, Kapil 
Muni, is said to have lived in the village. Annual fair in January or 
February. 

Kaksa. — Village and head-quarters of a police circle iiJidnd) in 



KAKIVA GIRI—KALABA GIL z^i 

Bardwan District, Bengal. Lat. 23° 27' 10" N., long. 87° 30' 12" e. 
Station on the chord line of the East Indian Railway. 

Kakwagiri.— Village in the Garo Hills, Assam, which figured 
prominenUy in the operations during the Garo Expedition of 1872-73. 
{See Garo Hills.) It was discovered, at an early stage of the expedi- 
tion, that this village and Bawigiri were notoriously among the most 
disaffected, and they were occupied without difficulty, several prisoners 
being taken. 

Kalabagh. — Town, municipality, and salt mines in Bannu District, 
Punjab. Lat. 32° 57' 57" N., long. 71° 35' 37" t. Population (1881) 
6056, namely, 4993 Muhammadans, 936 Hindus, 54 Sikhs, and 
73 'others.' Picturesquely situated at the foot of the Salt Range, on 
the right bank of the Indus, at the point where the river debouches 
from the hills, 105 miles below Attock. The houses nestle against the 
side of a precipitous hill of solid rock-salt, piled one upon another in 
successive tiers, the roof of each tier forming the street which passes in 
front of the row immediately above. Overhead, a clift; also of pure 
rock-salt, towers above the town. An Awan family, who reside in 
Kalabagh, have a certain supremacy over the whole of their fellow- 
tribesmen, the representative of the family being known as Sardar or 
Khan. The salt is quarried at Man', opposite the town, where it stands 
out in huge cliffs, practically inexhaustible. The similar outcrop at 
Kalabagh itself is not quarried. The quarries, six in number, are 
situated in the Lun ndld, a small tributary of the Indus on its right 
bank. The depot at which the salt is sold stands on the left bank of 
the ndld, close to the Indus. 

The salt occurs underlying tertiary strata in workable seams of 
from four to twenty feet thick, alternating with seams of impure salt 
and niarl. It is quarried in the usual way by blasting, broken into 
pieces of suitable size, and then moved to the Government depot on 
cattle. The miners supply the cattle, and are paid at the rate of 2s. 
per 35 maunds of salt quarried ; and 2s. 6d. per 100 maunds in 
addition for the salt when delivered at the depot. The whole of the 
operations connected with the salt up to the time that it is deposited in 
store in the depot are in the hands of the miners. At the depot, the 
salt is weighed out to purchasers, and cleared under the supervision of 
the inspector in charge, afier which it finds its way either up the river 
to Makhad and thence to Rawal Pindi, or down the river to Sind and 
places en route. The quantity turned out in 1871-72 amounted to 
77,615 via N fids {^z.y 2717 tons), and the revenue was ^23,284. The 
average annual out-turn of salt delivered to traders for the four years 
ending 1882-83 ^^'^s 80,859 mainids, or 2888 tons. Alum also occurs 
in the neighbouring hills, and forms a considerable item of local trade, 
the out-turn being about io,coo maunds per annum, selling on the spot 



3U 



KALADGI. 



for ys. per maundoi 80 lbs. Manufacture of iron instruments from metal 
imported from the Kanigoram Hill. Staging bungalow, school-house, 
dispensary, sanii. Municipal revenue in 1881-82, £']2^^ or 2s. 4|d. 
per head of population within municipal limits. 

Kaladgi, now officially called Bijdpiir District — Y)\%Xx\qX in the 
Southern Division of the Bombay Presidency ; situated between 15° 50' 
and 17' 27' N. lat., and 75° 31' and 76° 31' e. long. On the north 
Bijapur is separated by the river Bhima from the District of Sholapur 
and Akalkot State; on the east and south-east it is bounded by 
the Nizam's Dominions (Haidarabad, Deccan) ; on the south the 
Malprabha river divides it from the District of Dharwar and the State 
of Ramdriig ; and on the west it is bounded by the States of Mudhol, 
Jamkhandi, and Jath. [The name of the District of Kaladgi was finally 
changed to that of Bijapur by Orders of the Bombay Government, 
dated i8th June 1884, with effect from ist March 1885. By the same 
Orders the head-quarters of the District were to be transferred, as soon 
after that date as practicable, from Kaladgi to Bijapur {q.v). The 
earlier volume of The Imperial G aze 1 1 eer coxxi^mmg Bijapur was printed 
off before this change had been effected.] Area, 5757 square miles. 
Population (1881) 638,493 persons. 

Physical Aspects. — Though alike in many respects, the lands of the 
District may conveniently be divided into two main sections. The 
river Kistna (Krishna) divides the two tracts for some distance, but 
they meet and run into one another lower down in the Muddebihal Sub- 
division. Here also is found a third type of country, the Don valley, a 
well-defined tract. The forty miles north of Bijapur town and the greater 
part of the Sindgi Sub-division form a succession of low billowy uplands, 
bare of trees, gently rounded, and falling into intermediate narrow 
valleys. On the uplands, the soil, where there is any, is very shallow; 
tillage is confined to the valleys; from every third or fourth upland 
issues a stream fringed with wild date trees. Among the trees are 
gardens, and beside the gardens stands the village ; a little farther on a 
grove of trees shades the village temple. The barrenness of the country 
and the dreariness of upland after upland and valley after valley, each 
like the last, are depressing. During the rainy season when the uplands 
are green and the valleys waving with millet, the effect though tame is not 
unpleasing. In spite of its barrenness, the country has excellent water. 
The Don valley begins close to the old city of Bijapur, and crosses 
the District from west to east. This tract is of rich deep black soil ; the 
rocky trap uplands disappear, the undulations are much longer and more 
gradual, and in many parts there is a true plain. The villages lie close 
to the Don river. This valley is badly off for water. In February, when 
the whole valley is a sheet of magnificent millet, wheat, and golden 
kusumhhi (Carthamus tinctorius), the prospect is extremely fine. 



KALADGI. 315 

South of the Kistna, towards the west, the level of the rich plain is 
broken by two lines of hills. These are for the most part rounded and 
sloping, but the steep and quaintly-shaped sandstone cliffs of Badami form 
an exception to the rule. Between the hills lie wide barren tracts covered 
with loose stones ; but there are also many stretches of light land, well 
wooded and bright with patches of red and white soil. To the east 
extends a black plain, as treeless and dull as that north of the Kistna. 

'Jlie District is well supplied with rivers and water-courses. Of 
these, the most important are, beginning from the north, the Bhima, 
the Dhon, the Kistna, the Ghatprabha, and the Mc41prabha, all large 
rivers flowing throughout the year, and, excepting the Dhon, impassable 
during the rainy season except by boats. There are also many small 
streams. The water of the Dhon is too salt to drink, but the other 
large streams supply drinking water of fairly good quality. In 1881-82, 
the District possessed for irrigation 467 dams, 456 water- lifts, and 
6295 wells. 

The mineral products are iron, slate, basalt, limestone, laterite 
boulders, and a shale containing vegetable remains. There are no 
forests. The hills in the Badami and Hungund Sub-divisions are 
covered with low brushwood, only fit for fuel. The wild animals 
include leopards, hog, antelope, wolves, and jackals. 

History. — Seven places within the limits of the District, — Aivalli in 
Badami, Badami, Bagalkot, Dhulkhed in Indi, Galgali in Kaladgi, 
Hippargi in Sindgi, and Mahakuta in Badami, — are illustrated by 
legends of sages and demons, perhaps in memory of early fights between 
northern invaders and local chiefs. These legends describe these 
places as within the Dandaka forest or Dandakaranya. The District in 
the second century a.d. seems to have contained at least three places 
of sufticient consequence to be noted in the place lists of Ptolemy, 
namely, Badami, Indi, and Kalkeri. So far as is known, the oldest 
place in Bijapur is Badami, a Pallava stronghold. About the middle of 
the sixth century the early Chalukya Pulikeshi i. wrested Badami from the 
Pallavas. From the Chalukya conquest of Badami to the Muhammadan 
invasion, the history of the District includes four periods, — an early 
Chalukya and Western Chalukya period lasting to about 760 a.d. ; a 
Rashtrakuta period from 760 to 973 ; a Western Chalukya, Kalachuri, 
and Hoysala Ballala period from 973 to 1190, with Sinda underlords 
in South Bijapur from 11 20 to 11 80; and a Devagiri Yadava period 
from 1 1 90 to the Muhammadan invasion of the Deccan at the close 
of the thirteenth century. In 1294, a Muhammadan army, led by Ala- 
ud-din, the nephew of Jalal-ud-din Khilji, Emperor of Delhi, appeared 
in the Deccan, sacked Devagiri (the modern Daulatabad in the Nizam's 
territories, to which place the seat of government had been removed 
from Bijapur during the Yadava period), stripped Ramchandra (the 



2i6 KALADGf. 



ninth king of the Yadava hne) of his wealth, and forced him to 
acknowledge the supremacy of the Delhi Emperor. In the middle 
of the fifteenth century, Yusaf Adil Shah founded an independent 
Muhammadan State with Bijapur for his capital. From this time, the 
history of the District is that of the town of Bijapur {g-V-)- 

The great Chinese pilgrim and traveller Hwen Thsang visited Badarai, 
then the seat of the Chalukya dynasty. He described the people as tall, 
proud, simple, honest, grateful, brave, and exceedingly chivalrous ; the 
king as proud of his army and his hundreds of elephants, despising 
and slighting the neighbouring kingdoms ; the capital full of convents 
and temples with relic mounds or stupas made by King Asoka, where 
the four past Buddhas had sat, and, in performing their exercises, had 
left the marks of their feet ; heretics of various sects were numerous, 
the men loved study and followed the teachings of both heresy and 
truth. He estimated the kingdom as nearly twelve hundred miles 
(6000 //) in circumference. 

Population. — The Census of 1872 returned the population at 816,273 
persons; the Census of 1881 at 638,493, showing a decrease of 
177,780 persons, or more than 20 per cent., in nine years, attributable 
to the famine of 1876-78. Average density of population, in 
persons per square mile; number of towns, ir; villages, 1130; 
occupied houses, 114,533; unoccupied houses, 40,086; houses per 
square mile, 27 ; persons per house, 5-57. Classified according to sex, 
there were 317,611 males and 320,882 females; proportion of males, 
less than 50 per cent, of the total population. There were, under 15 
years — males, 118,479, and females, 112,700 ; total, 231,179, or 36 per 
cent, of the population. 

Of the 1 141 towns and villages in Kaladgi District, 351 contain less 
than two hundred inhabitants ; 423 from two to five hundred ; 230 from 
five hundred to one thousand ; 93 from one to two thousand ; 18 from 
two to three thousand; 15 from three thousand to five thousand ; 8 
from five to ten thousand ; and 3 from ten to fifteen thousand. 

Distributed according to religion, the Census of 1881 yields the 
following returns :— Hindus, 568,096, or 89 per cent, of the District 
population; Muhammadans, 67,066, or 10-5 per cent.; Jains, 2679; 
Parsis, 26 ; Christians, 625 ; and Buddhist, i. The term Hindu 
embraces the following castes: — Brahmans, 20.374; Rajputs, 4414; 
Koh's, agriculturists, 10,187; Kunbis, agriculturists, 16,992; Berads, 
21,262; Koshtis, 8010; Kumbhars, 5429; Lobars, smiths, 1349^ 
Mails, gardeners, 2265; Mangs and Dhers, 44,433; Sonars, gold- 
smiths, 2273; Sutars, 2114; Teh's, oilmen, 36,952; Bhandaris, 
5010; Chamars, 3664; Darjis, 3250; Dhangars, 94,786; Dhobis, 
3215 ; Hajjams, 6926 ; Jangams, 26,631 ; Lingayats, 4377 ; Pancham- 
salis, 56,865; Raddis, 29,055; and 'others,' 158,237. The Muham- 



KALADGI. 3^7 

madans are composed as follows : — Pathans, 3090; Sayyids, 11,272; 
Shaikhs, 52,043 ; 'others,' 661. Of the Christians, 579 are natives. 

In the Census of 188 1, the males of the population were divided into 
six main groups : — (i) Professional class, including State officials of 
every description and the learned professions, 10,402 ; (2) domestic 
servants, inn and lodging-house keepers, 1753; (3) commercial class, 
including bankers, merchants, carriers, etc., 1318 ; (4) agricultural and 
pastoral class, including gardeners, 165,640; (5) industrial class, 
including all manufacturers and artisans, 38,321 ; (6) indefinite and 
non-productive class, comprising general labourers, male children, and 
persons of unspecified occupation, 100,177. 

Agriculture supports 485,164 persons, or 76 per cent, of the entire 
population. Thirty-seven per cent, of the agricultural population are 
actually engaged in tillage. The incidence of the State demand on 
each cultivable acre was, in 1881, 14s. ; of local cess, |d. The land of 
the District varies from a poor sandy and stony soil to a rich deep 
black loam ; the tract lying along the banks of the river Dhon is noted 
for its richness and power of retaining moisture. The sandy soils are 
unsuited for cotton, wheat, grain, and other cold-weather crops, and 
vield only the common varieties of millet and pulse ; but they are 
nevertheless, in the larger villages, well ploughed, manured, and weeded. 
In 1 88 1, the area of uncultivable land in the District was 761 square 
miles; of cultivated, 4076 square miles; and of cultivable waste, 920 
square miles. The agricultural stock in State villages amounted in 
1881-82 to 49,761 ploughs, 8846 carts, 197,560 bullocks, 93,171 cows, 
88,562 buffaloes, 7684 horses, 363,608 sheep and goats, and 5043 
asses. The area of Government cultivable land bearing assessment 
was 2,170,859 acres, or 66 per cent, of the total, of which 143,806 acres 
were fallow or under grass. Of this cultivable area, 1,719,524 acres 
were under actual cultivation (317 acres being twice cropped), of which 
grain crops occupied 1,209,075 acres, or 6870 per cent. ; pulses, 
73,360 acres, or 4 per cent. ; oil-seeds, 70,426 acres, or 3-9 per cent. ; 
fibres, 359,210 acres, or 20 per cent. (357,701 ^'^cres cotton); and 
miscellaneous crops, 7453 acres, or '4 per cent. 

Among the agricultural products of the Districts, Indian millet 
or jodr (Sorghum vulgare), grown both as a rainy-season and a fair- 
weather crop, held in 1881-82 the first place with 949^3^5 acres, or 
53-3 per cent, of the area under actual cultivation. It constitutes the 
chief food of the people ; and, except in seasons of unusual abundance, 
the whole crop is consumed in the District. The other cereals of im- 
portance are, spiked millet or bdjra (Pennisetum typhoideum), occupy- 
ing 136,924 acres, and wheat, covering 97,746 acres. The most 
valuable, and, next to millet, the most widely grown crop is cotton, 
occupying an area which, during the four years 1872-76, increased from 



3i8 KALADGI. 

184, 1 02 to 289,480 acres. By 1 882-83, the area under cotton had further 
increased to 351,844 acres. Castor-oil, linseed, satflower, and sesamum 
or /// are grown and exported, safflower in considerable quantities. 
But little rice is produced, and what is grown is of an inferior variety. 
In some parts of the District, a careless system of tillage is followed, 
portions of many fields being allowed to lie waste and become choked 
with grass. With the growth of the population up to 1876, the area 
under cultivation steadily increased, and tracts which thirty years ago 
sheltered the more dangerous sorts of wild beasts are now tilled fields. 
Much land fell out of cultivation during the famine of 1876-78. It is 
being gradually resumed, but the amount under cultivation has not yet 
come up to its normal quantity. 

The average wages earned in the District are is. 7id. a day for 
skilled and 6|d. for unskilled labour; 2s. a day is paid for carts; 
IS. id. for camels; 8id. for pack bullocks; and from is. 6d. to 
6s. for boats. The current prices of the chief articles of food 
during 1881-82 were— for a rupee {2s.\ Jodr (Indian millet), 64 lbs. 
(3s. 6d. per cwt.) ; rice, 19 lbs. (iis. 9d. per cwt.) ; wheat, 42 
lbs. (5s. 4d. per cwt.) ; and ddl (split-pease), 36 lbs. (6s. 2d. per 
cwt.). 

Natural Calafnifies.— Owing to its uncertain rainfall, Kaladgi is very 
subject to failure of crops and consequent scarcity of grain. Like the 
rest of the Deccan, this District was at the beginning of the 15th 
century left by the great famine of 1 396-1 406 almost utterly waste and 
deserted; and in 1 791, it again suffered grievously from the want of 
rain— still remembered by the people as the Skull Famine, the ground 
being covered with the skulls of the unburied dead. In 1803, the 
Pindaris stripped the country of food, and the price of millet rose 
to 4 lbs. per rupee (56s. per cwt.). In 1818-19, a failure of rain 
caused great distress, and raised the price of millet to 12 lbs. per 
rupee, or i8s. 8d. per cwt. Other years of drought and scarcity 
were 1824-25, 1832-33, 1853-54, 1863-64, and 1866-67. Finally, 
in 1876-77, the failure of rain was more complete and general 
in Kaladgi than in any other part of the Bombay Presidency. The 
price of millet rose to 9 lbs. per rupee (2s.), and the price of wheat to 

5 lbs. 

A special Census, taken on the 19th May 1877, when the famine 
was general and severe, showed that of 72,451 workers on public 
works, 3320 were manufacturers or craftsmen, 23,688 were holders 
or under-holders of land, and 45.443 were labourers. The total 
cost of the famine was estimated at ^258,376, of which ^230,873 
was spent on public works, and ^27,503 on charitable relief. The 
estimated loss of population caused by death and emigration is 234,841. 
The number of cattle decreased from 741,291 in 1875-76 to 437571^ 



KALADGI. 319 

in 1878-79, a less of 303,575 head. The tillage area fell from 
2,084,721 acres in 1875-76 to 2,078,796 acres in 1878-79. 

In 1879 the District suffered from a plague of rats, which destroyed 
about one-half of the crops by eating off the millet heads and the 
cotton pods, and biting the wheat stalks close to the ground. The 
ravages of the rats continued throughout the year, and threatened the 
general destruction of the early crops. Active measures were taken to 
reduce their numbers ; no fewer than 4,130,209 were destroyed. 

Manufactures and Commerce. — A large proportion of the people earn 
a living as weavers, and the peasants add to their income by the sale of 
home-spun cotton thread. The chief manufactures of the District are 
cotton and silk cloth. In addition to what is used in the District, con- 
siderable quantities of cloth are sent to Sholapur, Poona (Piina), Belgaum, 
and the Nizam's territory. Of late years, the number of handlooms is said 
to have increased. Blankets are woven to a considerable extent, and are 
in considerable demand as far as Bombay. Large quantities of cotton 
yarn and cloth are also dyed and exported. Except the coppersmiths, 
whose wares are sent out of the District, none of the Kaladgi artisans have 
a name for special skill in their crafts. The chief articles of import are 
piece-goods and rice from Sholapur, cocoa-nuts and salt from the coast, 
betel-nut and spices from Kanara, and molasses from Belgaum. In all 
sub-divisional stations, and in some other of the larger villages, a 
weekly market is held. Amingarh is a great mart for cattle and coast 
produce. There are 11 towns with a population of over 5000. The 
chief of these are Bagalkot, Bijapur, Guledgad, Ilkal, Kaladgi, Talikot, 
and Hungund. Thirty years ago, there were no cart roads in Kaladgi ; 
but in 1881-82, the number of carts was returned at 8846, and the 
main centres of trade are now connected by fair-weather roads. The 
East Deccan line of the South Maratha railway system also passes 
through the District via the towns of Indi, Bijapur, Bagalkot, and 
Badami. 

Besides the local trading classes, there is a large body of Gujarathi 
and Marwari money-lenders and cloth merchants in the District. 

Administration. — The first settlement of the District took place in 
1843-44. The total revenue of Kaladgi in 1882-83, under all heads, 
imperial, local, and municipal, amounted to ;£\6o,c)'j6, or, on a 
population of 638,493, an incidence per head of 5s. o^d. The land-tax 
forms the principal source of revenue, producing ^119,642. Other 
important items are excise (^12,282), stamps (;£"5896), and local funds. 
The District local funds created since 1863 for works of public utility 
and rural education yielded in 1881-82 a total sum of ^14,127. 
There are (1882) 4 municipalities, containing an aggregate population 
of 40,872 persons. Their total receipts (1882-83) are returned at 
^2389, and the incidenceof taxation varies from 7|d. to is. 6d. a head. 



320 KALADGI—KALAHASTL 

The administration of the District in revenue matters is entrusted to a 
Collector and four Assistants, of whom three are covenanted civilians. 
The number of fiscal Sub-divisions is eight. For judicial purposes, 
Kaladgi is included in the jurisdiction of the Judge of Belgaum. 
There are 4 civil courts. Twenty-two officers share the administration 
of criminal justice in 24 criminal courts. The total strength of the 
regular police consisted in 1881-82 of 3359 officers and men, or i to 
every 190 of the population; total cost, ;£9945, or ^i, 14s. 6d. per 
square mile of area and 3M. per head of population. The number of 
persons convicted of any offence, great or small, was 13 15, being i 
person to every 485 of the population. There is one District jail. 
Education has widely spread of late years. In 1855-56 there were 
only 9 schools, with 395 pupils. By 1876-77 the number of schools 
had risen to 137, attended by 6236 pupils, or, on an average, i school to 
every 8 villages. In 1882-83 there were — schools, 182 ; pupils, 10,612. 
On an average there is a village school to every 32 square miles. One 
vernacular newspaper was published in the District in 1882-83. 

Medical Aspects. — The rainfall in Kaladgi is very uncertain. The 
average during the five years ending with 1876 was 22 inches. The 
prevailing diseases are fever, rheumatism, guinea-worm, and cholera, k 
civil hospital at Kaladgi town and 5 dispensaries afforded medical relief 
to 352 in-door and 21,853 out-door patients in 1881-82, and 13,338 
persons were vaccinated. The births registered in 1881 numbered 
19,580; deaths, 13,517: death-rate, 21 per thousand. [For further 
information regarding Kaladgi, see the District Gazetteer, published by 
authority of the Bombay Government, and edited by Mr. J. M. Camp- 
bell, B.C.S. (vol. xxiii. of the Bombay Gazetteer), Also Mr. Stack's 
Memorajidum upon Cu?'re?it Land Revenue Settlements in temporarily 
settled parts of British India, p. 487 ; the Bombay Census Report for 
1881 ; and the several Presidency Administration and Departmental 
Reports from 1880 to 1884.] 

Kaladgi. — Town and municipality, Kaladgi District, Bombay 
Presidency; situated on the right bank of the Ghatprabha river, iii 
miles south by west of Sholapur station on the south-east line of 
the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. Lat. 16° 12' 30" n., long. 75° 
32' E. Population (1881) 7024, namely, 3628 males and 3396 females. 
Hindus numbered 4420; Muhammadans, 2521; Jains, 19; Christians, 58. 
Municipal revenue (1882-83), ;£"254 ; municipal expenditure, ^215; 
incidence of municipal taxation, 8Jd. Kaladgi was formerly the chief 
station of the District, but the head-quarters have now (1885) been 
removed to Bijapur. 

Kal^handi. — Zaminddri or estate in the Central Provinces. — See 
Karond. 

Kalahasti. — Tdluk in Kalahasti zim'inddri of North Arcot District, 



KALAHASTI ZAMINDARI AND TO WN. 321 

Madras Presidency. Area, 204,805 acres. Population (i88i) 52,037, 
namely, 26,271 males and 25,766 females, dwelling in 10,103 houses. 
Hindus numbered 50,003; Muhammadans, 19 10; and Christians, 124. 
No places in the taluk, except Sri Kalahasti (9935) and Puranduru 
(1138), possess more than 1000 inhabitants. 

Kalahasti {Kdlastri, Calastri). — Zaminddri estate, situated partly 
in North Arcot and partly in Nellore District, Madras Presidency ; one 
of the largest estates in the Karnatik. Population (1881) 135,104 in 
North Arcot. Number of villages, 612 in North Arcot, and 190 in 
Nellore. Area, 736 square miles in North Arcot, and 415 square 
miles in Nellore; peshkash (rent) to Government, ;2ri9,ooo. 

The zaminddri came into British possession in 1792. The zaniinddr 
of Kalahasti at one time could bring into the field a contingent of over 
5000 men. His revenues are estimated at between ;£"4o,ooo and 
;^5o,ooo per annum. The country is in a great measure covered 
with scrub jungle, especially the portion in North Arcot District, 
from which Madras city is supplied with firewood. Half of the 
tract is reported to be cultivated ; the soil is a red clay mixed with 
sand. There are few wells. For rent the zaminddr takes one-half of 
the produce. Copper, iron, and limestone are found. Glass-making 
is a staple industry. There are 5 1 miles of road. 

The histor}' of the estate is obscure. The first pdlegdr, or hereditary 
chief, was of the Vellama caste, and probably received the grant from 
one of the Vijayanagar kings in the 15th century. The estate at one 
time spread as far as the site now occupied by Fort St. George. The 
chief has been created C.S.I., and the title of Raja has been bestowed 
upon him. 

Kalahasti {Sri Kdlastri, Calastri). — Town in North Arcot District, 
Madras Presidency; situated in lat. 13° 45' 2" n., and long. 79° 44' 
29" E., on the right bank of the Suvarnamukki river, 16 miles north-east 
ofTripati (Tirupati) station on the Madras Railway, north-west line. 
Population (1881) 9935, namely, 4750 males and 5185 females. Hindus 
numbered 8627; Muhammadans, 1258 ; and Christians, 50. Kalahasti 
is the residence of the Kalahasti zaminddr and of a sub-magistrate ; 
has large bazars, and is a place of pilgrimage. It is some- 
times called Sri Kalahasti. In its extensive suburbs a good deal of 
cloth is woven. Grain, bangles, and the like commodities are the 
chief articles of trade. A magnificent festival called Sivardtri is 
held in March and continues for ten days. The great temple to 
Parvati cannot be entered by Europeans. The centre of the old 
town is occupied by a square filled with houses, around which four 
broad streets run, meeting one another at right angles. To the east 
and north-east the town has been extended irregularly. The temple, 
dedicated to Siva, from which the chief importance of the town is 

VOL. VII. X 



322 KALAI—KALANA UR. 

derived, stands at the base of the southern hill, and near the south-west 
angle of the central square. 

Kalai. — Port in the Umbargam customs division of Thana District, 
Bombay Presidency. Lat. 19° 14 n., long. 73° 6' e. Average annual 
value of trade for the five years ending 1873-74— imports, ;£737 ; ex- 
ports, ;!^io,975. In 1881-82 the imports were ^199 ; exports, ;£"6646. 

Kalak^d. — Town in the Nanguneri taluk of Tinnevelli District, 
Madras Presidency. Population (1871) 6480; (1881) 7281, namely, 
3492 males and 3789 females. Hindus numbered 6306 ; Muhammadans, 
841; and Christians, 134. Area of town, 2797 acres. Police station; 
weekly fair on Thursday. 

Kald. Klisi.— River of Purniah District, Bengal ; marks one of the 
old beds of the Kiisi. Although it still presents to some extent the 
character of a river, it is so broken up by diverging, re-uniting, and 
interlacing channels, that it is almost impossible to determine where it 
begins or what is its course. It may, however, be considered to have 
its rise under the name of the Kamla, near Rani'ganj, in the north of 
the District; whence it flows southward to Purniah town, where it 
receives its principal tributary, the Saura. Below Purniah it continues 
a southward course, often by several channels, until it falls into the 
Ganges (lat. 25° 16' 45" n., long. 87° 43' 30" e.) south-east of Manihari 
police station, opposite Sahibganj. 

Kalale.— Village in Mysore District, Mysore State, Southern India. 
Lat. 12° 5' N., long. 76° 43' E. Situated close to the Mysore- 
Utakamand (Ootacamund) road. Population (1871) 2306; (1881) 
1975. Founded in 1504 by a local chief, whose family afterwards 
supplied the Dalavayis or hereditary mayors of the Mysore palace, 
who supplanted the Hindu Rajas of Mysore, and were themselves 
overthrown by Haidar All. Large castor-oil trade. 

Kalamb. — Town in Wiin District, Berar, Haidarabad Assigned 
Districts. Lat. 20° 26' n., long. 78'' 22' 30" e. Situated 14 miles 
east of Yeotmal, the head-quarters of the District. Population (1881) 
2975; number of houses, 611. Bears signs of having once been a 
large town. It gave its name to one of the Sarkdrs or Divisions of the 
old Berir Subah. There is a remarkable underground temple here, 
dedicated to Chintaman. Land revenue of town (1881), ^361. 
School, post-office, and police station. 

Kalanaur. — Town in Rohtak tahsil, Rohtak District, Punjab. Lat. 
28° 49' 45" N., long. 76° 25' 15" E. Situated on the road from Rohtak 
to Bhiwani, 12 miles from the former town. Population in 1868, 
5646; in 1881, 7371, namely, Hindus, 4201 ; Muhammadans, 3061 ; 
and Jains, 109. Number of houses, 970. A small market town with 
some local trade, and noted for its manufacture of saddlery and leather 
work, purchased to supply Native cavalry. 



KALANA UR—KALASA. 323 

Kalanaur. — Town and municipality in Gurdaspur tahsil^ Gurdaspur 
District, Punjab. Lat. 32° i' n., long. 75° 11' 30" e. Situated on the 
Kirran stream, 17 miles west of Gurdaspur town. Population (1868) 
5646; (1881) 4962, namely, 3264 Muhammadans, 1577 Hindus, 46 
Sikhs, and 75 Jains. Kalanaur was a place of considerable importance 
in the 14th, 15th, and i6th centuries. Historically interesting as the 
spot where Akbar received the news of his father's death, and ascended 
the imperial throne. A third-class municipality, with a revenue in 
1881-82 of ;£"289; expenditure, ;^264; average incidence of taxation, 
IS. ifd. per head. Dispensary, school, second-class police station, and 
post-office. 

Kalang. — Important offshoot of the Brahmaputra in Nowgong 
(Naugaon) District, Assam, which issues from the south or left bank a 
few miles below Bishnath in Darrang on the opposite side of the river, 
and, after many windings through the centre of the District, finally rejoins 
the Brahmaputra at Panikhaiti, about 15 miles above Gauhati. For 
the last few miles of its course it forms the boundary between the 
Districts of Nowgong and Kamrup. Its tributaries — all on the south 
or left bank — are the Misa, Diju, Nanai, Kapili, Kiling, and Digru. 
The principal towns and centres of traffic are Nowgong, Raha, and 
Chapari-mukh. Since 1858, a large sandbank has formed at the exit of 
the Kalang from the Brahmaputra, which obstructs navigation during 
the greater part of the year. In the rainy season, the Kalang has a 
depth of 26 feet of water. A little south of Nowgong town are two 
large bils or marshes, known as Mari Kalang and Pota Kalang, which 
have evidently been formed by changes in the course of this river. 
There is an important ferry at Raha. 

Kalan Kot (or Kalia Kot, Kdla Kot). — Ruins of an ancient fort in 
the Jerruck (Jhirak) Sub-division of Karachi (Kurrachee) District, Sind, 
Bombay Presidency. It is seated on a limestone hill, which abounds 
in marine shells, and is everywhere honeycombed with natural cavities. 
Said to have been built in the 15th century, on the site of a still more 
ancient stronghold. It must have been of great strength, and the 
remains seem to show that it was destroyed by fire. The fort is three 
miles south of Tatta. 

Kalaro^. — Town and head-quarters of a police circle {thdna)^ 
Khulna District, Bengal; situated on the Betna river. Lat. 22° 42' 
35" N., long. 89° 7' 55" E. Population (1881) 5995, namely, Hindus, 
2109; Muhammadans, 3886. Area of town site, 3520 acres. Trade 
in rice and sugar. 

Kalasa. — Village in Kadiir District, Mysore State, Southern India. 
Situate in a valley 30 miles west-south-west of Chikmagaliir. Lat. 
13° 14' 20" N., long. 75° 24' 11" E. Contains a large temple dedicated 
to Kaleseswara, surrounded with ruinous mounds and inscriptions of the 



324 KALASTRI—KALGHATGI. 

Bairasa Wodeyar family of Karkala, dating from the 12th to the i6th 
century. Subsequently a residence of the Aigar chiefs. The town 
then extended so as to include the present villages of Melangadi, 
Kilangadi, and Rudrapada. Areca-nut produced in the neighbourhood 
is reckoned the best in Mysore. 

Kalastri (or Calastri).—Zami?iddri and village, Madras Presidency. 
— See Kalahasti. 

Kaldt. — Province or collection of chiefships, and chief town of the 
territories of the Khan of Kalat, Baluchistan. — See Khelat. 

Kalawar. — Town in Kathiawar, Bombay Presidency; situated 
about 28 miles south-east of Nawanagar. The chief town of Kalawar 
inahdl or revenue division. Population (1872) 2604; but this total 
sank in 1881 to 2316, owing to the famine of 1878-79. The town 
is famous in local legend as being the place where a Wala Rajput 
married a daughter of a K^thi, and thus formed the present tribe of 
Wala-Kathis. It was noted as far back as 1780 for fine dangari, or 
coarse cotton cloth, worn by Rajas and great chiefs before the intro- 
duction of English calico. Kalawar is a walled town. 

Ka-le-gauk.— Island off the coast of Amherst District, Tenasserim 
Division, British Burma. It is 50 miles long, and runs north by west 
and south by east, with its northern extremity 30 miles from Cape 
Amherst. The northern half of the island is described as consisting 
of ' a long granite ridge, wath a perpendicular drop to the sea.' The 
western side is broken into abrupt hills, with level, wxll-raised, inter- 
vening spaces forming three bays ; one of which, Quarry Bay, furnished 
the stones for the Alguada Reef lighthouse. The water-supply is 
good, as a perennial spring of sweet water flows through the centre 
of the island. 

Kalesar.— Forest reserve in Ambala (Umballa) District, Punjab, 
covering an area of 11,829 acres. It lies on the right bank of the 
Jumna (Jamuna), and, running up the slopes of the Siwalik range, juts 
into Sirmur (Sarmor) State. This tract possesses great importance on 
account of the sal trees, which compose its principal timber. 

Kalghatgi.— Sub-division of Dharwar District, Bombay Presidency. 
Lat. 15° i' to 15° 29' 15" N., long. 74° 54' 40" to 75° 13' 40" e. Area, 
279 square miles, with 105 villages and 8864 houses. Population 
(1881) 50,769; density of population, 182 persons to the square 
mile. The population is composed of 25,902 males and 24,867 
females; and is divided into 44,219 Hindus, 4725 Muhammadans, 
and 1825 'others.' Since 1872, the population has decreased by nearly 
2000. Kalghatgi Sub-division is in the west of the District; bounded 
on the north by Dharwar, on the east by Hubli and Bankapur Sub- 
divisions, on the south by Yellapur in North Kanara, and on the west 
by Yellapur and Haliyal in North Kanara. Most of the country is 



KALGHA TGI—KALIANPUR. 325 

broken by woody hills. The east and south are open and rolling, 
with bushy uplands. The-north and west are wilder. The supply of 
water is on the whole plentiful. The rainfall in the wooded west is 
heavier than in the rest of the Sub-division ; average at Kalghatgi town, 
29-25 inches a year. Land revenue, ;£"i2,985. In 1883, the Sub- 
division contained 2 criminal courts ; police station {thdna)^ i ; regular 
police, 34 men; village watchmen {chaiikiddrs\ 125. 

Kalghatgi. — Town in the Kalghatgi Sub-division of Dharwar Dis- 
trict, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 15° 10' n., long. 75° 2' e. Situated 
20 miles south of Dharwar town, on the Karwar-Dharwar road. Rest- 
house, and weekly market on Tuesdays, when rice is chiefly sold. 

Kalhatti. — Village in Nilgiri Hills District, Madras Presidency. 
Lat. 11° 27' 45" N., long. 76° 43' E. ; 8 miles from Utakamand (Ootaca- 
mund), on the principal road to Mysore. Elevation above sea-level, 
6700 feet. Situated 3 miles below the head of the Segiir^/^i/. There 
is a travellers' bungalow, which is resorted to by tourists, who come 
for the sake of the view of the waterfall (170 feet) close by; also a 
botanical garden kept up by Government. Oranges, apples, peaches, 
and pears thrive particularly well. Police station. 

Kali. — River of the North-Western Provinces. — See Gogra. 

Kalia. — Village and head-quarters of a police circle {thdnd) in Jessor 
District, Bengal. The village contains settlements of Kayasths and 
Baidyas, many of whom are employed in the courts and Government 
offices at the head-quarters town, and only return to their homes for 
the Durgd-pujd holidays, when they spend their time in boat-racing. 
Good water communication with Naral to the north, and Khulna to 
the south. Flourishing school. 

Kaliabar. — Village and police station {thdnd) in the east of Now- 
gong (Naugaon) District, Assam ; situated on the Brahmaputra, a few 
miles below the point where the Kalang river issues from that river. 
A calling station for river steamers. 

K^lia-Chak. — Village and head-quarters of a police circle {thd?id) 
in Maldah District, Bengal ; situated on the banks of the Ganges. Lat. 
21° 51' 15" N., long. 88° 3' 1" E. This was formerly the head-quarters 
of a large indigo factory known as the Kalia-Chak concern. The 
residence and factory buildings still exist, although the factory is 
closed. 

Kalianpur. — North-westerly tahsil of Fatehpur District, North- 
Western Provinces ; extending from the Ganges to the Jumna (Jamuna), 
and traversed throughout by the East Indian Railway. Area, 
279 square miles, of which 153 are cultivated. Population (1872) 
116,391 ; (1881) 119,182, namely, males 61,416, and females 57,766. 
Hindus numbered 109,384, and Muhammadans, 9798. Number of 
villages, 216. Land revenue, £2^,606; total Government revenue, 



32 6 KA LI BA ORI—KALIAIIYAR POINT. 

including rates and cesses, ;2^2 9,893 ; rental paid by cultivators, 

;^42,i43- 

Kdli Baori. — Petty State of Dhar under the Bhil or Bhopawar 
Agency of Central India. The chief, or Bhiimia, receives ;£"i37 from 
the Dhar Darbar, and £,\2 za}?ii7iddri, on condition of guarding 
the I>argand of Dharmpuri and being answerable for robberies. He 
holds five villages of Dharmpuri pargand in perpetuity, for which he 
pays annually ;^5o. He also receives ^^15 from Sindhia, and is 
answerable for robberies in seventeen villages in Bankaner. These 
three engagements are under British guarantee. 

Kalibhd,nj. — Island in the estuary of the Dhamra river, Cuttack 
District, Orissa. Lat. (centre) 20° 47' n., long. 86° 56' e. 

Kaligdnj. — Village in Khulna District, Bengal; situated at the 
junction of the Jamuna and Kanksiali rivers, on the boat route to the 
south. Lat. 22° 27' 15" N., long. 89° 4' e. Population (1872) 3485 ; 
(1881) 5554, namely, Hindus, 2946, and Muhammadans, 2648. Area 
of town site, 1280 acres; number of houses, 697. Large bdzdr, and 
considerable river trade. Manufacture of horn sticks. Village police 
force of I petty officer and 6 men. 

Kaliganj. — Village in Rangpur District, Bengal; situated on the 
right bank of the Brahmaputra, and a port of call for the Assam river 
steamers. Considerable exports of rice and jute. 

Kdlighat. — Sacred village in the District of the Twenty-four Par- 
ganas, Bengal ; situated on the bank of the old bed of the Ganges, a 
few miles south of Calcutta. Lat. 22° 31' 30" n., long. 88° 23' e. The 
temple in honour of Kali, the wife of Siva, derives sanctity from the 
following legend. Her dead body was carried all over the world by 
her disconsolate husband, until at length the corpse was cut in pieces 
by Vishnu with his sacred disc {sudarsan chakra), and the 52 
places where the different parts of the body fell became sacred as 
places of pilgrimage. One of her fingers is said to have fallen at 
this spot. The temple was built about three centuries ago by a 
member of the Sabarna Chaudhari family, who allotted 194 acres of 
land for its maintenance. A Brahman named Chandibar was the first 
priest appointed to manage the affairs of the shrine ; and his descend- 
ants, w^ho have taken the title of Haldar, are the present proprietors. 
They have amassed great wealth, not so much from the endowments 
as from the daily offerings made by pilgrims. The principal religious 
festival of the year is on the second day of the Durgd -pujd^ when the 
temple is visited by crowds of pilgrims from all parts of the District. 

Kalikot {Kolikodu). — Taluk and town in Malabar District, Madras 
Presidency. — See Calicut. 

Kalimiyar Point (Kalli-medu, Tdmil). — Madras Presidency. — See 
Calimere. 



KALIMPONG—KALINDL 327 

Kalimpong. — Hill tract of Ddrjiling District, Bengal. — See 
Dalingkot. 

Kali Nadi, East (properly Kdlindi). — River in T^Iuzaffarnagar, 
Meerut (Merath), Bulandshahr, Aligarh, Etah, and Farukhabad Dis- 
tricts, North-Western Provinces. Rises in Muzaffarnagar District, east 
of the Ganges Canal, and between that channel and the great sand- 
ridge of Sarai. During the earlier part of its course it bears the name 
of Nagan, and forms an ill-defined waterway, running through grassy 
fields. Lower down it gradually expands, and in the latitude of 
Bulandshahr becomes a perennial stream, running southward through 
a valley marked by high banks, and draining the whole eastern portion 
of the Doab. Its channel here is very tortuous. At Khurja the river 
trends south-eastward, and holds the same direction for the remainder 
of its course until it falls into the Ganges, in lat. 27° i' n., and long. 
80° E., a few miles from Kanauj. The valley is inundated almost 
every year, but no injury is caused thereby, as the lands are seldom 
sown with any but winter crops. The fertility of the valley was tem- 
porarily destroyed a few years after the opening of the Ganges Canal 
by the appearance of a saline efflorescence said to be due to the rise 
of the spring level in consequence of the escapes by which the waste 
water of the canal distributaries was let into the river. In a large 
number of villages the revenue assessment was reduced, but as soon 
as the escapes were closed, the soil recovered itself, and the revenue 
was again raised. In Bulandshahr District the river is crossed by a 
handsome masonry bridge of nine arches at Bulandshahr town, and 
also by a bridge erected by a local landholder at Gulaothi on the road 
to Garhmukhtesar. In Aligarh District there are three permanent 
bridges. The water of the river is very little employed for irrigation, 
on account of its great depth below^ the surface. The total length of 
the East Kali Nadi is about 310 miles. 

Kali Nadi, West. — River in Saharanpur and Muzafiarnagar 
Districts, North-Western Provinces; rises 16 miles south of the 
Siwalik Hills, at an elevation of about 1000 feet above sea -level, 
and flows with a general south-westerly course to join the Hindan. 
Lat. (point of junction) 29° 19' N., long. 77° 40' e. ; total length, about 
70 miles. 

Kalindi. — A distributary of the Jamuna river, Khulna District, 
Bengal. It branches off from the parent stream at Basantpur, whence 
it flows in a southerly direction through the Sundarbans, and falls into 
the Raimangal in lat. 22° 7' n., and long. 89° 5' 30" e. Some distance 
above the point where the Jamuna falls into the same estuary, about 
seven miles below Basantpur, the Kalindi throws off a small creek, which, 
communicating with the Kaligachhi and Atharabanka rivers in the 
Sundarbans, and joining the Bidyadhari, forms the track for the large 



328 KALINDRI-KALINGA, 

boats from Calcutta to the eastward. The Kalindi is a fine deep river, 
averaging 300 feet in breadth. 

Kalindri (or Kdlindi).—K\\QX of Northern Bengal, an offshoot or 
distributary of the Kusi in Purniah District, entering Maldah about 
six miles north of Haiatpur town, near which place a natural connection 
has been effected with the Ganges. The main stream, however, runs 
a winding course in a south-easterly direction past Haiatpur for 20 
miles, till it joins the Mahananda at Maldah town, in lat. 25° 2' 30" n., 
long. 88" to' 15" E. It receives no tributaries of any importance, the 
drainage of the neighbouring country being carried off by means of 
small creeks or ndlds, which only contain water in the rainy season. 
The river is not wide, but flows in a very deep channel between banks 
of hard red clay, nowhere fordable during the rains. Owing to its con- 
nection with the Ganges at Haiatpur, the river is now divided into 
two branches, the Upper and the Lower Kalindri. The river bed of 
the Low^er Kalindri is now silting up at its mouth where it joins the 
Ganges ; and throughout its channel to its junction with the Mahananda, 
it is throwing up great sandbanks. Both the Kalindri and Mahananda 
have much deteriorated in consequence during the eight years from 
T875 to 1883. 

Kaling^ (or Calingd). — One of the nine kingdoms of Southern 
India in ancient times. Its exact limits varied, but included the 
Eastern Madras coast, from Pulicat to Chicacole, running inland from 
the Bay of Bengal to the Eastern Ghats. The name at one time had 
a wider and vaguer meaning, comprehending Orissa, and possibly 
extending to the Ganges valley. A modern authority speaks more 
narrowly of it as ' the country on the coast of the Bay of Bengal, south 
of Orissa.' The Kalinga of Pliny certainly included Orissa, but latterly 
it seems to have been confined to the Telugu-speaking country ; and 
in the time of Hwen Tsiang (a.d. 630) it was distinguished on the 
west from Andhra, and on the north from Odra or Orissa. The 
language of the country is Telugu. Taranatha, the Tibetan historian, 
speaks of Kalinga as one division of the country of Telinga. Hwen 
Tsiang speaks of Kalinga (' Kie-ling-kia ') having its capital at what 
may now be identified with the site either of Rajamahendri (Rajah- 
mundry) or Coringa. Both these towns, as well as Singhapur, Kalinga- 
patam, and Chicacole, divide the honour of having been the chief cities 
of Kalinga at different periods. The modern Kalingia ghdt^ Kalinga- 
patam, and Coringa may be taken as traces of the old name. 

The following account of Kalinga, as described by Hwen Tsiang in 
639-40 A.D., is condensed from General Cunningham's Ancient Geo- 
graphy of India ^ vol. i. p. 515 : — 

' In the 7th century, the capital of the kingdom of Kie-ling-kia, or 
Kalinga, was situated at from 1400 to 1500 //, or from 233 to 250 



KALINGA. 329 

miles, to the south-west of Ganjam. Both bearing and distance point 
either to Rajamahendri on the Goddvari river, or to Coringa on the 
sea-coast; the first being 251 miles to the south-west of Ganjam, and 
the other 246 miles in the same direction. But as the former is known 
to have been the capital of the country for a long period, it seems to 
be the place that was visited by the Chinese pilgrim. The original 
capital of Kalinga is said to have been Srikakulam, or Chicacole, 20 
miles to the south-west of Kalingapatam. The kingdom was 5000 //, 
or 833 miles, in circuit. Its boundaries are not stated ; but as it was 
united to the west by Andhra, and to the south by Dhanakakata, its 
frontier line cannot have extended beyond the Godavari river on the 
south-west, and the Gaoliya branch of the Indravati river on the north- 
west. Within these limits, the circuit of Kalinga would be about 800 
miles. The principal feature in this large tract of country is the 
Mahendra range of mountains, which has preserved its name unchanged 
from the time of the composition of the Mahdbhdrata to the present 
day. This range is mentioned also in the Vishnu Purdna as the source 
of the Rishikuilya river ; and as this is the well-known name of the 
river of Ganjam, the Mahendra Mountains can at once be identified 
with the Mahendra Male range, which divides Ganjam from the valley 
of the Mahanadi. 

' Rajamahendri was the capital of the junior or eastern branch of 
the Chalukya princes of Vengi, whose authority extended to the frontiers 
of Orissa. The kingdom of Vengi was established about 540 a.d. by 
the capture of the old capital of Vengipura, the remains of which still 
exist at Vengi, 5 miles to the north of Ellore, and 50 miles west-south- 
west of Rajamahendri. About 750 a.d., Kalinga was conquered by the 
Raja of Vengi, who shortly afterwards moved the seat of Government 
to Rajamahendri. 

'The Calings are mentioned by Pliny as occupying the eastern 
coast of India, below the Mandei and Malli, and the famous Mount 
Maleus. This mountain may perhaps be identified with the high 
range at the head of the Rishikuliya river in Ganjam, which is still 
called Mahendra Male, or the Mahendra Mountain. To the south, 
the territory of the Calingae extended as far as the promontory of 
Calingon and the town of Dandaguda, or Dandagula, which is said 
to be 625 Roman miles, or 574 British miles, from the mouth of the 
Ganges. Both the distance and the name point to the great port-town 
of Coringa as the promontory of Calingon, which is situated on a 
projecting point of land at the mouth of the Godavari river. The 
town of Dandaguda, or Dandagula, seems to be the Dantapura of the 
Buddhist chronicles, which, as the capital of Kalinga, may with much 
probability be identified with Rajamahendri, only 30 miles to the north- 
east of Coringa. 



330 KALINGAFA TAM—KALINGIA. 

' A still earlier name for the capital of Kalinga was Sinhapura, so 
called after its founder, Sinhabahu, the father of Vijaya, the first re- 
corded sovereign of Ceylon. Its position is not indicated, but there 
still exists a large town of this name on the Lalgla river, 115 miles to 
the west of Ganjam, which is very probably the same place. 

' In the inscriptions of the Kalachuri or Haihaya dynasty of Chedi, 
the Rajas assume the titles of Lords of Kalanjjwrapura and of Tri- 
Kalinga. Kahnjar is the well-known hill fort in Bundelkhand ; and 
Tri-Kalinga, or the " Three Kalingas," must be the three kingdoms of 
Dhanaka or Amaravati (on the Kistna), Andhra or Warangal, and 
Kalinga or Rajamahendri. The name of Tri-Kalinga is probably 
old, as Pliny mentions the Macco-Calingae and the Gangarides-Calingse 
as separate peoples from the Calingge, while the Mahdbhdrata names 
the Kalingas three separate times, and each time in conjunction with 
different peoples. As Tri-Kalinga thus corresponds with the great 
Province of Tehngana, it seems probable that the name of Telingana 
may be only a slightly contracted form of Tri-Kalingana, or the " Three 
Kalingas." ' 

Kalingapatam {Calingapatam). — Town and port in Ganjam Dis- 
trict, Madras Presidency; situated at the mouth of the Vamsadhara 
river, 16 miles north of Chicacole, in lat. 18° 20' 20" n., and long. 
84° 9' 50" E. Population (1881) 4465. Hindus numbered 4334; 
Muhammadans, 95 ; Christians, 34 ; and ' others,' 2. Area of town 
site, T246 acres. The capital of the ancient Kalinga, and one of 
the early seats of Muhammadan Government in the Telugu country. 
Signs of its ancient greatness are still visible in the ruins of many 
mosques and other large buildings. After rain, a mound which 
covers the site of the old city gives up small gold coins of great age. 
Kalingapatam is again rising in importance as a harbour, being in the 
south-west monsoon the only safe roadstead along a stretch of 400 
miles of coast ; and it has become a regular port of call for steamers. 
The vessels of the British India Steam Navigation Company put in 
fortnightly. A lighthouse, 64 feet high, stands on a sandy point at the 
mouth of the river. The town lies between this point and the south 
bank of the stream. A reef of rocks extends from the shore half a mile 
seawards. In passing, vessels ought not to approach nearer than 50 feet. 
Greatest depth over the bar, 14 feet 6 inches. In 1880-81, imports 
were valued at ;2^i 1,259, ^^^ exports of rice, seeds, and sugar at 
^^131,916. Kalingapatam is one of the four salt factories of Ganjam 
District. The manufacture of salt is by evaporation ; the pans cover 
an area of 306 acres, and yield a revenue of from 4 to 5 lakhs of 
rupees (^40,000 to ;i^'5 0,000). The country round the town is 
desolate and barren. 

Kalingia. — Ghdt or pass in Ganjam District, Madras Presidency; 



KALINJAR. 331 

over which runs the only good cart road from Giimsar (Goomsur) into 
!the Maliyas. Lat. 20° 6' n., long. 84° 30' e. The length of the ascent 
!to the crest of the ghat is 5 miles ; gradient severe for heavily loaded 
icarts, but strong bullocks or buffaloes take up a cart loaded to the 
extent of 600 lbs. easily; elevation, 2396 feet above sea-level 

Kalinjar. — Town and celebrated hill fort in Badausa iahsil, Banda 
District, Bundelkhand, North-Western Provinces. Lat. 25° i' n., long. 
80° 31' 35" E. Situated on a rocky hill, in the extreme south of Banda 
District, 33 miles south of Banda town. The fort occupies a site at 
the extremity of a spur of the B'.ndachal range, the first and lowest 
terrace of the Vindhyan system, commanding the Bundelkhand plain. 
Jt rises abruptly, and is separated from the nearest eminence by a 
valley about 1200 yards wide. Elevation, 1230 feet. The crown of 
the hill is a plateau with an almost perpendicular scarp on all sides ; 
at weak points the rock has been cut away and was formerly defended 
I by artificial works. Vast polyhedral masses of syenite form the base of 
the hill, and afford a comparatively accessible slope ; but the horizontal 
strata of sandstone which cap the whole, present so bold an escarpment 
as to be practically impossible of ascent. 

I Kalinjar is one of the very ancient forts of Bundelkhand, and separate 

I names for it are recorded in each of the three prehistoric periods of 

I Hindu chronology. It is said to have been called Ratnakuta in the 

\S>atya-yug, Mahagiri (' the great hill') in the Treta^ and Pingalu (the 

' brown-yellow ' hill; in the Dwdpar-yug. Other accounts transpose or 

vary these names. But its present appellation, Kalinjar, is itself of 

great antiquity. It occurs, as will be mentioned hereafter, in \\it Malid- 

\bharata ; it is conjectured to appear in Ptolemy under the Greek guise 

of Kanagora ; and it is mentioned in the Sheo Purdna as one of the 

nine iitkals, from which will burst forth the waters that are to finally 

destroy the world. The modern name is sometimes rendered Kalan- 

jar, from the local worship of Siva under his title of Kalanjar, or ' He 

who causes time to grow old.' It was a very ancient seat of Sivaite 

rites, and according to local tradition was strongly fortified, probably 

not for the first time, by Chandra Brim or Varmma, the legendary 

founder of the Chandel dynasty, who is variously assigned to the 4th 

I and 7th centuries of the Samvat era, corresponding to the 3rd and 6th 

i centuries a.d. 

As in many other cases, Kalinjar was a high place sanctified by 
i superstition, and fortified partly by nature and partly by art. The 
\Mahdbhdrata mentions it as already a famous city, and states that 
whoever bathes in the Lake of the Gods, the local place of pil- 
grimage, is as merhorious as he who bestows in charity one thousand 
cows. The hill nmst have been covered with Hindu temples before 
the erection of the fort, for the dates of inscriptions on the sacred sites 



332 KALINJAR, 

are earlier than those on the gate of the fortress ; and the ramparts 
consist largely of ornamental pillars, cornices, and other fragments of 
carved work, which evidently belonged to earlier edifices. Ferishta speaks 
of it as having been founded by Kedar Nath, a reputed contemporary 
of the Prophet, in the 7th century a.d. The Musalman historians 
make mention of the King of Kalinjar as an ally of Jaipdl, Raja of 
Lahore, in his unsuccessful invasion of Ghazni, 978 a. d. A Raja of 
Kalinjar was also present at the battle of Peshawar, fought by Anand 
Pal in 1008, when endeavouring to check the victorious advance 
of Mahmiid of Ghazni in his fourth expedition. In 102 1, Nanda, 
then Raja of Kalinjar, defeated the King of Kanauj, and in the fol- ! 
lowing year, Mahmiid of Ghazni besieged the fort, but came to 
terms with the Raja. The Chandel clan of Rajputs removed the seat 
of their government to Kalinjar, after their defeat by Prithwi Raja, the 
Chauhan ruler of Delhi, about 11 92. In 1202, Kutab-ud-din, the 
viceroy of Muhammad Ghori, took Kalinjar, and ' converted the 
temples into mosques and abodes of goodness,' while ' the very name 
of idolatry was annihilated.' But the Musalmans do not seem long to 
have retained possession of their new conquest, for in 1234, and again > 
in 1 25 1, we hear of fresh Muhammadan attacks on Kalinjar, which fell j 
into the hands of Malik Nasirat-ud-din Mahmiid with great booty. 

In 1 247, Sultan Nasir-ud-din Mahmiid brought the surrounding country 
under his sway ; but even after this date, Chandel inscriptions erected 
in the fort show that it remained in the hands of its ancient masters 
almost up to the close of the 13th century. Kalinjar next reappears in 
history in 1530, when the Mughal Prince Humayiin laid siege to the' 
fort, which he continued intermittently to attack during twelve years. 
In 1554, the Afghan Sher Shah marched against the stronghold; 
during the siege a live shell rebounded from the walls into the battery I 
where the Sultan stood, and set fire to a quantity of gunpowder. Sher i 
Shah was brought out horribly burnt, and died the following day. 
Before his death, however, he ordered an assault, which took place 
immediately, with success, and his son Jalal was crowned in the 
captured citadel Copper coins of Sher Shah exist, which are inscribed 
as having been struck at Kalinjar. In 1570, Majniin Khan attacked 
the fort, which was finally surrendered to him for Akbar, who consti- 1 
tuted it the head-quarters of a Sarkdr. Under Akbar, Kdlinjar formed ; 
a jdgir of the imperial favourite, Raja Birbal. Later it fell into the 
hands of the Bundelas (j-^^ Banda District); and on the death of 
their national hero, Chhatar Sal, it passed into the possession of Hardeo , 
Sah of Panna. His descendants continued to hold it for four genera- 
tions, when they gave way to the family of Kaim Ji, one of their own 1 
dependants. 

During the period of Maratha supremacy, Ali Bahadur laid ; 



KALINJAR. 333 

siege to the fort for two years, but without success. After the 
British occupation, Daryau Singh, the representative of Kaim Ji, was 
confirmed in possession of the fort and territory ; but on his proving 
contumacious in 1812, a force under Colonel Martindell attacked 
Kalinjar, and although the assault met with little success, Daryau Singh 
surrendered eight days later, receiving an equal portion of territory in 
the plains. During the Mutiny, a small British garrison retained 
possession of the fort throughout the whole rebellion, though isolated 
from all assistance. In 1866 the fortifications were dismantled. 

Kalinjar is still a place of much interest to the antiquar)'. Seven 
gateways, leading one to the other, many of them bearing inscrip- 
tions, in some cases undecipherable, afford access to the fort from 
the north. Tanks, caves, temples, tombs, and statues cover the plat- 
form on every side. They belong to very different dates, and will be 
more fully referred to below. 

The town or village of Kalinjar, locally called Tarahti, is situated at 
the foot of the hill. The population appears to be gradually decreas- 
ing, being returned at 4057 in 1865, 4019 in 1872, and 3706 in 1881. 
The inhabitants are principally Brahmans and Kachhis ; but on occa- 
sions of religious fairs and festivals, Baniyas and dealers of every 
description resort here, as also pilgrims from distant parts of India. 
There are a few wealthy mahdjans or merchants in the town, and the 
inhabitants generally are in comfortable circumstances, but their houses 
and surroundings are mean. For police and conservancy purposes, 
a small house-tax is levied. A travellers' bungalow for the use of 
European visitors is situated near the east entrance to the town, which 
also contains two markets, an Anglo-vernacular school, and a branch 
dispensary. 

In the town of Kalinjar, and at the base of the hill, are many 
Muhammadan tombs and mosques bearing inscriptions, but these are 
of little interest compared with the Hindu remains. At the base of the 
hill on the north-east is a tank named Sursari Ganga, hewn out of the 
solid rock. It is surrounded by steps composed of stones taken at 
random from ruins, and probably to a great extent from a temple which 
may have been here. Among them are capitals of pillars composed 
of figures of Chhatarbhuj Vishnu similar to those in the temple of Nil- 
kantha, and there are two large recumbent figures of Vishnu Narayana 
at corners of the tank. These seem to point to a temple having been 
at this place at one time. To the north-east of this tank, and about 
half-way up the hill, is a shrine of Balkhandeshwar Mahadeo, exca- 
vated in one huge boulder, which stands out on the slope. 

The ascent to the fort is made from the north, by a winding path cut 
out in the hill, and leading through seven gateways. The first is known 
as the Alam Darwaza, called after Alamgir or Aurangzeb. A Persian 



334 KALINJAR. 

inscription on it gives 1084 a.h. as the year in which Aurangzeb 
repaired the fort. The path from this to the Ganesh (second) gate is 
termed the Kafir ghat. It is steep and rough. The third gate, Chandi 
Darwaza, holds a stone set into it on the right, on which is an 
inscription in florid nail-headed Sanskrit characters not yet published. 
It records that Ratan constructed the building of \vhich it originally 
formed part. Hence probably the name Ratnakuta. The fourth gate 
is called Balbhadra (also Budbhadr and Birbhadra), but it is in no way 
remarkable. 

A break in the wall beyond this admits of an ascent to the Kam- 
bhaur or Bhairan kund, a large tank about 45 yards long by 10 
broad, hewn out of the rock. About 30 feet above it, on a pro- 
jecting rock, is carved a gigantic figure of Bhairan. Below this is 
a cave cut in the rock at water-level, with square pillars for a support 
in front. The water, except in the hottest weather, covers the floor 
of the cave, which seems to have been intended as a cool retreat 
in the hot weather. There are inscriptions inside the cave, in which ' 
occur the names of Bari Varmma Deva, of a Sri Ram Deo, son of 
Surhar Deo, of Mahila and of Jasdhaul, brother of Jahul, son of' 
Lakhan. The last is dated 1193 Sam vat, and the names of Lakhaii 
and Mahila recall the wars of the Chauhans and Chandels. On a 
ledge of rock above these caves to the left is a figure of a Sramana and 
an inscription not yet fully deciphered. 

Returning to the path, the Hanuman gate is next passed. Near this 
is the Hanuman kund. There are many sculptures and inscriptions in 1 
this part of the fort, but most of the latter are illegible. One of these f 
inscriptions would be of great value if wholly legible, as it seems to , 
contain the names of several Chandel kings, but only those of Kirtti i 
Varmma and Madana Varmma are distinct. The sixth gate is termed » 
Lai Darwaza, and the seventh Sadr Darwaza. Beyond the main gate j 
there is a dip in the rampart, leading to the Sita Sej, also called Ram- 1 
sijja, a stone couch in a small chamber hewn out of the rock. Tradi- 1 
tion assigns this as a resting-place to Sita on her return from Lanka ; | 
but an inscription over the door, cut in characters usually assigned to t 
the 4th century, records that this cave was constructed by Hara, \ 
the Lord of the Hill, to perpetuate his name. Beyond this is the i 
passage to Patalganga, a cave receding about 40 feet into the | 
mountain, and about half as wide. The descent is steep and I 
difficult. There are many inscriptions, but none have yet been found 
of historical importance. Beyond Pdtalganga is the Pandu kund^ to 
the north-east of which is the breach made by Colonel Martindell. 
A path along the ramparts beyond the breach leads to the Buddhi 
Taldo, a tradition connected with which would ascribe the fort to Kirtti 
Varmma ; but the tradition is faulty, for the fort would thus date only 



KALINJAR. 335 

from the eleventh century. Beyond this are the Bhagwan Sej and Pani- 
ki-Aman which call for no notice. 

The Mrigdhara is a celebrated place on account of the seven deer 
cut in the rock which give it its name. There are also two rock 
chambers and a basin of water here. Pilgrims come and make offerings 
to the manes of the rishis whom these figures commemorate. The 
lec^end states that these w^ere seven disciples who offended their 
religious instructor, and that they were cursed by him and born in their 
next life as Bahelias (hunters) in the Dasharan forest ; in their next stage 
as deer at Kalinjar ; then as Brahmini ducks in Ceylon, subsequently as 
geese at Manasarowar lake, and finally as Brahmans in Kurukshetra. 
In this last life they attained deliverance from transmigration. 

It is supposed that the water at Mrigdhara comes by percolation 
from Kot Tirath, but this seems unlikely on considering their relative 
positions. Kot Tirath (properly Kror Tirath, or ' ten million pilgrimages 
in one ') is a large tank in the heart of the rock in the middle of the 
fort. Narrow^ flights of steps lead to the water, which is scanty except 
after heavy rain. Round this tank stones are found set into walls and 
steps, utterly misplaced, which contain inscriptions, sometimes incom- 
plete and often too worn to be legible. On the bank are the Pathar 
Mahal and other buildings, undoubtedly in great part antique, but 
partly restorations of older remains. There are many inscriptions 
inside these buildings, and a few outside set into the walls, but most 
have suffered by lime and whitewash. The oldest form of Sanskrit 
characters in the fort is to be found in inscriptions on two stones in 
the walls of the tank, but both are unfortunately incomplete. 

Going on from the Kot Tirath past Parimal's baithak and Aman 
Singh's mahdl, the gate on the south-west leading to Nil Kantha is 
reached. The view which meets the eye on passing through this gate is 
magnificent. At foot is the breast of the hill, steep and rugged, hurrying 
as it were to the plain below. The Banda-Nowgong road seems like a 
thread at its base ; and beyond it as far as the eye can reach is a rich 
plain, cropped and green, dotted with hills here and there, broken 
sometimes by dried-up watercourses, and traversed by winding rivers 
which glisten like silver lines. 

Descending, another gate is passed, near which are inserted in the 
walls well-executed figures of Tulsi Das, and of the Jain Tirthdnkaras. 
To the left of this is a small building, which seems to be a later 
addition of stone and plaster, made by Muhammadan hands ; but the 
rock against which it is set is cut with figures, and on removing the 
whitew^ash and plaster it is seen to have been covered with inscriptions. 
Further on, immediately before reaching Nil Kantha are the Jata 
Shankar, the Shirsagar, the Tung Bhairan, and some caves. Inscrip- 
tions are numerous here. In one of the caves is an inscription which 



336 KALINJAR. 

records that, on Chait Sudi 9, Somwar, of 1192 Samvat, Narsingh, son 
of Ralhan, erected an image of Bamdeo. A second inscription of 
his is dated Jeth Sudi 9, 1192 Samvat, and gives his grandfather's 
name as Dikshit Prithwidhara. A third inscription records that Sri 
Kirtti Varmma Deva and Someswar (the father of Prithwi Raja) joined 
in salutation to the local deities. Another at Tung Bhairan records 
that Bachraj, son of Mahasranik, son of Solhan, a servant of T^Iadana 
Varmma, set up an image of Lakhshmi on Katik Sudi 6, Sainchar, in 
1 188 Samvat. 

There are many well-executed figures, both Vaishnav and Saivik, all 
round this quarter, but they are little noticed in the presence of the 
more striking remains of the once beautiful temple of Nil Kantha 
Mahadeo. The pillars are well cut and surmounted by capitals com- 
posed of figures of Chhatarbhiij Vishnu, but only one set of these pillars 
is now standing. Tradition states that there were originally seven sets 
of pillars, one above the other, forming seven storeys. This is not 
improbable, for similar capitals abound in irregular places throughout 
the fort, and these would no doubt suffice for the construction of such 
a temple. The site was well chosen. The building rising against the 
face of the hill must have looked superbly grand as viewed from the 
plain below. The pillars now left standing form with their basements 
an octagonal inclosure outside the door of a cave, in which is a massive 
liiiga with large silver eyes, called Nil Kantha Mahadeo. On the left- 
hand side of this cave is a very low narrow passage, filled with lingas, 
which is said to extend round the large cave, and communicate with a 
similar opening on the right. At the door of the temple are two large 
stones covered with inscriptions. The one which is complete adds 
nothing to our knowledge of the Chandels. The broken record on the 
other has yet to be completed and read in its entirety. The floor of 
the space between the pillars is covered with inscriptions, but they are 
all historically unimportant ; chiefly names of pilgrims who recorded 
their visits, and salutations. In front are many sculptures lying dis- 
placed. The subjects are both Vaishnav {e.g. the Kurma avatar, the 
ten avatars of Vishnu shown on one stone) and Saivik {e.g. Mahadeo 
with Parvati), and there is also a figure of Brahma. 

Above the temple is a tank cut out of the solid rock. Four pillars 
are left as supports, and the openmg is a long low horizontal cut, with 
a narrow terrace in front. Beyond this is a rock-cut figure of gigantic 
proportions, representing Kal Bhairan, with snakes for a head-dress, in 
which is set the moon. It is the largest figure in Kd.linjar, and must 
be 30 feet high. Formerly, a door below this figure led out to an 
inclosure in front of a perpendicular rock in which is a cave (Siddh- 
ki-gupha), but this gate has been closed by the British authorities, as 
there was a path below it opening on native territory. 



KA LINJERA—KALJA Nl. 3 3 7 

There are many Muhammadan tombs on the fort ; some inscribed, 
but these, as well as the relics of the Bundelas and Chaubes, are 
uninteresting, as they invite neither speculation nor research. 

The town of Kalinjar, which lies below the hill, is not large. It was 
formerly enclosed ; and three gates still stand, called the Kamta, Panna, 
and Riwa phataks, from the roads on which they open. [This account 
of Kalinjar has been given at considerable length, as it forms the most 
characteristic specimen of the strong places, originally hill-shrines con- 
verted into hill-fortresses, of Northern and North-Central India. The 
article has been amplified for the present edition from materials 
collected on the spot by William Hoey, Esq., C.S.] 

Kalinjera (or Kanjrd). — Town in Banswara State, Rajputana. 
Situated in lat. 23° 5' n. and long. 74° 7' e., on the route from 
Nimach (Neemuch) to Baroda, 99 miles south-west of the former 
and 139 north-east of the latter. Formerly a place of considerable 
trade, carried on by Jain merchants, who were driven away by 
Maratha freebooters. Contains the ruins of a fine Jain temple, 
described by Heber as being built on a very complicated and 
extensive plan ; covered with numerous domes and pyramids ; 
divided into a great number of apartments, roofed with stone, crowded 
with images, and profusely embellished with rich and elaborate 
carvings. 

Kalipani. — Sacred spring in Kumaun District, North - Western 
Provinces ; regarded by the natives as the source of the river Kali, 
whose real head-waters lie 30 miles to the north-east. Lat. 30° 11' n., 
long. 80° 56' E. (Thornton). Situated on the slopes of the Byans 
Rikhi Mountain, 5 miles south-west of Byans Pass, on the route to 
Askot. Pilgrims visit the spring to bathe in its purifying waters on 
their way to the sacred lake of Manasarowar. 

Kali Sind. — River of Central India; rises in lat. 22° 36' n., and long. 
76° 19' E., in the Vindhya mountains. About 90 miles from its 
source, it receives, on the left, the Ludkunda, which also rises in the 
Vindhyas; and on the same side, about 60 miles farther down, it is 
joined by the Ahu and Amjar and Gagron. Near this place the Kali 
Sind makes its way through the Mukandwara (Mokundurra) range. 
Eventually, after a course of about 225 miles, it falls into the Chambal. 
About 50 miles from its junction with the Chambal at Kandgaon, 
the road from Kotah to Sagar (Saugor) crosses the river. 

Kaljani.— River of Northern Bengal, formed by the combined waters 
of the Alaikuri and Dima rivers, two streams rising in the Bhutan Hills, 
which unite near Alipur in the Western Uwars Sub-division of Jalpaiguri 
District. From the point of junction the united river takes the name 
of Kaljani, and, after a course of a few miles, flows south through the 
east of Kuch Behar State, and finally joins the Raidhak in the extreme 

VOL. VII. V 



338 KALKA—KALLIKOT. 

north-east corner of Rangpur District. Used to float down timber from 
the forests at the foot of the hills. 

Kalka. — Village and camping ground in Simla District, Punjab. 
Lat. 30° 50' 21" N., long. 76° 58' 57" E. Lies at the foot of the 
Kasauli Hill, on the main road from Ambala (Umballa) to Simla, and 
to the intermediate military posts of Kasauli, Dagshai, Subathu, and 
Solan. Distance from Ambala, 38 miles; from Simla, 58 miles by 
cart road. The route to Simla here enters the hills, and travellers must 
leave the carriages in which they have come from Ambala. Several 
hotels, staging bungalow, post-office, telegraph office, sardi. During 
the Simla season, the Kalka hotels do a thriving business, and native 
passengers to or from the hills throng the Mzdr. Elevation above sea- 
level, 2000 feet. 

Kalladaklirichi. — Town in the Ambasamudaram fd/i/k of Tinnevelli 
District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 8° 40' 30" n., long. 77° 30' 15" e. 
Population (1871) 11,580; (1881) 10,936, namely, 5181 males and 
5755 females ; number of houses, 2520. Area of town site, 936 
acres. Hindus numbered 9515 ; Muhammadans, 1383 ; and 
Christians, 38. A wealthy trading and agricultural town, situated on 
the Tambraparni. The town derives its importance from the rich 
rice lands about it. Many of the inhabitants are wealthy and intelligent 
Brahman landowners. Post-office. 

Kallakurchi. — Tdluk or Sub-division of South Arcot District, 
Madras Presidency. Lat. 11° 33' to 12° 4' to" n., long. 78° 42' to 79° 
15' E. Situated in the south corner of the District. Area, 622 square 
miles. Population (1881) 196,029, namely, 96,962 males, and 99,067 
females, dwelling in 368 villages, containing 27,355 houses. Hindus 
numbered 186,835; Muhammadans, 5806; and Christians, 3388. In 
1883, the fdluk contained 2 criminal courts; police circles {thdnds\ 8; 
regular police, 67 men. Land revenue, ^30,283. 

Kallakurchi. — Head-quarters of the Kallakurchi Af///Z' of South Arcot 
District ; lat. 11° 44' n., long. 79° i' 20" e. Area, 1465 acres. Popula- 
tion (1881) 3555, namely, 1750 males and 1805 females, dwelling in 498 
houses. Hindus numbered 3202 ; Muhammadans, 344; and Christians, 9. 

Kalligal. — Town in Coimbatore District, Madras Presidency. — See 

COLLEGAL. 

Kallikot. — Zaminddri estate, ox paldyam, in Ganjam District, Madras 
Presidency; situated between 19° 24' and 19° 48' n. lat., and between 
85° 59' and 85° 14' E. long. Chief town, Kallikot. Population (1881) 
3401. The estate has an area of 53,701 acres, or 84 square miles, and 
contains 238 villages, with a land revenue of ;£'i9oo. The family 
was founded by Rama Bhuiya, who was appointed zaminddr by Puru 
Shottama Gajpati Das, king of Orissa, in a.d. 1374. The country was 
occupied by British troops in 1769 ; and again, from 1771 to 1775, the 



KALLUR—KALNA, 339 

East India Company's agents and troops were employed in maintaining 
order. The adjoining tdliik of Attigada was added to the estate by 
purchase in 1854, by the present zaminddr. 

Kalllir. — Pass in the Eastern Ghats, North Arcot District, Madras 
Presidency. The Kalliir Pass leads from the lowland taluks to those 
above the ghats. It runs along the Damalcheriiru valley, and through 
the Kalllir paldyam or estate to the Piler tdluk of Cuddapah. Along 
it passes the trunk road between Madras and Cuddapah. The 
traffic is considerable, though less than before the construction of the 
north-west line of the ^ladras Railway. 

Kalmeshwar. — Town in Nagpur District, Central Provinces. Lat. 
21° 14' N., long. 78° 58' E. ; situated 14 miles west of Nagpur city. 
Built on a low-lying plain of black soil, with a fertile country on the 
north and west, which produces opium, sugar-cane, and tobacco. 
Population, 4738 in 1872, and 5318 in 1881. Hindus numbered 4842; 
Kabirpanthis, 170; Muhammadans, 246; Jains, 31 ; Buddhist, i; and 
aboriginal tribes, 28. In the centre of the town stands the old fort 
where the village proprietor, a Kunbi by caste, resides. It was built by 
a Hindu family from Delhi, who are said to have maintained, for the 
service of Bakht Buland, a force of 400 infantry and 100 cavalry. 
Kalmeshwar does a brisk trade in grain, oil-seeds, and country cloth. 
Eighty mills are engaged in pressing oil-seeds; and the cloth manu- 
factured in the town finds a market in Berar. From the proceeds of 
the octroi duties, a commodious market-place has been constructed, 
with wide metalled roads leading towards Nagpur, Katol, Dhapewara, 
and Mohpa. The police station and school-house face the market-place. 

Kalna (Culna). — Sub-division of Bardwan District, Bengal, lying 
between 23° 7' and 23° 35' 45" n. lat, and between 87° 59' and 88° 
27' 45" E. long. Area, 432 square miles, with 701 villages and towns, 
and 59,844 houses. Population in 1872, 286,338 persons; 1881, 
237,607 persons, namely, 113,625 males and 123,982 females. 
Hindus numbered 175,855, or 74*0 per cent; Muhammandans, 
61,739, or 26-0 per cent ; and Christians, 13. Proportion of males, 
47*8 per cent.; average density of population, 550 persons per 
square mile; villages per square mile, i-8i; persons per village, 338; 
houses per square mile, 1*62 ; persons per house, 4*3. This Sub- 
division, which was constituted in 1861, comprises the three police 
circles {thdnds) of Kalna, Purbasthali, and Mantreswar. In 1881 it 
contained i civil and 3 criminal courts, including a municipal bench, 
and a bench of honorary magistrates; a regular police force 73 strong, 
besides a village or rural police of 1973 men. 

Kalna ( 0<f/;^^).— Town and head-quarters of Kalna Sub-division, and 
an important seat of trade in Bardwan District, Bengal ; situated on the 
right bank of the Bhagirathi, in lat 23° 13' 20" n., and long. 88° 24' 30" e. 



340 KALNI—KALOL, 

The population, which in 1872 was returned at 27,336, had, according 
to the Census of 1881, dwindled down to 10,463. No explanation is 
given of the cause of this great decrease ; but it is in all probability 
due in a large measure to the fever epidemic, which has been raging 
for many years throughout the Districts of the Bardwan Division. 
Classified according to religion, the population of Kalna town in 188 1 
consisted of— Hindus, 9023; Muhammadans, 1428; and Christians, 
12. Area of town site, 2413 acres. The town, which is constituted 
a second-class municipality, yielded in 1882-83 a municipal income 
of ;^'986, of which ^850 w^as derived from taxation ; average 
incidence of taxation, is. 7|d. per head. From ancient times Kalna 
carried on a very extensive river trade, as all imports into the District 
from Calcutta, and all exports to other Districts and to Calcutta, 
passed through the town. The competition of the East India 
Railway has not materially affected its prosperity, as it is still 
found cheaper to import from Calcutta by river than by rail. Large 
quantities of rice are imported from Dinajpur and Rangpur. The 
bazar, or business part of Kalna, contains about a thousand houses, 
mostly built of brick. In Muhammadan times, a large fort, 
the ruins of which are still to be seen, commanded the river at 
this point. A good road connects Kalna with Bardwan town ; it was 
constructed in 1831 by the Maharaja of Bardwan, and has bungalows, 
stables, and tanks at every eighth mile. The road was made chiefly 
with a view to the Maharaja's comfort when proceeding to bathe in the 
Ganges. The Maharaja has also a palace here, and has constructed 
some handsome temples in the town. Two fine mosques, now in a 
ruined condition, date from the time